Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁoˈbɛʁtu kaʁˈvaʎu dʒi azeˈvedu]; born 3 October 1957) is a Brazilian career diplomat and the current Director-General of the World Trade Organization. Azevêdo was elected to succeed Pascal Lamy as Director-General of the World Trade Organization in May 2013. He assumed office on 1 September 2013. He is paid a salary of 300,000 Swiss francs and an allowance of 200,000.
Roberto Azevêdo in 2013
|Director-General of the World Trade Organization|
|Assumed office |
1 September 2013
|Preceded by||Pascal Lamy|
|Born||3 October 1957|
Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
|Spouse(s)||Maria Nazareth Farani Azevêdo|
|Alma mater||University of Brasília|
Rio Branco Institute
Azevêdo graduated in Electrical Engineering from University of Brasília and International Relations at Rio Branco Institute. Besides his native Portuguese, he is fluent in English, French and Spanish.
His first diplomatic posting was to Washington in 1988. He subsequently served in the Brazilian embassy in Montevideo, Uruguay before being assigned to the Permanent Mission of Brazil in Geneva, Switzerland in 1997.
In 2001 Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo was named head of the Brazilian Foreign Ministry’s Dispute Settlement Unit where he remained until 2005. During his tenure he acted as chief litigator in many disputes at the WTO and served on WTO dispute settlement panels.
From 2006 to 2008 he was Vice-Minister for Economic and Technical Affairs at the Foreign Ministry in Brasilia. In that capacity he was Brazil's chief trade negotiator for the Doha Round and represented Brazil in MERCOSUR negotiations.
In 2008 he was appointed Brazil’s Ambassador in Geneva to the United Nations’ international organizations and Permanent Representative to the WTO.
Ambassador Azevêdo has been a frequent lecturer on topics related to international economics and has published numerous articles on these issues.
In May 2013 Azevêdo was appointed to succeed Pascal Lamy as the WTO's Director General, with a term beginning 1 September 2013. There were nine nominated candidates for the role, Azevêdo being considered the "insider's candidate" preferred by developing economies. His opponent, Mexican Herminio Blanco, was considered to have been the preferred candidate of richer nations. The Brazilian government pre-empted the official announcement of the WTO and stated that Azevêdo had won by a wide margin.
The official announcement from the WTO's three-person committee for selecting the Director-General was published on 8 May 2013, declaring Azevêdo as the emergent consensus candidate from several rounds of consultation. The formal election occurred at the General Council meeting on 14 May.
On his watch, the WTO agreed to the Bali Package in December 2013.
Azevêdo is married to Ambassador Maria Nazareth Farani Azevêdo, a Brazilian career diplomat like himself, current head of the Brazilian permanent mission to the United Nations Offices at Geneva, and has two daughters.
| Director-General of the World Trade Organization
Alejandro Jara (born 1949 in Santiago, Chile) was a Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO). He served in this position from 2005 to 2013. His career began in 1976 when he joined the Foreign Service of Chile to primarily focus on international economic relations. From 1979 to 1984, he served in the Delegation of Chile to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and was seconded to the Economic System for Latin America (SELA) in Caracas as Coordinator for Trade Policy Affairs. He was appointed Director for Bilateral Economic Affairs in 1993 and Director for Multilateral Economic Affairs in 1994. From 1996 to 1997, he was also Chile's senior official to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Deputy Chief Negotiator for the Chile-Canada Free Trade Agreement and Chile-Mexico Free Trade Agreement. In 1999, he was designated Director General for International Economic Relations. He was appointed in 2000 as Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Chile to the World Trade Organization in Geneva. From 2000 to 2005 he held various diplomatic and ministerial positions, including Chairperson of the Committee on Trade and Environment of the WTO in 2001 and Chairman of the Special Session of the Council for Trade in Services in 2002. He's written a variety of papers on international trade.Appellate Body
The Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization (WTOAB) is a standing body of seven persons that hears appeals from reports issued by panels in disputes brought on by WTO members. The WTOAB can uphold, modify or reverse the legal findings and conclusions of a panel, and Appellate Body Reports, once adopted by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), must be accepted by the parties to the dispute. The WTOAB has its seat in Geneva, Switzerland. It has been termed by at least one journalist as "effectively the supreme court of world trade".Azevedo
Azevedo is a common surname in the Portuguese language, and thus native to Portugal, Brazil, and other Lusophone nations. The etymology of "Azevedo" is usually connected to the Portuguese word "azevinho" meaning the European holly (Ilex aquifolium). Its Spanish equivalent is Acevedo. Notable people with this surname include the following:
Aluísio Azevedo, Brazilian writer
Ángela de Azevedo, 17th century Spanish and Portuguese playwright
Belmiro de Azevedo (1938–2017), Portuguese entrepreneur and the richest person in Portugal
Bento da Fonseca de Azevedo, early 18th-century Portuguese master carver
Eduardo Azevedo, Brazilian race car driver
Filipa Azevedo, Portuguese singer
Geraldo Azevedo, Brazilian singer & guitarist
José Azevedo, Portuguese professional cyclist
José Batista Pinheiro de Azevedo, Portuguese politician
Justin Azevedo, Canadian professional ice hockey player
Luiz de Azevedo, Portuguese Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia
Márcio Azevedo, Brazilian footballer
Mario Azevedo, Mozambican historian and novelist
Mateus Soares de Azevedo, Brazilian writer and journalist
Count Don Pedro Henriquez d'Azevedo y Toledo de Fuentes, Spanish general and statesman
Ricardo Azevedo, Brazilian professional water polo coach
Roberto Azevêdo, Brazilian WTO diplomat
Sérgio Azevedo, Portuguese composer
Tony Azevedo, American water polo player
Valdir Azevedo, Brazilian conductor and performer
Erik d'Azevedo, American painter and poetJason Azevedo, American chefDirector-General of the World Trade Organization
The Director-General of the World Trade Organization is responsible for supervising the administrative functions of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Because World Trade Organizations' decisions are made by member states (through either a Ministerial Conference or through the General Council), the Director-General has little power over matters of policy - the role is primarily advisory and managerial. The Director-General supervises the WTO secretariat of about 700 staff and is appointed by WTO members for a term of four years.The current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo of Brazil, since 1 September 2013.Before the creation of the WTO, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade had a series of Directors-General. Peter Sutherland was the last DG of GATT and the first of the WTO.Dispute Settlement Body
The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) makes decisions on trade disputes between governments that are adjudicated by the Organization. Its decisions generally match those of the Dispute Panel.HARDtalk
Hardtalk (styled as HARDtalk) is a BBC television and radio programme broadcast on the BBC News Channel, on BBC World News, and on BBC World Service.
Broadcast times and days vary, depending on your broadcasting platform and your geographic location. HARDtalk is also available on BBC iPlayer.List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP (nominal)
This is a list of Latin American and Caribbean countries by gross domestic product (nominal) in USD according to the International Monetary Fund's estimates in the October 2018 World Economic Outlook database.
Cuba is not included in the list due to lack of economic data. Puerto Rico is not listed since it is a U.S. territory.List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP growth
This is a list of estimates of the real gross domestic product growth rate (not rebased GDP) in Latin American and Caribbean states for the latest years recorded in the CIA World Factbook. States are not included if their latest growth estimate was for a year prior to 2014. The list contains some non-sovereign territories.Pascal Lamy
Pascal Lamy (born 8 April 1947) is a French political consultant and businessman. He was the Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) until 1 September 2013. His appointment took effect on 1 September 2005 for a four-year term. In April 2009, WTO members reappointed Lamy for a second four-year term, beginning on 1 September 2009. He was then succeeded by Roberto Azevêdo. Pascal Lamy was also European Commissioner for Trade and is an advisor for the transatlantic think-tank European Horizons, as well as currently serving as the Honorary President of the Paris-based think tank, Notre Europe.Peace Clause
Trade negotiators generally refer to Article 13 of the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Agriculture as the Peace Clause. Article 13 holds that domestic support measures and export subsidies of a WTO Member that are legal under the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture cannot be challenged by other WTO Members on grounds of being illegal under the provisions of another WTO agreement.
The Peace Clause has expired on January 1, 2004. It is now possible, therefore, for developing countries and nations favoring free trade in agricultural goods, such as the Cairns Group, to use the WTO dispute settlement mechanism in order to challenge, in particular, U.S. and EU export subsidies on agricultural products.
Another temporary peace clause was made at the WTO Bali conference in December 2013. It stipulated that no country would be legally barred from food security programs for its own people even if the subsidy breached the limits specified in the WTO Agreement on Agriculture.Singapore issues
The "Singapore issues" refers to four working groups set up during the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1996 in Singapore. These groups are tasked with these issues: transparency in government procurement, trade facilitation (customs issues), trade and investment, and trade and competition. These issues were pushed at successive Ministerials by the European Union, Japan and Korea, and opposed by most developing countries. The United States was lukewarm about the inclusion of these issues, indicating that it could accept some or all of them at various times, but preferring to focus on market access. Disagreements between largely developed and developing economies prevented a resolution in these issues, despite repeated attempts to revisit them, notably during the 2003 Ministerial Conference in Cancún, Mexico, whereby no progress was made.Since, some progress has been achieved in the area of trade facilitation. In July 2004, WTO Members formally agreed to launch negotiations. Under the mandate of the so-called "July package", Members are directed to clarify and improve GATT Article V (Freedom of Transit), Article VIII (Fees and Formalities connected with Importation and Exportation), and Article X (Publication and Administration of Trade Regulations). The negotiations also aim to enhance technical assistance and capacity building in this area and to improve effective cooperation between customs and other appropriate authorities on trade facilitation and customs compliance issues.
To date, Members have submitted a great number of proposals under the mandate which provide the basis for the ongoing negotiations. The negotiations should be completed under the overall Doha Development Agenda timeline.World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.The WTO deals with regulation of trade in goods, services and intellectual property between participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments. The WTO prohibits discrimination between trading partners, but provides exceptions for environmental protection, national security, and other important goals. Trade-related disputes are resolved by independent judges at the WTO through a dispute resolution process.The WTO's current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo, who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, Switzerland. A trade facilitation agreement, part of the Bali Package of decisions, was agreed by all members on 7 December 2013, the first comprehensive agreement in the organization's history. On 23 January 2017, the amendment to the WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement marks the first time since the organization opened in 1995 that WTO accords have been amended, and this change should secure for developing countries a legal pathway to access affordable remedies under WTO rules.Studies show that the WTO boosted trade, and that barriers to trade would be higher in the absence of the WTO. The WTO has highly influenced the text of trade agreements, as "nearly all recent [preferential trade agreements (PTAs)] reference the WTO explicitly, often dozens of times across multiple chapters... in many of these same PTAs we find that substantial portions of treaty language—sometime the majority of a chapter—is copied verbatim from a WTO agreement."World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1996
The World Trade Organization's Ministerial Conference of 1996 was held in Singapore on December 9 - December 13, 1996. The inaugural meeting for the organisation since its formation. The event was hosted by the government of Singapore at the Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre in Suntec City.
The conference established four permanent working groups: transparency in government procurement, trade facilitation (customs issues), trade and investment, and trade and competition. These groups collectively are called the Singapore issues.World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1998
The Second Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization was held in Geneva, Switzerland between 18 and 20 May 1998.World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2009
The WTO General Council, on 26 May 2009, agreed to hold a seventh WTO ministerial conference session in Geneva from 30 November - 3 December 2009. A statement by chairman Amb. Mario Matus acknowledged that the prime purpose was to remedy a breach of protocol requiring two-yearly "regular" meetings, which had lapsed with the Doha Round failure in 2005, and that the "scaled-down" meeting would not be a negotiating session, but "emphasis will be on transparency and open discussion rather than on small group processes and informal negotiating structures". The general theme for discussion is "The WTO, the Multilateral Trading System and the Current Global Economic Environment".World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2011
The WTO General Council held an eighth WTO ministerial conference session in Geneva from 15–3 December 2011.
Membership agreement where made for Russia, Samoa, and Montenegro, dependent on the ratification of those countries. The consent of Russia`s membership was seen as important, since the country had been the largest major economy outside the organization since the accession of China in 2001.World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2013
The Ninth World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference was held in Bali, Indonesia from 3 to 7 December 2013. The conference was chaired by the Indonesian Trade Minister Gita Wirjawan.In this conference, 159 members of World Trade Organization agreed to the Bali Package which aims to ease barriers to international trade.Yemen's agreement was also registered, dependent on the country's membership ratification.World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2015
The Tenth World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya from 15 to 19 December 2015. The conference was chaired by the Kenyan Foreign Affairs Minister Amina Mohamed.Afghanistan and Liberia acceded to the WTO, bringing the total membership of the organization to 164, with the total number of least-developed countries who have joined since 1995 rising to nine.World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2017
The 11th World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 11 to 13 December 2017. It was chaired by Minister Susana Malcorra of Argentina. The Conference ended with a number of ministerial decisions, including on fisheries subsidies and e-commerce duties, and a commitment to continue negotiations in all areas. The conference also led to the formation of working party to enable faster induction of South Sudan in the WTO.