Rodion Malinovsky

Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: Родио́н Я́ковлевич Малино́вский; 23 November [O.S. 11 November] 1898 – 31 March 1967) was a Soviet military commander in World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s. He contributed to the major defeat of Germany at the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Budapest. During the post-war era, he made a pivotal contribution to the strengthening of the Soviet Union as a military superpower.


Rodion Malinovsky
Родио́н Малино́вский

Rodion Malinovsky 1
Minister of Defence
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
In office
26 October 1957 – 31 March 1967
PremierNikolai Bulganin
Nikita Khrushchev
Alexei Kosygin
Preceded byGeorgy Zhukov
Succeeded byAndrei Grechko
Personal details
Born23 November 1898
Odessa, Russian Empire
Died31 March 1967 (aged 68)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
NationalitySoviet
Political partyCommunist Party of the Soviet Union
AwardsHero of the Soviet Union (twice)
Military service
Allegiance Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Service/branchImperial Russian Army
Red Army/Soviet Army
Years of service1914–1967
RankMarshal
CommandsSouthern Front
2nd Guards Army
Southwestern Front
3rd Ukrainian Front
2nd Ukrainian Front
Transbaikal Military District
Far Eastern Military District
Battles/warsWorld War I
Russian Civil War
Great Patriotic War

Early life

Before and during World War I

Born in Odessa, After the death of his father of jewish origins, Malinovsky's mother left the city for the rural areas of Ukraine, and remarried. Her husband, a poverty-stricken Ukrainian peasant, refused to adopt her son and expelled him when Malinovsky was only 13 years old. The homeless boy survived by working as a farmhand, and eventually received shelter from his aunt's family in Odessa, where he worked as an errand boy in a general store. After the start of World War I in July 1914, Malinovsky, who was only 15 years old at the time (too young for military service), hid on the military train heading for the German front, but was discovered. He nevertheless convinced the commanding officers to enlist him as a volunteer, and served in a machine-gun detachment in the frontline trenches. In October 1915, as a reward for repelling a German attack, he received his first military award, the Cross of St. George of the 4th class, and was promoted to the rank of corporal. Soon afterwards, he was badly wounded and spent several months in the hospital.

After his recovery, he was sent to France in 1916 as a member of the Western Front Russian Expeditionary Corps. Malinovsky fought in a hotly contested sector of the front near Fort Brion and was promoted to sergeant. He suffered a serious wound in his left arm, and received a decoration from the French government. After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the French government disbanded some Russian units, but others were transferred to a newly created unit called the Russian Legion, which was attached to the Moroccan Division. Malinovsky fought against the Germans until the end of the war. During this time, he was awarded the French Croix de guerre and promoted to senior NCO.

Interwar

He returned to Odessa in 1919, where he joined the Red Army in the Civil War against the White Army and fought with distinction in Siberia. He remained in the army after the end of the conflict, studying in the training school for the junior commanders, and rose to commander of a rifle battalion. In 1926, he became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, membership of which was a prerequisite for promotion in the military.

In 1927, Malinovsky was sent to study at the elite Frunze Military Academy. He graduated in 1930, and during the next seven years he rose to the Chief of Staff of the 3rd Cavalry Corps, where his commander was Semyon Timoshenko (a protégé of Joseph Stalin's).

After the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Malinovsky volunteered to fight for the Republicans against the right-wing nationalists of General Francisco Franco and their Italian and German allies. He participated in planning and directing several main operations. In 1938, he returned to Moscow, being awarded the top Soviet decorations, the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner, in recognition of his service in Spain; he was appointed a senior lecturer at the Frunze Military Academy.

In the spring of 1941, Timoshenko, who then served the People's Commissar for Defence, was alarmed by the massive German military buildup on the Soviet borders, as the Wehrmacht was secretly preparing for Operation Barbarossa. In order to strengthen the Red Army field command, he dispatched some of the top officers from the military academies to the field units. Malinovsky was promoted to General-Major, and took command over the freshly raised 48th Rifle Corps, 9th Army in the Odessa Military District. A week prior to the start of the war, Malinovsky deployed his corps close to the Romanian border.

World War II commander

Early assignments

After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, with the Red Army suffering enormous defeats and losing hundreds of thousands of troops in German encirclements, Malinovsky emerged a competent general. His corps of three partly formed rifle divisions faced German Blitzkrieg along the line of the Prut River. While, as a rule, Red Army generals would lead their forces from behind the frontline, Malinovsky went to the crucial sectors of the battles to be with his soldiers and encourage them. Unable to stop the Wehrmacht, Malinovsky had to retreat along the Black Sea shore, while frustrating enemy attempts to encircle his troops. The Germans succeeded in cornering his corps in Mykolaiv, but Malinovsky breached their ring and retreated to Dnipropetrovsk.

In August, he was promoted to Chief of Staff of the badly battered 6th Army, and soon replaced its commander. He halted the German advance in his section of the front and was promoted to General-Leytenant. After the retreat of the Red Army to the Donbass, Malinovsky commanded a joint operation of the 6th and 12th armies, managing to drive the Wehrmacht out of the region. In December 1941, Malinovsky received command of the Southern Front, consisting of three weak field armies and two division-sized cavalry corps. They were short of manpower and equipment, but Malinovsky managed to push deep into the defenses of the Germans, who, after 6 months of fighting, were suffering from fatigue and shortages as well.

Battle of Kharkov

On 12 May 1942, Malinovsky and the Southwestern Front, under the overall command of Timoshenko, launched a joint attack in the Second Battle of Kharkov pushing the Germans back 100 kilometres (62 mi). Timoshenko overestimated the Red Army's offensive capabilities and suffered a heavy defeat. Although Stalin, in spite of opposition by his top military advisers, supported the ill-fated Kharkov offense, he became suspicious that Malinovsky had intentionally failed his troops (he feared that Malinovsky had established and kept connections with foreign interests during his World War I stay in France). In July 1942, the Southern Front was taken out of combat, its units and staff were transferred to the North Caucasian Front as a Don Operational Group under the command of Malinovsky (who also became Front's deputy commander). Stalin ordered Malinovsky to stop the intrusion of the German Army Group A towards Rostov-on-Don and the vital oilfields of Caucasus; the Germans had a sizeable technical superiority over Malinovsky, and cut through his weak defenses. As a consequence, Stavka disbanded the Don Operational Group in September.

Stalingrad and Ukrainian Front

The Red Army was hard-pressed by Germans in the Battle of Stalingrad, and Stalin entrusted Malinovsky with the command of the hastily formed 66th Army to hold positions north-east of Stalingrad. At the same time Stalin ordered Nikita Khrushchev, who served as his top political officer in Stalingrad, to "keep an eye" on Malinovsky.

The 66th Army had no combat experience, but this was the first time in the war Malinovsky had commanded a unit that was near full strength in both troops and equipment. In September and October 1942, he went on the offensive. His territorial gains were marginal, but he denied the Germans an opportunity to encircle Stalingrad from the north, and, slowed down, they decided to push into the city. Later that month, Stavka dispatched Malinovsky to the Voronezh Front as its deputy commander; in December 1942, he was sent back to Stalingrad. There the Red Army achieved its greatest success to that point in the war: on 22 November the Red Army fronts encircled the German Sixth Army. The German Army Group Don, commanded by Field Marshal Erich von Manstein, gathered its Panzer troops in the town of Kotelnikovo 150 kilometres (93 mi) west of Stalingrad and launched a desperate counterattack to save the Sixth Army.

Malinovsky led the powerful Soviet Second Guards Army against Hoth. In vicious fighting he forced the Germans to retreat, breached deeply echeloned and well-prepared German defenses, and destroyed the Kotelnikovo army grouping. It was the first World War II large-scale clash of armor to be lost by Germany. Malinovsky's victory sealed the fate of 250,000 German and other Axis Powers soldiers trapped in the Stalingrad pocket. Stalin promoted Malinovsky to Colonel General, and awarded him with the highest Soviet decoration for outstanding generalship — the Order of Suvorov of the 1st degree.

In February 1943, Malinovsky resumed his command of Southern Front, and in less than two weeks he expelled Manstein from Rostov-on-Don, opening the road to Ukraine to the Red Army. In March 1943, Stalin elevated him to rank of Army General and gave him command of Southwestern Front, tasked to drive German troops away from the industrially rich Donbass. Through a sudden attack in mid-October, Malinovsky managed to surprise a large German force in the region's key city of Zaporizhia and captured it. The campaign split German forces in the South and isolated German forces in Crimea from the rest of the German Eastern Front.

On 20 October, the Southwestern Front was renamed 3rd Ukrainian Front. From December 1943 to April 1944, Malinovsky smashed the German Army Group South, and liberated much of the southern Ukraine, including Kherson, Mykolaiv and his home city of Odessa. By that time, according to Khrushchev's opinion, Stalin grew much more confident of Malinovsky's loyalty.

Romania and Hungary

In May 1944, Malinovsky was transferred to the 2nd Ukrainian Front. He expelled the Germans from the remaining Soviet territory and participated in an unsuccessful invasion of the Balkans (the first Jassy–Kishinev Offensive) together with Marshal Ivan Konev and Army General Fyodor Tolbukhin (who received Malinovsky's former command over the smaller 3rd Ukrainian Front). However, during the second Jassy–Kishinev Offensive in late August and early September 1944, Malinovsky unleashed a highly successful Soviet version of the Blitzkrieg. Together with Tolbukhin, he destroyed or captured some 215,000 German,[1][2] and 200,000 Romanian troops,[3] forcing Romania to overthrow pro-German Conducător Ion Antonescu, and switch from the Axis to the Allies camp (see Romania during World War II). A triumphant Stalin recalled Malinovsky to Moscow, and on 10 September 1944 made him Marshal of the Soviet Union. Malinovsky was also nominal head of the Allied Commission in Romania (represented by Vladislav Petrovich Vinogradov).[4]

He continued his offensive drive, crossed the Southern Carpathians into Transylvania (entering Hungarian-ruled Northern Transylvania), and on 20 October 1944, captured Debrecen, defended by a large Axis force. His troops were tired after several months of combat and needed to be replenished and resupplied, but Stalin ordered Malinovsky to take the Hungarian capital Budapest (see Battle of Budapest), in order to open the road to Vienna and preempt the Western Allies from conquering the former Austrian capital. With the help of Tolbukhin and the Romanian First and Fourth armies, Malinovsky carried out Stalin's order, and faced Adolf Hitler's determination to defend Budapest at any cost. The Germans and their Hungarian Arrow Cross Party allies tried to turn Budapest into a "German Stalingrad"; Hitler engaged the bulk of his Panzer troops (among them six Waffen SS divisions and five army Panzer divisions; one-fourth of the Wehrmacht's armor), weakening German forces fighting the Soviets in Poland and Prussia, as well as those engaging the Western Allies on the Rhine. Malinovsky's strategic and operational skills enabled him to overcome his troops' weakness and to conquer Budapest on 13 February 1945, following an exceptionally harsh battle. He captured 70,000 prisoners. Continuing his drive westward, Malinovsky routed Germans in Slovakia, liberated Bratislava, on 4 April 1945 captured Vienna, and finally, on 26 April 1945 freed Brno, second largest city in Czechoslovakia.

These new victories established the Soviet's supremacy over the Danubian heartland of Europe. In return, Stalin rewarded him with the highest Soviet military decoration of the period, the Order of Victory. Malinovsky ended his campaign in Europe with the liberation of Brno in the Czech lands, observing a jubilant meeting of his and American advance forces.

Japanese Front

After the German surrender in May 1945, Malinovsky was transferred to the Russian Far East, where he was placed in command of the Transbaikal Front. In August 1945, led his forces during the last Soviet offensive of the war under the overall command of Aleksandr Vasilevsky. Vasilevsky's forces invaded Manchuria, which was under the occupation of the 700,000 strong Japanese Kwantung Army (see Soviet invasion of Manchuria) and crushed the Japanese in ten days. Malinovsky was awarded the Soviet Union's greatest honor, the order of a Hero of the Soviet Union.

Post-war career

Far East

During the next decade Malinovsky was involved in key decisions involving Soviet strategic interests in the Far Eastern region. Initially the commander of Transbaikal-Amur Military District (1945–1947), with the start of the Cold War he was appointed the Supreme Commander of Far Eastern Forces in charge of three military districts (1947–1953). He trained and supplied North Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Liberation Army prior to and during the Korean War (1950–1953).

As an expression of Malinovsky's belonging to the Soviet Party-state elite, Stalin made him a Member of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (1946), and a candidate (non-voting) member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1952). After the end of the Korean War, Moscow disbanded Far Eastern Supreme Command. Malinovsky continued to control the major Soviet force in the region as the commander of the Far Eastern Military District.

With Khrushchev

After Stalin's death in 1953, Khrushchev became the Soviet leader and, during the De-Stalinization process and the consolidation of his power in the Kremlin, he promoted Malinovsky to Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces and First Deputy to Minister of Defense Marshal Georgy Zhukov (1956). To confirm Malinovsky's high status in the Soviet Party-state hierarchy, he was selected a full member of the Communist Party Central Committee. In October 1957, Khrushchev, who had grown apprehensive of Zhukov's political ambitions, ousted him and entrusted his post as minister to Malinovsky, who served in this position until his death, gaining lasting reputation as the best person ever to lead the Ministry.

Although a personal friend of Khrushchev, Malinovsky maintained his independent position regarding military affairs. Khrushchev and several members of the Soviet military establishment were convinced that future wars would be won by nuclear missile attack. They advocated main investment to the development of the missiles and a drastic reduction of conventional forces. Malinovsky supported the adaptation of strategic nuclear missiles, but saw them as a useful deterrent of war, rather than as a main weapon within it. He developed the concept of a broad based military and vigorously argued that while the nature of war had changed, the decisive factor would still be a standing army proficient in modern military technology and capable of conquering and controlling the enemy's territory. Soviet military policy during these years was a compromise between the views of Malinovsky and of Khrushchev. Malinovsky built the Soviet army into the most accomplished and powerful force in the world by achieving nuclear parity with the United States and by modernizing the army's huge conventional force.

Final years

The Cuban missile crisis, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear catastrophe, alienated Malinovsky. Following the crisis, he publicly demanded in army publications for the military to be given a greater say in formulating Soviet strategic policy. The army's discontent with Khrushchev encouraged a coup within the Party, which resulted in the removal of Khrushchev from power in October 1964. The new Party leadership accepted Malinovsky's demand for an autonomous and professional military establishment, as well as his concept of balanced development of the armed forces.

Malinovsky died on 31 March 1967 after an illness. Official medical report mentions methastatic pancreatic cancer. He was honoured with a state funeral and cremated. His urn was placed in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. The government gave his name to the leading Soviet Military Academy of Tank Troops in Moscow and to the 10th Guards Uralsko-Lvovskaya Tank Division. Malinovsky continued to be regarded as one of the most important military leaders in the history of Russia even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Awards

Russian Empire
RUS Georgievsky Krest 3st BAR Cross of St. George, 3rd class
RUS Georgievsky Krest 4st BAR Cross of St. George, 4th class
Awards of the USSR
Hero of the Soviet Union medal.pngHero of the Soviet Union medal.png Hero of the Soviet Union, twice (8 September 1945, 22 November 1958)
Ordervictory rib Order of Victory (№ 8, 26 April 1945)
Order of Lenin ribbon bar Order of Lenin, five times (17 July 1937, 6 November 1941, 21 February 1945, 8 September 1945, 22 November 1958)
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar Order of the Red Banner, three times (22 October 1937, 3 November 1944, 15 November 1950)
Order suvorov1 rib Order of Suvorov, 1st class, twice (January 28, 1943 March 19, 1944)
Order kutuzov1 rib Order of Kutuzov, 1st class (17 September 1943)
Order bogdan khmelnitsky1 rib Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, 1st class
Defstalingrad Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"
Defcaucasus rib Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus"
Defodessa Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"
Capturebudapest rib Medal "For the Capture of Budapest"
CaptureOfViennaRibbon Medal "For the Capture of Vienna"
Victoryjapan rib Medal "For the Victory over Japan"
OrderStGeorge4cl rib Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
20 years of victory rib Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
20 years saf rib Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"
30 years saf rib Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
40 years saf rib Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Foreign Awards
Medaille voor de 25e Verjaardag van de Volksrevolutie Mongolië 1946.jpg Medal "25 Years of the Mongolian People's Revolution" (Mongolia, 1946)
OrdenSuheBator Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolia, 1961)
OrdenZnam Order of the Red Banner (Mongolia, 1945)
Medal for victory over japan rib Medal "For Victory over Japan" (Mongolia, 1946)
Order of the National Hero BAR Order of the People's Hero (Yugoslavia, 27 May 1964)
Order of the partisan star with golden wreath Rib Golden Order of the Partisan Star (Yugoslavia, 1956)
Order of the White Lion Order of the White Lion, 1st class (Czechoslovakia, 1945)
TCH CS Vojensky Rad Bileho Lva 1st (1945) BAR Military Order of the White Lion, 1st class (Czechoslovakia, 1945)
Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Ribbon Czechoslovak War Cross (Czechoslovakia, 1945)
CS Dukielski Medal Pamiatkowy Medal "In Commemoration of the Battle of Dukla Pass (Czechoslovakia, 1959)
Order of the Slovak National Uprising 3 kl Medal "25 Years of the Slovak National Uprising" (Czechoslovakia, 1965)
US Legion of Merit Chief Commander ribbon Chief Commander, Legion of Merit (USA, 1946)
Legion Honneur GO ribbon Grand Officer of the Legion d'Honneur (France, 1945)
Croix de Guerre 1914-1918 ribbon Croix de guerre (France, 1916)
Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 ribbon Croix de guerre (France, 1945)
Order of the Defense of the Fatherland ribbon Romania Order of the Defense of the Fatherland, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Classes (Romania, all in 1950)
Medal For the Liberation From the Fascist Yoke ribbon Medal "For the Liberation From the Fascist Yoke" (Romania, 1950)
HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian Rep (military) 1class BAR Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary, 1st class (Hungarian Republic, 1947)
HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian People's Republic BAR Order of the Hungarian Merit, twice (1950 and 1965)
HUN Order of the Hungarian freedom Order of the Hungarian Freedom (1946)
Bintang Republik Indonesia Adipradana Ribbon1 Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 2nd Class (Indonesia, 1963)
Bintang Yudha Dharma Nararya The Grand Meritorious Military Order, 1st Class (Indonesia, 1962)
20thAnniversaryRibbon Medal "20 Years of the Bulgarian People's Army" (1964)
Order of Resplendent Banner with Special Grand Cordon ribbon Order of the Resplendent Banner, 1st class (China, 1946)
Sino Soviet Friendship Rib Medal "Sino-Soviet friendship" (China, 1956)
MAR Order of the Military - Special Class BAR Order of Military Merit, 1st Class (Morocco, 1965)
PRK Order of the National Flag - 1st Class BAR Order of the National Flag, 1st class (North Korea, 1948)
Ribbon Medal For The Liberation Of Korea Medal "For the Liberation of Korea" (1946)
?
Commemorative Order "40th Anniversary Of Fatherland Liberation War Victory" (North Korea, 1985, posthumous)
GDR Brotherhood in Arms Medal - Gold BAR Medal "Brotherhood in Arms", 1st class (East Germany, 1966)
?
Cross of Independence (Mexico, 1964)

Notes

  1. ^ Pat McTaggart: Red Storm in Romania
  2. ^ (in German) K. W. Böhme, Die deutschen Kriegsgefangenen in sowjetischer Hand. Eine Bilanz, München 1966, p. 112
  3. ^ (in German) Siebenbürgische Zeitung: "Ein schwarzer Tag für die Deutschen", 22 August 2004
  4. ^ (in Romanian) Adrian Cioroianu, Pe umerii lui Marx. O introducere în istoria comunismului românesc, Editura Curtea Veche, Bucharest, 2005, p.59

References

  • John Erikson, "Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky" in Harold Shukman, ed., Stalin's Generals, Grove Press, New York City, 1993
  • David M. Glantz, The Soviet Strategic Offensive in Manchuria, 1945. 'August Storm', Frank Cass Publishers, London, 2003
  • Mark Shteinberg, Evrei v voinakh tysiachiletii, Moscow, Jerusalem, 2005, pp. 316–318
  • Joseph E. Thach, Jr., "Malinovskii, Rodion Yakovlevich" in The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History, vol. 21
  • Alexander Werth, Russia At War, 1941–1945, Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., New York City, 1999

External links

  • "Monument to Malinovsky in Odessa".
  • Colour poster and biography from site of ETS Publishing House
  • Newspaper clippings about Rodion Malinovsky in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
Political offices
Preceded by
Georgy Zhukov
Minister of Defence of Soviet Union
1957–1967
Succeeded by
Andrei Grechko
1963 October Revolution Parade

The 1963 October Revolution Parade was a parade on Red Square in Moscow on November 7 1963 for the 46th anniversary of the October Revolution. It would be the last parade attended by Nikita Khrushchev before he was deposed the following October. Inspecting the parade was Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky and commanding the parade was the commander of the Moscow Military District, Afanasy Beloborodov.The massed bands of the Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union

led by Major General Nikolai Nazarov was playing the military marches.The parade officially began at the chimes of the Kremlin Clock at 10:00. It has one of the earliest records of the full parade.

1965 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Day Parade of 1965 (Russian: Парад Победы, tr. Parad Pobedy) was held on 9 May 1965 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marks the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War.

Prior to 1965 Victory Day was not a major holiday and parades were not held, with the exception of the 1945 Victory Day Parade. The Victory Parade of 1965 was the second made after 1945 Victory Day Parade. After this parade next would be held recently in 1985.

The parade was observed by Soviet leaders from Lenin´s Mausoleum. Major political figures attending were General Secretary of the Communist Party Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin, and Minister of Defence Marshal Rodion Malinovsky among others. The parade was commanded by Moscow Military District Commander General of the Army Afanasy Beloborodov. It was on that very parade that Mikhail Yegorov and Meliton Kantaria, the then two surviving raisers of the Victory Banner, escorted it as the color party of the banner marched past the dignitaries on Red Square with retired Col. Konstantin Samsonov carrying the banner.

On this parade what is now the 1st Honor Guard Company of the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment made its parade debut. Several of the then living officers from the war bearing the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union, including Georgy Zhukov, the parade inspector of the original 1945 Victory Parade, attended the event.

1972 October Revolution Parade

The 1972 October Revolution Parade was held in commemoration of the 55th anniversary of the 1917 October Revolution and the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922. It was the 100th Soviet military parade on Red Square. Notable attendees were Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Podgorny. The parade's commander was Colonel General Vladimir Govorov, head of the Moscow Garrison. The parade's mobile column exhibited military equipment, prominently including Katyusha rocket launchers. The Parade's motto was "On Red Square under the Red Banner". Revolution Day was also celebrated in Leningrad with a military parade on Palace Square, inspected by the commander of the Leningrad Military District Lieutenant General, Ivan Shavrov.

1983 October Revolution Parade

The 1983 October Revolution Parade was a parade on to celebrate the 66th anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917. It took place on Red Square in Moscow the capital of the Soviet Union on November 7th 1983. Marshal of the Soviet Union and the Minister of Defence Dmitry Ustinov inspected the parade. the 1983 parade commander was the head of the Moscow Garrison Petr Lushev. Music was performed by the head of the Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union Major General Nikolai Mikhailov. Yuri Andropov the Soviet leader at the time did not attend the parade due to a sickness prior to the parade.

1987 October Revolution Parade

The 1987 October Revolution Parade was a parade on Red Square to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917. It took place in Moscow on November 7, 1987. Marshal of the Soviet Union and the Minister of Defence Dmitry Yazov inspected the parade. Commanding the parade was the commander of the Moscow Garrison Vladimir Arkhipov.

Music was performed by the head of Moscow Garrison's central band, Major General Nikolai Mikhailov. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev and other members of the Politburo were on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum in Red Square.

2nd Guards Army

The 2nd Guards Army was a field army of the Soviet Union's Red Army that fought in World War II, most notably at Stalingrad.

3rd Ukrainian Front

3rd Ukrainian Front (Ukrainian: Третій Український фронт) was a Front of the Red Army during World War II.

It was founded on 20 October 1943, on the basis of a Stavka order of October 16, 1943, by renaming the Southwestern Front. It included 1st Guards Army, 8th Guards Army, 6th, 12th, and 46th Armies and 17th Air Army. Later it included 5th Shock, 4th and 9th Guards Army, 26th, 27th, 28th, 37th, 57th Army, 6th Guards Tank Army, and the Bulgarian First, Second and Fourth Armies. The Danube Flotilla was assigned to the Front's operational control. This included the 83rd Naval Infantry Brigade.

66th Army (Soviet Union)

The 66th Army was a field army of the Red Army. It was established in August 1942 from the 8th Reserve Army. The 66th Army fought to break through to the Volga to the north of Stalingrad during September and October 1942. During Operation Uranus, the Soviet encirclement of German troops in Stalingrad, 66th Army troops linked up with those of the 62nd Army, forming the inner encirclement. Until February the army fought to destroy the pocket and then was held in reserve. In May 1943 it became the 5th Guards Army for its actions during the Battle of Stalingrad.

9th Army (Soviet Union)

The 9th Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army was a Soviet field army, active from 1939 – 43.

Battle of Debrecen

The Battle of Debrecen, called by the Red Army the Debrecen Offensive Operation, was a battle taking place 6–29 October 1944 on the Eastern Front during World War II.

The offensive was conducted by the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky. It was opposed by General Maximilian Fretter-Pico's German Sixth Army (II formation) and the allied Hungarian VII Army Corps of Army Group South Ukraine

The Axis units were forced to retreat some 160 kilometers, while opposing the 2nd Ukrainian Front which had Debrecen in Hungary as its strategic objective.

Front (military formation)

A front (Russian: фронт, front) is a type of military formation that originated in the Russian Empire, and has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army, the Soviet Army, and Turkey. It is roughly equivalent to an army group in the military of most other countries. It varies in size but in general contains three to five armies. It should not be confused with the more general usage of military front, describing a geographic area in wartime.

Malinovsky

Malinovsky (Russian: Малиновский; masculine) or Malinovskaya (Малиновская; feminine) is a Slavic surname.

Notable people with the surname include:

Mikhail Malinovsky, Hero of the Soviet Union

Rodion Malinovsky (1898–1967), Soviet military commander and the Defense Minister of the Soviet Union

Roman Malinovsky (1876–1918), agent provocateur of the Okhrana

Vasily Demut-Malinovsky (1779–1846), Russian sculptor

Vasily Malinovsky (1765–1814), Russian publicist and enlightener

Malinovsky, real last name of Alexander Bogdanov (1873–1928), Russian physician, philosopher, economist, science fiction writer, and revolutionary

Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy

The Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy (Военная академия бронетанковых войск имени Маршала Советского Союза Р. Я. Малиновского) was one of the foremost Soviet military academies. It was based in the Lefortovo district of Moscow, in a former royal palace.

The institution was established in 1932 as the "J.V. Stalin Academy of the WPRA Mechanization and Motorization Program". It was renamed after Marshal Rodion Malinovsky in 1967. Its mission was to train Soviet and Warsaw Pact commanders, staff officers, and engineers for armored and mechanized units. The best-qualified graduates were selected for the "centralized operations division" of the General Staff. Students entered as captains and majors, some as lieutenant colonels. Commanding and staff officers underwent a three year program while engineers were taught for 4 years. Notable alumni included Vasily Chuikov, Sergey Akhromeyev, Vladimir Tolubko, Boris Vasiliev, and Anatoly Kvashnin.

In 1998 the Malinovsky Academy merged with the Frunze Military Academy to become the "Combined Arms Academy".

Military academies in Russia

Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article primarily lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces.

Russian institutions called "academy" are post-graduate professional military schools for experienced, commissioned officers who have the equivalent of a bachelor's degree. Upon graduation, officers receive the equivalent of a master's degree and, if trained in military leadership are appointed as battalion commanders or higher from Lt. Colonel and up. Graduates with non-command training are appointed to various staff positions equivalent to Major or Lt. Colonel. Commissioned officers can study on the Kandidat Nauk (Russian: кандидат наук) level, equivalent to a Ph.D. degree. This research-oriented degree is required for faculty positions in military schools and defense research institutes. Carefully selected experienced researchers in military academies hold limited-term positions as senior scholars leading to the prestigious post-doctoral Doktor Nauk (Russian: доктор наук) degree, which is roughly the equivalent of a habilitation at Central European universities where it is a prerequisite for full professor positions in institutions of higher learning. There also are a number of "officer commissioning schools" for various services known as Higher Military Schools or Institutes.

As of 2010, a major reorganization of Russian military officer education, spanning the range from General Staff Academy to officer commissioning school, was underway.

Rodion

Rodion (Russian: Родион) is a Slavic masculine given name of Greek origin, which is sometimes shortened to Rod. It may refer to

Rodion Azarkhin (1931–2007), Russian musician

Rodion Cămătaru (born 1958), Romanian association football player

Rodion Davelaar (born 1990), Antillean swimmer

Rod Dyachenko (born 1983), Russian association football player

Rodion Gačanin (born 1963), Croatian association football player and coach

Rodion Kuzmin (1891–1949), Russian mathematician

Rodion Luka (born 1972), Ukrainian yachtsman

Rodion Malinovsky (1898–1967), Soviet military commander

Rodion Markovits (1888–1948), Austro-Hungarian-born writer, journalist and lawyer

Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov, the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky

Rodion Shchedrin (born 1932), Russian composer and pianist

Transbaikal Front

The Transbaikal Front (Russian: Забайкальский фронт) was a front formed on September 15, 1941 on base of the Transbaikal Military District. Initially, it included the 17th and 36th armies, but in August 1942 the 12th Air Army was added to the front, and, finally, in June–July 1945 the 39th and the 53rd armies, the 6th Guards Tank Army, and the Soviet Mongolian Cavalry Mechanized Group under Issa Pliyev.

From September 1941 to January 1945, the Transbaikal Front sent to the Soviet fronts in Europe about 300,000 personnel, 1,440 tanks, and 2,230 guns.

On November 1, 1941 the Front included the 17th Army with the 36th and 57th Motor Rifle Divisions and the 61st Tank Division, and four air divisions (two fighter, one bomber, and the 84th Mixed Aviation Division), the 36th Army with the 94th Rifle Division, the 210th Rifle Division, the 51st Cavalry Division, and the 31st and 32nd Fortified Regions, the 111th Tank Division, two independent tank battalions, and the 89th Assault Aviation Division. Front troops included the 209th Rifle Division.On May 1, 1945 the Front included the 17th Army with the 85th Rifle Corps (36th and 57th Motor Rifle Divisions), the 284th Rifle Division, another rifle unit, significant numbers of artillery units, the 61st Tank Division, the 36th Army with the 86th Rifle Corps (94th and 298th Rifle Divisions), the 209th, 210th, 278th Rifle Divisions, and 31st Fortified Region, and the 2nd Rifle Corps (103rd, 275th, 292nd Rifle Divisions) plus at front level the 293rd Rifle Division, 59th Cavalry Division, and other units.

Vetrovoye Air Base

Vetrovoye (also Sopochny Southwest) is a former Soviet Naval air base on Iturup, Russia located 66 km (41 mi) northeast of Burevestnik (Tennei before 1945). The airfield was built in the early or mid-1960s, following a directive by Defense Minister Rodion Malinovsky that every American aircraft carrier between Midway Island and the Kuril Ridge be photographed by Soviet Tupolev Tu-16R reconnaissance aircraft. At the time, Soviet Naval air assets for this region were based on Sakhalin Island. The project was commissioned by Soviet Navy commander in chief Sergey Gorshkov and completed in the mid-1960s, at which point the 50th Aviation Cavalry Regiment was relocated from Sakhalin to Vetrovoye.

At the end of the Cold War the airfield fell into disuse, and Google Earth high-resolution imagery shows the airfield to be in poor condition. The outline of the runways and tarmac is still visible from satellite imagery.

Viktor Dubynin

Viktor Petrovich Dubynin (Russian: Виктор Петрович Дубынин) was a prominent Soviet and Russian military figure, an Army General, and a Hero of the Russian Federation (posthumously).

Born in 1943, Viktor Dubynin had been in service with the Soviet Army since 1961. In 1964 he graduated from the Far Eastern Tank Academy, then from the Rodion Malinovsky Armored Forces Academy in 1978, and finally from the General Staff Academy in 1984.

From 1986 to 1987 he served as commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan.

From 1989 to 1992 he was the (penultimate) commander of the Soviet Northern Group of Forces in Poland.

On the 10th of June 1992, Dubynin was appointed by President Boris Yeltsin as Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. On the 5th of October, he became Russia's first General of the Army since the Collapse of the Soviet Union. At that moment Dubynin was already suffering from terminal cancer, so the then-Minister of Defense Pavel Grachev had to visit him at his hospital ward in order to hand Dubynin's shoulder boards over to him.

Dubynin died on 22 November 1992 after his long struggle with cancer. His grave is at Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow.

Volgograd Tractor Plant

The Volgograd Tractor Plant (Russian: Волгоградский тракторный завод, Volgogradski traktorni zavod, or ВгТЗ, VgTZ), formerly the Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Factory or the Stalingrad Tractor Plant, is a heavy equipment factory located in Volgograd, Russia. It was a site of fierce fighting during World War II's Battle of Stalingrad.

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