Audouin Charles Dollfus (November 12, 1924 – October 1, 2010) was a French astronomer and aeronaut, specialist in studies of the Solar System and discoverer of Janus, a moon of Saturn.Captain Video and His Video Rangers
Captain Video and His Video Rangers was an American science fiction television series aired on the DuMont Television Network, and was the first series of its genre on American television.
The series aired between June 27, 1949, and April 1, 1955, originally on Monday through Saturday at 7 p.m. ET, and then Monday through Friday at 7 p.m. ET. A separate 30-minute spinoff series called The Secret Files of Captain Video, aired Saturday mornings, alternating with Tom Corbett, Space Cadet, from September 5, 1953, to May 29, 1954, a total of 20 episodes.
Researcher Alan Morton estimates there was a total of 1,537 episodes (counting the 20 Saturday morning episodes), although few of them exist after the destruction of the original broadcasts, which was commonplace at that time. Sponsors included Post Cereals, Skippy Peanut Butter, DuMont-brand television sets and Power House candy bars. Premiums sold via the show included a flying saucer ring, a "secret seal" ring, cast photos, electronic goggles, a "secret ray gun," a rocket ship key chain, decoders, membership cards, and a set of 12 plastic spacemen.Clyde Tombaugh
Clyde William Tombaugh (; February 4, 1906 – January 17, 1997) was an American astronomer. He discovered Pluto in 1930, the first object to be discovered in what would later be identified as the Kuiper belt. At the time of discovery, Pluto was considered a planet but was later controversially reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006. Tombaugh also discovered many asteroids. He also called for the serious scientific research of unidentified flying objects, or UFOs.Discontinued Hugo Awards
The Hugo Awards are presented every year by the World Science Fiction Society for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The award is named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, and was once officially known as the Science Fiction Achievement Award. The award has been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing". In addition to the regular awards that have been given in most years that the awards have been active, several discontinued Hugo Awards have been presented throughout the years, only to be removed after a few years.
When the Hugo awards were begun in 1953, each Worldcon organizing committee decided what awards they would give. Several awards were presented over the next few years which were not repeated in later conventions, unlike the primary categories which are still presented—such as Best Novel. These awards were the Best Cover Artist, Best Interior Illustrator, Excellence in Fact Articles, Best New SF Author or Artist, and #1 Fan Personality Hugos at the initial 1953 awards ceremony, the Best Feature Writer, Best Book Reviewer, and Most Promising New Author awards in 1956, the Outstanding Actifan award in 1958, and the Best New Author of 1958 award in 1959.In 1961, however, formal rules were set down for which categories would be awarded, which could only be changed by the World Science Fiction Society membership through the annual Business Meeting. Despite this, the 1964 convention awarded a Hugo Award for the Best SF Book Publisher, which was not on that list. Immediately afterward the guidelines were changed to allow individual conventions to create additional categories, which was codified as up to two categories for that year. These additional awards were officially designated as Hugo Awards, but were not required to be repeated by future conventions. This was later adjusted to only allow one additional category. The Best SF Book Publisher award was repeated in 1965, and the Best All-Time Series award was given in 1966. No other additional categories were added by 1974, when the guidelines were changed again to allow up to ten categories which would be chosen by each convention, though they were expected to be similar to those presented in the year before. Despite this change no new awards were added or previous awards removed before the guidelines were changed back to listing specific categories.The next discontinued Hugo award was the Other Forms award, given in 1988. It was followed in 1990 by the Best Original Art Work award, which was listed again as a special award in 1991, though not actually awarded, and instated afterward as an official Hugo Award. It was then removed from this status in 1996, and has not been awarded since. The Best Web Site special Hugo award, which was given in 2002 and 2005, was the latest special award given prior to the Best Series special award, given in 2017 in advance of it being ratified as a standard category for the following year.Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with five nominees, except in the case of a tie. These five works on the ballot are those most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of works that can be nominated. The 1953 and 1958 awards did not include any recognition of runner-up nominees, but since 1959 all five candidates have been recorded. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of five nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Worldcons are generally held near Labor Day, and in a different city around the world each year. Members are permitted to vote "no award", if they feel that none of the nominees is deserving of the award that year, and in the case that "no award" takes the majority the Hugo is not given in that category. The only time this has happened in the discontinued awards was in the 1959 Best New Author category.Five Against Venus
Five Against Venus, written by Philip Latham, is a science-fiction novel first published in the United States in 1952 by the John C. Winston Company. Philip Latham was the nom de plume of Robert S. Richardson, a professional astronomer who also provided technical assistance on movies such as Destination Moon and wrote scripts for the Captain Video television series.This is one of the thirty-five juvenile novels that comprise the Winston Science Fiction set, which novels were published in the 1950s for a readership of teenage boys. The typical protagonist in these books was a boy in his late teens who was proficient in the art of electronics, a hobby that was easily available to the readers. In this novel, Bruce Robinson differs from that pattern in having no special skill, only a knowledge of astronomy.
Under the article on Venus in the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, the writer says that "Philip Latham's Five Against Venus (1952) is a Venusian Robinsonade." Indeed, in overall form the story is Swiss Family Robinson in space, though the precipitating crisis owes more to the 1950 movie Rocketship X-M.Flowing Wells Unified School District
The Flowing Wells Unified School District is a unified school district headquartered at 1556 West Prince Road, Tucson, Arizona. It serves much of Flowing Wells, as well as bits of Tucson, Marana, Cortaro, Casas Adobes, & unnamed, unincorporated parts of Pima County. The district does practice open enrollment for students outside of district boundaries, provided said students maintain certain academic performance.
It serves some 6,000 students in ten schools. It was founded in 1889 as the Rillito School District and changed in 1928 due to an error in documentation in the Arizona School Directory. Its superintendent is Dr. David Baker. In fiscal year 2016, the district had a budget of approximately $30 millionThe district has one early learning center, six elementary schools, one junior high school, and two high schools.Great Science Fiction by Scientists
Great Science Fiction by Scientists is an anthology of science fiction short stories edited by Groff Conklin. It was first published in paperback by Collier Books in 1962; it was reprinted twice in that year and again in 1966, 1967, 1968, 1970 and 1978.The book collects sixteen novellas, novelettes and short stories by various science fiction authors who also happened to be actual scientists, together with an introduction by the editor. The stories were previously published from 1926-1961 in various science fiction and other magazines.Kokomo, Indiana
Kokomo is a city in and the county seat of Howard County, Indiana, United States. Kokomo is Indiana's 13th-largest city. It is the principal city of the Kokomo, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Howard county. Kokomo's population was 46,113 at the 2000 census, and 45,468 at the 2010 census. On January 1, 2012, Kokomo successfully annexed more than 7 square miles (18 km2) on the south and west sides of the city, including Alto and Indian Heights, increasing the city's population to nearly 57,000 people.Named for the Miami Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo who was called "Chief Kokomo", Kokomo first benefited from the legal business associated with being the county seat. Before the Civil War, it was connected with Indianapolis and then the Eastern cities by railroad, which resulted in sustained growth. Substantial growth came after the discovery of large natural gas reserves, which produced a boom in the mid-1880s. Among the businesses which the boom attracted was the fledgling automobile industry. A significant number of technical and engineering innovations were developed in Kokomo, particularly in automobile production, and, as a result, Kokomo became known as the "City of Firsts." A substantial portion of Kokomo's employment still depends on the automobile industry.Latham (surname)
Latham (pronounced 'lay-thm') is an Old Scandinavian surname.List of science fiction novels
This is a list of science fiction novels, novel series, and collections of linked short stories. It includes modern novels, as well as novels written before the term "science fiction" was in common use. This list includes novels not marketed as SF but still considered to be substantially science fiction in content by some critics, such as Nineteen Eighty Four. As such, it is an inclusive list, not an exclusive list based on other factors such as level of notability or literary quality. Books are listed in alphabetical order by title, ignoring the leading articles "A", "An", and "The". Novel series are alphabetical by author-designated name or, if there is none, the title of the first novel in the series or some other reasonable designation.Missing Men of Saturn
Missing Men of Saturn is a juvenile science fiction novel, published first in 1953, by astronomer and author Robert S. Richardson (as Philip Latham) with cover illustration by Alex Schomburg. The story concerns Dale Sutton's mission to the dreaded planet Saturn from which no one has ever returned. Missing Men of Saturn is a part of the Winston Science Fiction set, a series of juvenile novels which have become famous for their influence on young science fiction readers and their exceptional cover illustrations by award-winning artists.Orbit (anthology series)
Orbit was an American long-running series of anthologies of new fiction edited by Damon Knight, often featuring work by such writers as Gene Wolfe, Joanna Russ, R. A. Lafferty, and Kate Wilhelm, who was married to Knight. The anthologies tended toward the avant-garde edge of science fiction, but by no means exclusively; occasionally the volumes would feature some nonfiction critical writing or humorous anecdotes by Knight. Inspired by Frederik Pohl's Star Science Fiction series, and in its turn an influence on Harlan Ellison's Dangerous Visions volumes and many others, it ran for over a decade and twenty-one volumes, not including a "Best-of" collection which covered the years 1966-1976.Richard C. Hoagland
Richard Charles Hoagland (born April 25, 1945), is an American author, and a proponent of various conspiracy theories about NASA, lost alien civilizations on the Moon and on Mars and other related topics.
His writings claim that advanced civilizations exist or once existed on the Moon, Mars and on some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and that NASA and the United States government have conspired to keep these facts secret. Although the government will soon disclose this information, says Hoagland, he believes he is ahead of the curve. He has advocated his ideas in two published books, videos, lectures, interviews, and press conferences.Hoagland has been described by James Oberg of The Space Review, Phil Plait of Badastronomy.com, and Ralph Greenberg, a professor at the University of Washington, as a conspiracy theorist and fringe pseudoscientist. His book publisher describes him as "a unique mixture of amateur scientist, genius inventor, scam artist, and performer, blending true, legitimate speculative science with his own extrapolations, tall tales, and inflations."Robert Richardson
Robert Richardson may refer to:
Robert Richardson (cinematographer) (born 1955), American cinematographer
Robert Richardson (travel writer) (1779–1847), British medical doctor and author of a travelogue
Robert Richardson (religion) (1806–1876), American medical doctor and religious leader
Robert Richardson Jr. (racing driver) (born 1982), American racing car driver
Robert Richardson (Labour politician) (1862–1943), British Labour Party Member of Parliament, 1918–1931
Robert Richardson (basketball), American basketball coach for the Utah Utes
Robert Richardson (poet) (1850–1901), Australian poet
Robert Richardson (Lord Treasurer) (died 1578), Scottish cleric and administrator
Robert Richardson (British Army officer) (1929–2014)
Robert Richardson (RAAF officer) (born 1941)
Robert A. Richardson (1827–1895), American lawyer and justice for the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals
Robert Coleman Richardson (1937–2013), American physicist, 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics
Robert C. Richardson, Jr. (1882–1954), United States Army General who served during World Wars I and II
Robert C. Richardson III (1918–2011), U.S. Army officer
Robert D. Richardson (born 1934), American historian
Robert Lorne Richardson (1860–1921), Canadian journalist
Robert S. Richardson (1902–1981), American astronomer and science fiction writer (as Philip Latham)
Robert V. Richardson (1820–1870), Confederate States Army general in the American Civil War
Robert W. Richardson (1910–2007), editor of Narrow Gauge News
Robert Richardson (sitting volleyball) (born 1982), captain of the Great Britain sitting volleyball team
Robert Richardson (alpine skier) (1927–2004), Canadian alpine skierThe Xi Effect
The Xi Effect is a science fiction short story by American astronomer and author Robert S. Richardson (as (Philip Latham).
It was published first in 1950 in Astounding Science Fiction
It has often been anthologised, appearing among the others in The Golden Age of Science Fiction, edited by Kingsley Amis (1981).Themis (hypothetical moon)
On April 28, 1905, William H. Pickering, who had seven years earlier discovered Phoebe, announced the discovery of a tenth satellite of Saturn, which he promptly named Themis. The photographic plates on which it supposedly appeared, thirteen in all, spanned a period between April 17 and July 8, 1904. However, no other astronomer has ever confirmed Pickering's claim.
Pickering attempted to compute an orbit, which showed a fairly high inclination (39.1° to the ecliptic), fairly large eccentricity (0.23) and a semi-major axis (1,457,000 kilometres (905,000 mi)) slightly less than that of Hyperion. The period was supposedly 20.85 days, with prograde motion.
Pickering estimated the diameter at 61 kilometres (38 mi), but since he also gave 68 kilometres (42 mi) as the diameter of Phoebe, he was clearly overestimating the albedo; using the modern figure for Phoebe gives Themis a diameter of 200 kilometres (120 mi).
Oddly, in April 1861, Hermann Goldschmidt had also believed that he had discovered a new satellite of Saturn between Titan and Hyperion, which he called Chiron. Chiron also does not exist (however, the name was used much later for the comet/asteroid 2060 Chiron).
Pickering was awarded the Lalande Prize of the French Academy of Sciences in 1906 for his "discovery of the ninth and tenth satellites of Saturn".
The actual tenth satellite of Saturn (in order of discovery) was Janus, which was discovered in 1966 and confirmed in 1980. Its orbit is far from the supposed orbit of Themis.
There is also an asteroid named 24 Themis.Winston Science Fiction
Winston Science Fiction was a series of 37 American juvenile science fiction books published by the John C. Winston Company of Philadelphia from 1952 to 1960 and by its successor Holt, Rinehart & Winston in 1960 and 1961. It included 35 novels by various writers, including many who became famous in the SF field, such as Poul Anderson, Arthur C. Clarke, Ben Bova, and Lester del Rey. There was also one anthology, The Year After Tomorrow, edited by del Rey and others. There was one non-fiction book Rockets through Space: The Story of Man's Preparations to Explore the Universe by del Rey which details the factual science and technology of rocket flight. Many of the dust jackets became science fiction classics; the artists included Hugo Award winners Ed Emshwiller and Virgil Finlay along with Hugo nominees such as Mel Hunter and Alex Schomburg.