Rogier van der Weyden

Rogier van der Weyden (Dutch: [roːˈɣiːr vɑn dɛr ˈʋɛi̯də(n)]) or Roger de la Pasture (1399 or 1400 – 18 June 1464) was an Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs, altarpieces and commissioned single and diptych portraits. He was highly successful and internationally famous in his lifetime; his paintings were exported – or taken – to Italy and Spain,[1] and he received commissions from, amongst others, Philip the Good, Netherlandish nobility, and foreign princes.[2] By the latter half of the 15th century, he had eclipsed Jan van Eyck in popularity. However his fame lasted only until the 17th century, and largely due to changing taste, he was almost totally forgotten by the mid-18th century. His reputation was slowly rebuilt during the following 200 years; today he is known, with Robert Campin and van Eyck, as the third (by birth date) of the three great Early Flemish artists (Vlaamse Primitieven or "Flemish Primitives"), and widely as the most influential Northern painter of the 15th century.[3]

Very few details of van der Weyden's life are known.[4][5] The few facts we know come from fragmentary civic records. Yet the attribution of paintings now associated to him is widely accepted, partly on the basis of circumstantial evidence, but primarily on the stylistic evidence of a number of by paintings by an innovative master.

Van der Weyden worked from life models, and his observations were closely observed. Yet he often idealised certain elements of his models' facial features, who were typically statuesque, especially in his triptychs. All of his forms are rendered with rich, warm colourisation and a sympathetic expression, while he is known for his expressive pathos and naturalism. His portraits tend to be half length and half profile, and he is as sympathetic here as in his religious triptychs. Van der Weyden used an unusually broad range of colours and varied tones; in his finest work the same tone is not repeated in any other area of the canvas, so even the whites are varied.[6]

Early life and apprenticeship

Weyden Deposition
The Descent from the Cross (c. 1435), oil on oak panel, 220 × 262 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid

Due to the loss of archives in 1695 and again in 1940, there are few certain facts of van der Weyden's life.[4] Rogelet de le Pasture (Roger of the Pasture) was born in Tournai (in present-day Belgium) in 1399 or 1400. His parents were Henri de le Pasture[7] and Agnes de Watrélos. The Pasture family had earlier settled in the city of Tournai where Rogier's father worked as a maître-coutelier (knife manufacturer).

In 1426, Rogier married Elisabeth, the daughter of a Brussels shoemaker, Jan Goffaert, and his wife Cathelyne van Stockem. Rogier and Elisabeth had four children: Cornelius (b. 1427) became a Carthusian monk; a daughter, Margaretha, was born in 1432. Before 21 October 1435, the family settled in Brussels where the two younger children were born: Pieter in 1437 and Jan in 1438, who would go on to become a painter and a goldsmith respectively.[8]

From the second of March 1436 onward, he held the title of 'painter to the town of Brussels' (stadsschilder), a very prestigious post because Brussels was at that time the most important residence of the splendid court of the Dukes of Burgundy. On his move to Brussels, Rogier began using the Flemish version of his name: "Rogier van der Weyden".[5]

Rogier van der Weyden - Portrait of a Woman with a Winged Bonnet - Google Art Project
Portrait of a Woman with a Winged Bonnet, c. 1440.
Gemäldegalerie, Berlin.

Little is known about Rogier's training as a painter. The archival sources from Tournai were completely destroyed during World War II, but had been partly transcribed in the 19th and early 20th century. The sources on his early life are confusing and have led to different interpretations by scholars. It is known that the city council of Tournai offered eight pitchers of wine in honour of a certain 'Maistre Rogier de le Pasture' on 17 November 1426.[9]

However, on 5 March of the following year, the records of the painters' guild show a "Rogelet de le Pasture" entered the workshop of Robert Campin together with Jacques Daret. Records show that de le Pasture was already established as a painter.[7] Only five years later, on the first of August 1432, de le Pasture obtained the title of a "Master" (Maistre) painter.[10]

His later entry into apprenticeship might be explained by the fact that during the 1420s the city of Tournai was in crisis and as a result the guilds were not functioning normally. The late apprenticeship may have been a legal formality. Also Jacques Daret was then in his twenties and had been living and working in Campin's household for at least a decade. It is possible that Rogier obtained an academic title (Master) before he became a painter and that he was awarded the wine of honour on the occasion of his graduation. The sophisticated and learned iconographical and compositional qualities of the paintings attributed to him are sometimes used as an argument in favour of this supposition.

The social and intellectual status of Rogier in his later life surpassed that of a mere craftsman at that time. In general, the close stylistic link between the documented works of Jacques Daret and the paintings attributed to Robert Campin and van der Weyden are the main arguments to consider Rogier van der Weyden as a pupil of Campin.

Acclaim in Brussels

Rogier van der Weyden - The Last Judgment Polyptych - WGA25625
Beaune Altarpiece, c. 1445–1450. 220cm × 548cm (excluding frames). Oil on oak, Hospices de Beaune, interior view

The final mention of Rogier de la Pasture in the financial records of Tournai, on 21 October 1435, lists him as demeurrant à Brouxielles ("living in Brussels"). At the same time, the first mention of Rogier de Weyden places him as the official painter of Brussels. It is this fact that puts de la Pasture and van der Weyden as one and the same painter. The post of city painter was created especially for Van der Weyden and was meant to lapse on his death. It was linked to a huge commission to paint four justice scenes for the "Golden Chamber" of Brussels City Hall.[11] Different properties and investments are documented and witness his material prosperity. The portraits he painted of the Burgundian Dukes, their relatives and courtiers, demonstrate a close relationship with the elite of the Netherlands. Whilst Rogier van der Weyden became increasingly wealthy, he also gave generously in alms to the poor.[12] Further testimony of his philanthropy is van der Weyden's position as administrator of the hospital and charitable foundation Ter Kisten of the Beguine convent in Brussels between 1455 and 1457.[13] The Miraflores Altarpiece was probably commissioned by King Juan II of Castile, since Juan II donated it to the monastery of Miraflores in 1445.

According to some sources, in 1449 Rogier went to Italy,[14] and in the holy year 1450 quite possibly made a pilgrimage to Rome, which brought him in contact with Italian artists and patrons. However, his Italian experiences had no influence on his style.[14] The House of Este and the Medici family commissioned paintings from him. After interventions from both the Duke of Burgundy and the Dauphin of France, the future Louis XI, Rogier van der Weyden was persuaded to accept the request of Bianca Maria Visconti, Duchess of Milan, that her court painter Zanetto Bugatto go to Brussels to become an apprentice in his workshop.[15] Rogier's international reputation had increased progressively. In the 1450s and 1460s humanist scholars such as Nicolas Cusanus, Filarete and Bartolomeo Facio referred to him in superlatives: 'the greatest', 'the most noble' of painters.

Van der Weyden died on 18 June 1464 at Brussels, and was buried in the Chapel of St Catherine in the Cathedral of St Gudulphe.[16]

Attribution

No single work can be attributed with certainty to van der Weyden on 15th-century documentary evidence alone. However, Lorne Campbell has stated that three well-authenticated paintings are known, but each has been doubted or underestimated.[17] The best documented is The Descent from the Cross in the Museo del Prado, Madrid. Campbell points out that this painting's provenance can be traced in some detail from the 16th century. Originally hung in the church Notre-Dame-hors-des-Murs in Leuven, The Descent from the Cross was sent to the King of Spain. While the ship on which it was travelling sank, the painting fortunately floated, and careful packaging meant that it was scarcely damaged. A copy of the masterpiece by Michel Coxcie was donated to the people of Leuven to replace the original sent to Spain.[18] The Triptych of the Virgin or Miraflores Altarpiece, since 1850 in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, was given in 1445 to the Charterhouse of Miraflores near Burgos by John II of Castile; it was described in the deed of gift as the work of great and famous Flandresco Rogel. The Crucifixion, now in the Escorial Palace, was donated by Rogier to the Charterhouse of Scheut outside Brussels.[17] In his catalogue raisonné of van der Weyden, the Belgian art historian Dirk de Vos agrees with Campbell about the authenticity of these three paintings.[19]

Rogier's apprenticeship under Campin instilled a number of preoccupations, most noticeably his approach to feminine beauty, which was often expressed both through the elegant form of the model herself as well as her dress. Both painters positioned their models within strong diagonal lines, rendered either through headdress or folds of surrounding draperies or cloth. Both emphasised the vivacity of their model's character by contrasting them against dark flat backgrounds and throwing strong light from the near left hand side. Campbell compares Campin's Thief with Rogier's Prado The Descent from the Cross in their emotional depictions of anguish. The resemblance was to such an extent – compare Campin's Portrait of a Woman's similarity to Rogier's Berlin portrait – that Campin's works were for a period attributed to Rogier's early career.[20]

Châtelet illustrates how subsequent generations of art historians have conflated and confused Rogier van der Weyden's identity, thereby mis-attributing works of art. It can be traced back to a geographical error in Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architettori where he states that the artist 'Rugiero da Brugia' lived in Bruges. Van Mander, who knew that Rogier van der Weyden resided in Brussels, read Vasari's text and believed that there were two different artists with the same name,[21] who both appear separately in his Schilder-boeck of 1604.[15] Châtelet explains how the Brussels archivist Alphonse Walters discovered in 1846 that there was a Rogier van der Weyden who lived in Brussels but that he had died earlier than stated in the Schilder-Boeck; this led Alfred Michiels to claim that there were two Rogier van der Weyden painters, a father and son. A further complication arose at the end of the 19th century when William Bode and Hugo von Tschudi attributed a group of works of art to the "Maître de Flémalle"; despite discrepancies, these works are similar to those of Van der Weyden and so it was believed that these works were in fact by Rogier and that he was the "Maître de Flémalle". It was only in 1913 that Hulin de Loo indicated that these works were actually painted by Rogier's teacher Robert Campin. There was still a divide in critical opinion over whether there was one Rogier van der Weyden or two artists, the other being Rogier de la Pasture of Tournai, until Erwin Panofsky wrote his definitive work in 1953 Early Netherlandish Painting and established that there was only one painter with two names.[22]

Work

Relatively few works are attributed to van der Weyden's relatively long career, but this does not mean he was un-prolific, more that it is likely that many have been lost. Nonetheless, he had a very well defined style, and the majority of the attributions are generally accepted. Van der Weyden left no self-portraits. However it has been suggested that he painted a self-portrait into one of the Justice panels, which was subsequently copied into the Bern tapestry. A drawing with the inscription "Recueil d'Arras" is also said to depict Van der Weyden.[23]

Many of his most important works were destroyed during the late 17th century. He is first mentioned in historical records in 1427 when, relatively late in life, he studied painting under Campin during 1427–32, and soon outshone his master and, later, even influenced him.[24][25] After his apprenticeship, he was made master of the Tournai Guild of St Luke. He moved to Brussels in 1435, where he quickly established his reputation for his technical skill and emotional use of line and colour. He completed his Deposition in 1435, which as he had deliberately intended, made him one of the most sought after and influential artists in northern Europe and is still considered his masterpiece.

Rogier van der Weyden - Triptych- The Crucifixion - Google Art Project
The Crucifixion Triptych. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

The fragment of the London National Gallery's The Magdalen Reading has been described by Campbell as "one of the great masterpieces of fifteenth-century art and among Rogier's most important early works".[26] Since the 1970s, this painting has been linked to two small heads in the collection of the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum (Lisbon), of Saint Catherine and of St Joseph. It is now widely believed that these three fragments came from the same large altarpiece depicting the "Virgin and Child with Saints", partly recorded in a later drawing now in Stockholm. At some unknown date before 1811, this altarpiece was carved up into these three fragments.[27][28]

The lost The Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald, which survived until the end of the 17th century, consisted of four large panels representing the Justice of Trajan and Justice of Herkenbald. These were commissioned by the City of Brussels for the Gulden Camere (Golden Chamber) of the Brussels Town Hall. The first and third panels were signed, and the first dated 1439. All four were finished before 1450. They were destroyed in the French Bombardment of Brussels in 1695, but are known from many surviving descriptions, from a free partial copy in tapestry (Bern, Historisches Museum) and from other free and partial copies in drawing and painting. The paintings probably measured about 4.5 m each, which was an enormous scale for a painting on panel at that time. They served as 'examples of justice' for the aldermen of the city who had to speak justice in this room. The paintings were praised or described by a series of commentators until their destruction, including Dürer (1520), Vasari (1568), Molanus (c. 1570–1580), and Baldinucci (1688).[29]

In his commissioned portraits, van der Weyden typically flattered his sitters. He often idealised or softened their facial features, allowing them a handsomeness or beauty, or interest or intelligence they might not have been blessed with in life. He often enlargened the eyes, better defined the contours of the face, and gave a much stronger jaw than the subject may have possessed in life.[30] Among his most celebrated portraits are those of Philip the Good, his third wife Isabella of Portugal and their son Charles the Bold.[31]

Influence

Follower of Rogier van der Weyden (Netherlandish - The Deposition - Google Art Project
Deposition – Follower of Rogier van der Weyden

His vigorous, subtle, expressive painting and popular religious conceptions had considerable influence on European painting, not only in France and Germany[32] but also in Italy and in Spain. Panofsky writes how Rogier van der Weyden introduced new religious iconography in his painting; he depicted patrons participating in sacred events and combined half-portraits of the Madonna with portraits of people in prayer to form diptychs. He also reformulated and popularised the subject of Saint Jerome removing the thorn from the lion's paw.[33]

Hans Memling was his greatest follower, although it is not proven that he studied under Rogier. Van der Weyden had also a large influence on the German painter and engraver Martin Schongauer whose prints were distributed all over Europe from the last decades of the 15th century. Indirectly Schongauer's prints helped to disseminate van der Weyden's style. Delenda writes that, with the exception of Petrus Christus who was a disciple of Jan van Eyck, traces of Rogier van der Weyden's art can be found in all fifteenth-century artists, to varying degrees.[34]

Gallery

Extreme Unction Rogier Van der Weyden

Detail of Extreme Unction on the Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych, c. 1445-1450

Weyden Ivo

St. Ivo (c. 1450), oil on oak panel, 45 × 35 cm National Gallery, London

Rogier van der Weyden - Virgin and Child - Google Art Project

Virgin and Child, after 1454, 31 × 22.8 cm

Weyden Christ on the Cross with Mary and St John

Calvary or Crucifixion (1457–1464), oil on oak panel, 323.5 × 192 cm, El Escorial, Madrid

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Deposition was taken by Philip II of Spain
  2. ^ Campbell, 9
  3. ^ Campbell, 7
  4. ^ a b Campbell (1998), 392
  5. ^ a b Kemperdick, Stephan, Jochen Sander, Bastian Eclercy, Maître de Flémalle, and Rogier van der Weyden. 2008. The Master of Flémalle and Rogier van der Weyden. Frankfurt am Main: Städel Museum. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-7757-2259-9.
  6. ^ Campbell, 11
  7. ^ a b Clarke, 44
  8. ^ Delenda, Odile (1987). Rogier van der Weyden (in French). Cerf/Tricorne. p. 21. ISBN 2-204-02537-2.
  9. ^ Delenda, Odile. Rogier van der Weyden. p. 21.
  10. ^ Dirk de Vos, 51
  11. ^ Dirk de Vos, 53
  12. ^ Mander, Karel van. Vidas de los pintores flamencos. p. 28.
  13. ^ Delenda, Odile (1987). Rogier van der Weyden. p. 22.
  14. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Weyden, Rogier van der" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 567. Note: the 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica has two different entries for the same person; see below.
  15. ^ a b Delenda, Odile (1987). Rogier van der Weyden. p. 24.
  16. ^ Dirk de Vos, 63
  17. ^ a b Lorne Campbell, "The New Pictorial Language of Rogier van der Weyden", in Rogier van der Weyden, Master of Passions, ed. Campbell & Van der Stock, 2009, 32–64
  18. ^ Mander, Karel van. Vidas de los pintores flamencos. p. 27.
  19. ^ Dirk de Vos, 232, 291
  20. ^ Campbell (2004), 19
  21. ^ Châtelet, Albert (1999). Van der Weyden (in French). Paris: Gallimard. pp. 9–10. ISBN 2-07-011613-1.
  22. ^ Châtelet, Albert (1999). Van der Weyden. pp. 9–10.
  23. ^ Panofsky, Erwin (2007). Los primitivos flamencos [Early Netherlandish Painting] (in Spanish). Madrid: Cátedra. p. 246. ISBN 84-376-1617-4.
  24. ^ "Rogier van der Weyden". National Gallery, London. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
  25. ^ Some of his work from this period was attributed to 'Rogelet de la Pasture'
  26. ^ Campbell 1998, 405
  27. ^ Campbell 1998, 394, 398
  28. ^ "Bust of 'St Catherine'?; Bust of 'St Joseph'". Museu Gulbenkian. 19 April 2009. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  29. ^ Dirk de Vos, 58–60
  30. ^ Campbell, 15
  31. ^ Delenda, Odile (1987). Rogier van der Weyden. p. 5.
  32. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Van der Weyden, Roger" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 887.
  33. ^ Panofsky, Erwin (2007). Los primitivos flamencos. p. 247.
  34. ^ Delenda, Odile (1987). Rogier van der Weyden. p. 18.

Sources

  • Campbell, Lorne. Van der Weyden. London: Chaucer Press, 2004. ISBN 1-904449-24-7
  • Campbell, Lorne. The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools. London: National Gallery Publications, 1998. ISBN 1-85709-171-X
  • Campbell, Lorne & Van der Stock, Jan. Rogier van der Weyden: 1400–1464. Master of Passions. Davidsfonds, Leuven, 2009. ISBN 978-90-8526-105-6
  • Châtelet, Albert Van der Weyden. Paris: Gallimard, 1999. ISBN 2-07-011613-1
  • Clark, Kenneth. Looking at Pictures. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1960
  • Davies, Martin. Rogier van der Weyden: An Essay with a Critical Catalogue of Paintings Assigned to him and to Robert Campin, London: Phaidon, 1972. ISBN 0-7148-1516-0
  • Delenda, Odile. Rogier van der Weyden. Cerf/Tricorne, 1987. ISBN 2-204-02537-2
  • De Vos, Dirk. Rogier van der Weyden: The Complete Works. Harry N Abrams, 2000. ISBN 0-8109-6390-6
  • De Vos, Dirk. The Flemish Primitives. Amsterdam University Press, 2002.
  • Dhanens, Elisabeth. Rogier van der Weyden. Revisie van de documenten. Brussels: Royal Academy of Belgium, 1995.
  • Dillenberger, Jane. Style and Content in Christian Art. 2nd Ed. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1986.
  • Kemperdick, Stephan. Rogier van der Weyden. Könemann, 2000. ISBN 3-8290-2571-8
  • Liess, Reinhard. Zum Logos der Kunst Rogier van der Weydens. Die "Beweinungen Christi" in den Königlichen Museen in Brüssel und in der Nationalgalerie in London, 2 tomes. Munster-Hamburg-London: Lit, 2000. ISBN 3-8258-4158-8.
  • Mander, Karel van. Vidas de los pintores flamencos. Madrid: Casimiro, translation by Agustín Temes, 2012; original edition Schilder-Boeck, 1604. ISBN 978-84-15715-02-3
  • Marzio, Peter C. A Permanent Legacy: 150 works from the Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1989.
  • Panofsky, Erwin. Los primitivos flamencos [Early Netherlandish Painting]. Madrid: Cátedra, 2007. ISBN 84-376-1617-4
  • Porras, Stephanie. Art of the Northern Renaissance: Courts, Commerce and Devotion. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2018. ISBN 978-1-7862-7165-5
  • Silver, Larry. "Early Northern European Paintings". The St. Louis Art Museum Bulletin, Summer 1982. OCLC 716268497
  • Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, The Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. and Pearson Education, 2005.

External links

External video
Rogier van der Weyden 017
van der Weyden's Crucifixion Triptych, Smarthistory
Annunciation Triptych (Rogier van der Weyden)

The Annunciation Triptych is an oil-on-panel triptych by the Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden, dating from around 1434. It was originally formed by three panels, the central one being now at The Louvre museum in Paris, France; the side panels are at the Galleria Sabauda of Turin, northern Italy.

Christ on the Cross with Mary and St John

Christ on the Cross with Mary and St John is a c.1443-1445 altarpiece by Rogier van der Weyden, now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. The central scene shows the Crucifixion of Jesus, with the Virgin Mary clinging to the foot of the cross, John the Evangelist comforting her and the painting's two donors kneeling to the right. On the left hand side panel is Mary Magdalene, whilst on the right side panel is St Veronica. A unified landscape background across all three panels shows Jerusalem in the distance.

Crucifixion Diptych (van der Weyden)

Crucifixion Diptych — also known as Philadelphia Diptych, Calvary Diptych, Christ on the Cross with the Virgin and St. John, or The Crucifixion with the Virgin and Saint John the Evangelist Mourning — is a diptych by the Early Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden, completed c. 1460, today in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The panels are noted for their technical skill, visceral impact and for possessing a physicality and directness unusual for Netherlandish art of the time. The Philadelphia Museum of Art describes work as the "greatest Old Master painting in the Museum."The painting's provenance prior to the mid-19th century is unknown. Its extreme starkness has led art historians to theorize that it was created as a devotional work, possibly for a Carthusian monastery. It is not known if the panels comprised a self-contained diptych, two-thirds of a triptych, or originally were a single panel. Some art historians have mentioned that the work seems unbalanced overall and lacking symmetry (which might indicate a missing panel or panels). Recent scholarship proposes that the panels functioned as the outer shutters of a carved altarpiece.

Fragments of a Cope with the Seven Sacraments

Fragments of a Cope with the Seven Sacraments refers to a 15th-century cope in the collection of the Historical Museum of Bern. It is part of the church treasure from the Cathedral of Lausanne sent to Bern after the Protestant conquest of Canton Vaud in 1536. The cope can be attributed to a master from the Netherlands in the circle of Rogier van der Weyden and was probably executed in Tournai where van der Weyden had a workshop from 1432 onwards.

Lamentation of Christ (van der Weyden)

The Lamentation of Christ is an oil-on-panel painting of the common subject of the Lamentation of Christ by the Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden, dating from around 1460–1463 and now in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.

List of works by Rogier van der Weyden

Most of the works of Rogier van der Weyden consist of triptychs, diptychs or polyptychs, each including more than one panel. Some are dismembered and the parts are kept in different museums. Some panels are only fragmentary remains.

This list features the paintings accepted as authentic by Dirk de Vos (2000). They are listed chronologically following the datings of de Vos. All works are executed in oil on oak panels unless otherwise mentioned.

Medici Madonna (van der Weyden)

The Medici Madonna is an oil-on-panel painting by the Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden, dating from around 1460–1464 and housed in the Städel, Frankfurt, Germany.

The work is known to have been commissioned by the Medici family in Florence, as testified by the Florentine coat of arms with a red lily at the center of the lower step. The work has been variously dated from 1450–1451, when the artist travelled to Rome visiting several Italian courts, or from 1460–1464, the same years of the Lamentation of Christ, inspired by Beato Angelico and now at the Uffizi.

Pietà (van der Weyden)

Pietà is a painting by the Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden dating from about 1441 held in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels. There are number of workshop versions and copies, notably in the National Gallery, London, in the Prado, Madrid, and in the Manzoni Collection, Naples. Infra-red and X-radiograph evidence suggest that the Brussels version was painted by van der Weyden himself, not necessarily excluding the help of workshop assistants. Dendrochronological analysis gives a felling date of 1431 for the oak panel backing, supporting the dating of the painting to around 1441.Campbell & van der Stock describe the painting as evincing a technical and aesthetic mastery in no way inferior to that of The Descent from the Cross, of comparable emotional force and controlled by an equally strongly balanced composition. Christ's dead body is conceived in a similarly natural way as in the Descent, the dangling arms and limp fingers typical of van der Weyden's acute observation. The conspicuous elongation of Christ's wrists has been explained away as the ineptness of an assistant, but equally it might be a consequence of Christ's hanging on the Cross, the kind of realistic detail characteristic of van der Weyden.Although a fair number of imitations were made of the Brussels version, only a few were based directly on it. A direct connection can be seen only in the versions belonging to the Rademakers collection in The Hague, the Museum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp, and the Manzoni collection, Naples. The Manzoni version combines features from the Brussels version as well as those of the Madrid version and another in the Staatliche Museen, Berlin.

Portrait of Antoine, 'Grand Bâtard' of Burgundy

Portrait of Antoine, 'Grand Bâtard' of Burgundy (or Portrait of Anthony of Burgundy) is an oil panel painting by the Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden portraying Anthony of Burgundy, the bastard son of Philip the Good and one of his mistresses, Jeanne de Presle. The panel is dated to about 1460 and held in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Belgium. He wears the livery collar of Order of the Golden Fleece, a chivalric order established January 10, 1430, by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. In 1456 Anthony was inducted into the prestigious Order, held by only 29 others at that time. The exact significance of the arrow held in the bastard's hand is unknown, although the fleece is thought to refer to either the Greek mythological hero Jason or the Hebrew warrior and judge Gideon.

The work is one of three high-profile van der Weyden portraits commissioned by the Dukes of Burgundy around 1460. The other two are his portraits of Philip the Good and Charles the Bold. In common with most of van der Weyden's male portraits, Antoine is shown half profile, staring aloofly into the middle distance.

In his later commissioned portraits, van der Weyden typically flattered his sitters. He often idealised or softened their facial features, allowing them a handsomeness or beauty, or interest or intelligence they might not have been blessed with in life. If this portrait is compared to the unromantic portrait of Antoine attributed to Hans Memling, painted 8–10 years later, one can see the liberties taken by van der Weyden. Even allowing for aging, the artist seems to have enlarged the eyes, defined the contours of the face, and given a much stronger jaw than seen in Memling's portrait.

Portrait of a Lady (van der Weyden)

Portrait of a Lady (or Portrait of a Woman) is a small oil-on-oak panel painting executed around 1460 by the Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden. The composition is built from the geometric shapes that form the lines of the woman's veil, neckline, face, and arms, and by the fall of the light that illuminates her face and headdress. The vivid contrasts of darkness and light enhance the almost unnatural beauty and Gothic elegance of the model.

Van der Weyden was preoccupied by commissioned portraiture towards the end of his life and was highly regarded by later generations of painters for his penetrating evocations of character. In this work, the woman's humility and reserved demeanour are conveyed through her fragile physique, lowered eyes and tightly grasped fingers. She is slender and depicted according to the Gothic ideal of elongated features, indicated by her narrow shoulders, tightly pinned hair, high forehead and the elaborate frame set by the headdress. It is the only known portrait of a woman accepted as an autograph work by van der Weyden, yet the sitter's name is not recorded and he did not title the work.

Although van der Weyden did not adhere to the conventions of idealisation, he generally sought to flatter his sitters. He depicted his models in highly fashionable clothing, often with rounded—almost sculpted—facial features, some of which deviated from natural representation. He adapted his own aesthetic, and his portraits of women often bear a striking resemblance to each other.The painting has been in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. since donated in 1937, and is no. 34 in the de Vos catalogue raisonné of the artist. It has been described as "famous among all portraits of women of all schools".

Portrait of a Young Woman (van der Weyden)

Portrait of a Young Woman is a drawing by the Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It depicts a young woman wearing a headscarf pinned to her hair and has been variously dated as c. 1430s and c. 1440 - 1445. The identity of the woman has not been established, nor her social class. The drawing is presumably a study for a painted portrait now lost, but likely to have been similar to the Portrait of a Woman in Berlin.

Saint Columba Altarpiece

The Saint Columba Altarpiece (sometimes Adoration of the Kings) is a large c. 1455 oil-on-oak wood panel altarpiece by Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden, now in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich.The three panels depict a narrative in which Mary is visited by the archangel Gabriel; she gives birth in a stable, and she presents the infant at the temple. The left wing shows the Annunciation, the center depicts the Adoration of the Magi after Christ's birth, and the Presentation in the Temple appears on the right wing.

Saint Hubert Altarpiece

The Saint Hubert Altarpiece was a late 1430s altarpiece in the Chapel of St Hubert in the church of St Gudule, Brussels by Rogier van der Weyden and his studio. Its central image is lost but its side panels are thought to be The Dream of Pope Sergius (J. Paul Getty Museum) and The Exhumation of St Hubert (National Gallery, London) - In around 1623 Dubuisson-Aubenay recorded seeing a two-part painting in that church which matches the description of these two panels.

Saint Jerome and the Lion (van der Weyden)

St. Jerome and the Lion (also known as St. Jerome Extracting the Thorn or Saint Jerome in the Desert) is an oil on oak panel painting by Rogier van der Weyden or his studio from c. 1450–1465, showing Jerome and a lion. It is now in the Detroit Institute of Arts. This painting also inspired a genre of St. Jerome art.

Seven Sacraments Altarpiece

The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece is a fixed-wing triptych by the Early Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden and his workshop. It was painted from 1445 to 1450, probably for a church in Poligny (Max J. Friedländer claimed that it was commissioned by the Bishop Jean Chevrot), and is now in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp. It depicts the seven sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church. On the left panel are baptism, confirmation and confession and on the right hand panel the ordination of a priest, marriage and the last rites.

The central panel (possibly the only autograph part of the work) is dominated by a crucifixion in the foreground, with the sacrament of the Eucharist in the background. Angels hover over each sacrament with scrolls, with clothes colour-matched to the sacraments, from white for baptism to black for the last rites. The side panels also depict the altarpiece's commissioners, along with some portrait heads only added shortly before the work was completed. Two coats of arms (probably that of the commissioners) (left: "sable" chevron on "or" field; right: "argent" tower on "sable" field) are painted in the spandrels of the painting's inner frame.

The Descent from the Cross (van der Weyden)

The Descent from the Cross (or Deposition of Christ, or Descent of Christ from the Cross) is a panel painting by the Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden created c. 1435, now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid. The crucified Christ is lowered from the cross, his lifeless body held by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus.

The c. 1435 date is estimated based on the work's style, and because the artist acquired wealth and renown around this time, most likely from the prestige this work allowed him. It was painted early in his career, shortly after he completed his apprenticeship with Robert Campin and shows the older painter's influence, most notable in the hard sculpted surfaces, realistic facial features and vivid primary colours, mostly reds, whites and blues. The work was a self-conscious attempt by van der Weyden to create a masterpiece that would establish an international reputation. Van der Weyden positioned Christ's body in the T-shape of a crossbow to reflect the commission from the Leuven guild of archers (Schutterij) for their chapel Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-van-Ginderbuiten (Notre-Dame-hors-les-Murs).

Art historians have commented that this work was arguably the most influential Netherlandish painting of Christ's crucifixion, and that it was copied and adapted on a large scale in the two centuries after its completion. The emotional impact of the weeping mourners grieving over Christ's body, and the subtle depiction of space in van der Weyden's work have generated extensive critical comments, one of the most famous being, that of Erwin Panofsky: "It may be said that the painted tear, a shining pearl born of the strongest emotion, epitomizes that which Italian most admired in Early Flemish painting: pictorial brilliance and sentiment".

The Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald

The Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald was a set of four large panels painted by the Flemish painter Rogier van der Weyden that decorated one wall of a court-room in the Town Hall of Brussels. They represented the Justice of Trajan, a Roman emperor, and the Justice of Herkinbald, a legendary Duke of Brabant. The panels were intended as a reminder to judges to dispense impartial justice and were admired by generations of visitors, including Albrecht Dürer. They were destroyed when the city was bombarded by the French in 1695 and are now known only from descriptions and from a tapestry copy in the Historical Museum of Bern.The work is thought to have preoccupied van der Weyden for several years, and is believed to have been, in conception and execution, on a scale and breath and skill to equal Jan van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece. The panels were recorded and described in a number of sources until the 17th century; especially detailed are the inscriptions on the frames, which are likely the same as those contained on the edges of the tapestry.

Virgin and Child (van der Weyden)

The Virgin and Child is a painting by the Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden dating from after 1454 in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

It has not always been thought to be an original autograph work of van der Weyden. The noted art historian and specialist of the period Erwin Panofsky thought it merely an "excellent replica" of a design by van der Weyden, a view that seemed confirmed by the technical evidence available at the time. However more recent studies confirm it as an autograph.

Visitation (van der Weyden)

Visitation is a c.1445 oil on panel painting of the Visitation by Rogier van der Weyden, now in the Museum der bildenden Künste in Leipzig.

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