Admiral of the Fleet Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes, GCB, KCVO, CMG, DSO (4 October 1872 – 26 December 1945) was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he served in a corvette operating from Zanzibar on slavery suppression missions. Early in the Boxer Rebellion, he led a mission to capture a flotilla of four Chinese destroyers moored to a wharf on the Peiho River. He was one of the first men to climb over the Peking walls, to break through to the besieged diplomatic legations and to free the legations.
During the First World War Keyes was heavily involved in the organisation of the Dardanelles Campaign. Keyes took charge in an operation when six trawlers and a cruiser attempted to clear the Kephez minefield. The operation was a failure, as the Turkish mobile artillery pieces bombarded Keyes' minesweeping squadron. He went on to be Director of Plans at the Admiralty and then took command of the Dover Patrol: he altered tactics and the Dover Patrol sank five U-Boats in the first month after implementation of Keyes' plan compared with just two in the previous two years. He also planned and led the famous raids on the German submarine pens in the Belgian ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend.
Between the wars Keyes commanded the Battlecruiser Squadron, the Atlantic Fleet and then the Mediterranean Fleet before becoming Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth. During the Second World War he initially became liaison officer to Leopold III, King of the Belgians. He went on to be the first Director of Combined Operations and implemented plans for the training of commandos and raids on hostile coasts.
The Lord Keyes
Vice Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, 1918
|Member of the House of Lords|
as Baron Keyes
22 January 1943 – 26 December 1945
|Preceded by||Peerage created|
|Succeeded by||Roger George Bowlby Keyes|
|Member of Parliament|
for Portsmouth North
19 February 1934 – 22 January 1943
|Preceded by||Sir Bertram Falle|
|Succeeded by||Sir William James|
|Born||4 October 1872|
Punjab, British India
|Died||26 December 1945 (aged 73)|
Tingewick, United Kingdom
|Resting place||St James's Cemetery, Dover|
|Relations||Sir Charles Patton Keyes (father)|
Geoffrey Keyes (son)
|Years of service||1885–1935|
|Rank||Admiral of the Fleet|
|Commands||HMS Opossum (1898–99)|
HMS Hart (1899–00)
HMS Fame (1900–01)
HMS Bat (1901)
HMS Falcon (1902)
HMS Sprightly (1902)
HMS Venus (1908–10)
Commodore-in-Charge, Submarine Service (1912–14)
HMS Centurion (1916–17)
Dover Patrol (1917–18)
Battle Cruiser Force (1919)
Battlecruiser Squadron) (1919–21)
Atlantic Fleet (1919–21)
Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet (1925–28)
Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth (1929–31)
Director of Combined Operations (1940–41)
First World War
Second World War
|Awards||Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath|
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George
Distinguished Service Order
Born the second son of General Sir Charles Patton Keyes of the Indian Army and Katherine Jessie Keyes (née Norman), Keyes told his parents from an early age: "I am going to be an Admiral". After being brought up in India and then the UK, where he attended preparatory school at Margate, he joined the Royal Navy as a cadet in the training ship HMS Britannia on 15 July 1885. He was appointed to the cruiser HMS Raleigh, flagship of the Cape of Good Hope and West Africa Station, in August 1887. Promoted to midshipman on 15 November 1887, he transferred to the corvette HMS Turquoise, operating from Zanzibar on slavery suppression missions. Promoted to sub-lieutenant on 14 November 1891 and to lieutenant on 28 August 1893, he joined the sloop HMS Beagle on the Pacific Station later that year. After returning home in 1897 he became commanding officer of the destroyer HMS Opossum at Plymouth in January 1898.
Keyes was then posted out to China to command another destroyer, HMS Hart, in September 1898 transferring to a newer ship, HMS Fame in January 1899. In April 1899 he went to the rescue of a small British force which was attacked and surrounded by irregular Chinese forces while attempting to demarcate the border of the Hong Kong New Territories. He went ashore, leading half the landing party, and, while HMS Fame fired on the besiegers, he led the charge which routed the Chinese and freed the troops.
In June 1900, early in the Boxer Rebellion, Keyes led a mission to capture a flotilla of four Chinese destroyers moored to a wharf on the Peiho River. Together with another junior officer, he took boarding parties onto the Chinese destroyers, captured the destroyers and secured the wharf. Shortly thereafter he led a mission to capture the heavily fortified fort at Hsi-cheng: he loaded HMS Fame with a landing party of 32 men, armed with rifles, pistols, cutlasses and explosives. His men quickly destroyed the Chinese gun mountings, blew up the powder magazine and returned to the ship.
Keyes was one of the first men to climb over the Peking walls, to break through to the besieged diplomatic legations and to free the legations. For this he was promoted to commander on 9 November 1900. Keyes later recalled about the sack of Beijing: "Every Chinaman...was treated as a Boxer by the Russian and French troops, and the slaughter of men, women, and children in retaliation was revolting".
Keyes was appointed in May 1901 to the command of the destroyer HMS Bat serving in the Devonport instructional flotilla. In January 1902 he was appointed in command of the destroyer HMS Falcon, which took Bat´s crew and her place in the flotilla, and four months later he again brought his crew and was appointed in command of the destroyer HMS Sprightly, which served in the flotilla from May 1902. He was posted to the intelligence section at the Admiralty in 1904 and then became naval attaché at the British Embassy in Rome in January 1905. Promoted to captain on 30 June 1905, he was appointed a Member of the Royal Victorian Order on 24 April 1906. He took up command of the cruiser HMS Venus in the Atlantic Fleet in 1908 before going on to be Inspecting Captain of Submarines in 1910 and, having been appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath on 19 June 1911, he became commodore of the Submarine Service in 1912. As head of the Submarine Service, he introduced an element of competition into the construction of submarines, which had previously been built by Vickers and tended to go to sea in a destroyer because of the primitive visibility from early submarines. He became a naval aide-de-camp to the King on 15 September 1914.
When the First World War broke out, Keyes took command of the Eighth Submarine Flotilla at Harwich. He proposed, planned and took part in the first Battle of Heligoland Bight in August 1914 flying his broad pendant in the destroyer HMS Lurcher. He went alongside the sinking German cruiser SMS Mainz and picked up 220 survivors for which he was mentioned in dispatches.
Keyes became Chief of Staff to Vice-Admiral Sackville Carden, commander of the Royal Navy squadron off the Dardanelles, in February 1915 and was heavily involved in the organisation of the Dardanelles Campaign. After slow progress, the bombardment of the Turkish defences was called off due to low ammunition stocks and fears of a newly laid Turkish minefield. Writing to his wife, Keyes expressed frustration at the lack of imagination of his new superior, Vice-Admiral John de Robeck, arguing that "We must have a clear channel through the minefield for the ships to close to decisive range to hammer the forts and then land men to destroy the guns." Keyes took charge in an operation in March 1915 when six trawlers and the cruiser HMS Amethyst attempted to clear the Kephez minefield. The operation was a failure, as the Turkish mobile artillery pieces bombarded Keyes' minesweeping squadron. Heavy damage was inflicted on four of the six trawlers, while HMS Amethyst was badly hit and had her steering gear damaged. After another abortive attempt to clear the mines a few days later, the naval attempt to force the straits was abandoned and instead troops were landed to assault the guns. For his service during the Dardanelles Campaign, Keyes was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George on 1 January 1916 and awarded the Distinguished Service Order on 3 June 1916.
Keyes took command of the battleship HMS Centurion in the Grand Fleet in June 1916 and, having been promoted to rear-admiral on 10 April 1917, became second in command of the 4th Battle Squadron with his flag in the battleship HMS Colossus in June 1917. He went on to be Director of Plans at the Admiralty in October 1917 and then became Commander-in-Chief, Dover and commander of the Dover Patrol in January 1918. Prior to Keyes, the Dover Patrol had been commanded by Admiral Reginald Bacon and had succeeded in sinking two German U-Boats in the English Channel in the previous two years, but out of 88,000 crossings by ships only five had been torpedoed and one sunk by gunfire. After Keyes took control, he altered tactics, and the Dover Patrol sank five U-Boats in the first month after implementation of Keyes' plan.
In April 1918 Keyes planned and led the famous raids on the German submarine pens in the Belgian ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend. He was advanced to Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on 30 March 1918 and promoted Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 24 April 1918. He was then advanced to Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on 10 December 1918 and made a baronet on 29 December 1919. In March 1919 he was appointed (Acting) Vice-Admiral in command of the Battle Cruiser Force until it was disbanded in April 1919.
Keyes was given command of the new Battlecruiser Squadron hoisting his flag at Scapa Flow in the battlecruiser HMS Lion in March 1919. He moved his flag to the new battlecruiser HMS Hood in early 1920. Promoted to vice-admiral on 16 May 1921, he became Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff in November 1921 and then Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet in June 1925 with promotion to full admiral on 1 March 1926.
In January 1928 at dance on the quarterdeck of the battleship HMS Royal Oak Rear Admiral Bernard Collard, Second-in-command of the 1st Battle Squadron openly lambasted Royal Marine Bandmaster, Percy Barnacle, and allegedly said "I won't have a bugger like that in my ship" in the presence of ship's officers and guests. Captain Kenneth Dewar and Commander Henry Daniel accused Collard of "vindictive fault-finding" and openly humiliating and insulting them before their crew, referring to an incident involving Collard's disembarkation from the ship in March 1928 where the admiral had openly said that he was "fed up with the ship"; Collard countercharged the two with failing to follow orders and treating him "worse than a midshipman". Letters of complaint from Dewar and Daniel were passed on to Keyes. The press picked up on the story worldwide, describing the affair—with some hyperbole—as a "mutiny". Keyes was thought by the Admiralty to have handled the matter badly and this may have adversely affected his chances of becoming First Sea Lord. He became Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth in May 1929, was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 8 May 1930 and was advanced Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 3 June 1930. He then bought a house at Tingewick in Buckinghamshire and retired in May 1935.
Keyes was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Portsmouth North in January 1934. In Parliament he fought disarmament and sought to have the Fleet Air Arm put back under the control of the navy. He was opposed to the Munich Agreement that Neville Chamberlain had reached with Adolf Hitler in 1938 and, along with Winston Churchill was one of the few who withheld support from the Government on this issue.
When the Second World War broke out, Keyes was very anxious to obtain active service, but at the same time criticised the Chiefs of Staff. He reached the conclusion that the regaining of Trondheim was the key to victory in Norway. He advocated the forcing of Trondheim Fjord by battleships and the landing of a military force to recapture the city. He sought an interview with Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, submitted an outline plan to seize the city and offered to lead the expedition. If the Admiralty did not wish to hazard newer ships, he would take in old battleships. The chiefs of staff reached similar conclusions, with the addition of subsidiary landings north at Namsos and south at Åndalsnes. However they failed to send capital ships into Trondheimsfjord. German destroyers dominated the fjord, no airfields were seized to provide air cover and troops earmarked for the centre prong were never landed. When the troops were evacuated in early May 1940 there was shock in Britain. Parliament gathered for the Norway Debate on 7 and 8 May 1940. Making a dramatic entrance in the full uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet, including medals, Keyes defended the navy and strongly criticised the government. In his closing remarks Keyes invoked Horatio Nelson.
Harwood and his captains are typical of the Navy to-day. There are hundreds of young officers who are waiting eagerly to seize Warburton-Lee's torch, or emulate the deeds of Vian of the "Cossack." One hundred and forty years ago, Nelson said, "I am of the opinion that the boldest measures are the safest," and that still holds good to-day.— Roger Keyes, House of Commons, 7 May 1940
When Germany invaded the Low Countries in May 1940, Churchill appointed Keyes liaison officer to Leopold III, King of the Belgians. But when Belgium surrendered suddenly to the Germans later that month both Leopold and Keyes were attacked in the British press.
Keyes became the first Director of Combined Operations in June 1940 and implemented plans for the training of commandos and raids on hostile coasts. He came up with bold schemes which were considered impractical by the Chiefs of Staff and he was removed from office in October 1941. He was elevated to the peerage as Baron Keyes, of Zeebrugge and of Dover in the County of Kent on 22 January 1943.
Keyes suffered a detached retina in early 1944. He then undertook a goodwill tour of Canada, Australia and New Zealand at the request of the British Government in July 1944. During his visit to the amphibious warfare ship USS Appalachian he suffered smoke inhalation following an attack by Japanese aircraft and never fully recovered. He died at his home in Tingewick on 26 December 1945 and was buried at the Zeebrugge corner of St James's Cemetery in Dover.
Sir Reginald Bacon
| Commander-in-Chief, Dover
| Commander, Battlecruiser Squadron
Sir Walter Cowan
Sir Osmond Brock
| Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff
Sir Frederick Field
Sir Osmond Brock
| Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet
Sir Frederick Field
Sir Osmond Brock
| Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth
Sir Arthur Waistell
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
| Member of Parliament for Portsmouth North
Sir William James
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baronet
1919 – 1945
Roger George Bowlby Keyes
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baron Keyes
Roger George Bowlby Keyes
was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1872nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 872nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 72nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1872, the Gregorian calendar was
12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.1945
was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1945th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 945th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1940s decade. This year also marks the end of the Second World War, the deadliest conflict in human history.1945 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 1945 in the United Kingdom. This year sees the end of World War II and a landslide general election victory for the Labour Party.Babington family
Babington is the name of an Anglo-Irish and English gentry family. The Anglo-Irish branch of the family is still alive today.
The Babington family (sometimes Babbington) are descended from Sir John de Babington, lord of the manor of Babington (now Bavington), in Northumberland, who was living in 1178. The family has routinely produced members who have successively occupied posts such as High Sheriff, Lord Lieutenant and Member of Parliament.Baron Keyes
Baron Keyes, of Zeebrugge, and Dover in the County of Kent, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1943 for the prominent naval commander Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Keyes, 1st Baronet. He is chiefly remembered for his role in the Zeebrugge Raid in 1918, an attempt by the Royal Navy to neutralize the Belgian port of Zeebrugge which was used as a base for German submarine attacks on Allied shipping. Keyes had already been created a Baronet, of Zeebrugge, and of Dover in the County of Kent, in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom in 1919. As of 2010 the titles are held by his grandson, the third Baron, who succeeded his father in 2005. He does not use his title.
Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes, eldest son of the first Baron, was killed in 1941 during an attempt to capture General Erwin Rommel in Libya. For his actions, Keyes was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.Dover Patrol
The Dover Patrol and later known as the Dover Patrol Force was a Royal Navy command of the First World War, notable for its involvement in the Zeebrugge Raid on 22 April 1918. The Dover Patrol formed a discrete unit of the Royal Navy based at Dover and Dunkirk for the duration of the First World War. Its primary task was to prevent enemy German shipping—chiefly submarines—from entering the English Channel en route to the Atlantic Ocean, thereby obliging the Imperial German Navy to travel via the much longer route around Scotland which was itself covered by the Northern Patrol.Geoffrey Keyes (VC)
Lieutenant-Colonel Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes, (18 May 1917 – 18 November 1941) was a British soldier of the Second World War and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award that can be made to British and Commonwealth forces for gallantry in the face of the enemy. At the time he was the youngest acting lieutenant colonel in the British Army.Linden Park, South Australia
Linden Park is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Burnside.
It derives its name from the Linden Tree.
Many of its streets are named after British First Sea Lords and admiralty, such as:
Hood st: Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood
Keyes st: Roger Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes
Sturdee st: Doveton Sturdee
Jellicoe st: John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe
Beatty st: David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty
Wemyss st: Rosslyn Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss
Hay Rd: Lord John HayList of English people
Listed below are English people of note and some notable individuals born in England.List of works by Glyn Philpot
Glyn Warren Philpot (5 October 1884 – 16 December 1937) was an English painter and sculptor, best known for his portraits of contemporary figures such as Siegfried Sassoon and Vladimir Rosing.Naval Officers of World War I
Naval Officers of World War I is a large oil on canvas painting by Sir Arthur Stockdale Cope, completed in 1921. It was commissioned by South African financier Sir Abraham Bailey, 1st Baronet to commemorate the Royal Navy officers who commanded British fleets in the First World War. Cope's painting was first exhibited at the Royal Academy summer exhibition in 1921 and donated to the National Portrait Gallery that year.Roger
Roger is a masculine given name and a surname. The given name is derived from the Old French personal names Roger and Rogier. These names are of Germanic origin, derived from the elements hrōd, χrōþi ("fame", "renown") and gār, gēr ("spear", "lance") (Hrōþigēraz). The name was introduced into England by the Normans. In Normandy, the Frankish name had been reinforced by the Old Norse cognate Hróðgeirr. The name introduced into England replaced the Old English cognate Hroðgar. Roger became a very common given name during the Middle Ages. A variant form of the given name Roger is Rodger. The surname Roger is sometimes an Anglicised form of the Gaelic surname Mac Ruaidhrí.