Rock Against Communism

Rock Against Communism (RAC) was the name of white power rock concerts in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and early 1980s,[1] and has since become the catch-all term for music with racist lyrics. The lyrics usually focus on racism and antisemitism, though this depends on the band.[2]

Rock Against Communism
Stylistic origins
Cultural originsLate 1970s, United Kingdom
Typical instruments
Other topics
Dutch RAC band Brigade M in 2009


The Rock Against Communism movement originated in the United Kingdom in late 1978 with far right activists associated with the National Front (NF).[3] It was intended to counter the Rock Against Racism organisation.[3] The first RAC concert was in Leeds, England in 1978, featuring the Nazi punk bands The Dentists and The Ventz. RAC held one concert in 1979 and another in spring 1983, which was headlined by Skrewdriver, a white power rock band led by Ian Stuart Donaldson. After that, RAC concerts were held more often. They were often headlined by Skrewdriver and featured other white power bands, such as Skullhead and No Remorse. In the mid-1980s, summer concerts were often held at the Suffolk home of Edgar Griffin, a Conservative Party activist[4] and father of Nick Griffin, an NF organiser who later became the national chair of the British National Party. By the late 1980s, the RAC name had given way to the White Noise Club (another NF-based group), and later Blood and Honour, which was set up by Donaldson when they fell out with the NF leadership.[3] As hardcore punk music became more popular in the 1990s and 2000s, many white power bands took on a more hardcore-influenced sound.

See also


  1. ^ "RAC: A Visual Database of Extremist Symbols, Logos and Tattoos". ADL. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Rock Against Communism". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  3. ^ a b c Shaffer, Ryan (2013). "The soundtrack of neo-fascism: Youth and music in the National Front". Patterns of Prejudice. 47 (4–5): 458–482. doi:10.1080/0031322X.2013.842289.
  4. ^ Fraser, Douglas (2001-08-26). "The Bigotry that won't disappear; He claims that his BNP views are". The Sunday Herald.

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma.

Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated. Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen.

Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. Platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system.

Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.

Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (also spelled haemo- and haemato-) from the Greek word αἷμα (haima) for "blood". In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen.

Nordic Thunder

Nordic Thunder was an American neo-nazi Rock Against Communism band formed in Delaware. On 30 September 1994, after a memorial festival for Ian Stuart Donaldson hosted by Resistance Records, the lead singer, Joe Rowan, was murdered by a group of black youth. Rowan subsequently became a martyr for the white power movement in America. Bands that have been influenced by Nordic Thunder include Excessive Force, which was formed in Toronto in July 1993.

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