Robert Row

Robert "Bob" Row (1915–1999) was an English fascist from Lancaster, a member of Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists (BUF) who was detained by the British government under Defence Regulation 18B during the Second World War. After the war he wrote and edited British fascist publications and remained a believer in Mosleyism until his death

Robert Row
Robert Row

Early life

Robert Row was born in 1915.[1] His father worked for Waring & Gillow and was sent to Cuba to decorate the House of Assembly.[2] He left school in 1931, by his own account during the Sterling crisis of that year when Britain left the Gold Standard. In 1998, he recalled a succession of low-paid jobs and an environment of boarded-up shops in his local high street during his youth. "The times were desperate and after more of the same I joined the Blackshirts in 1934" (the BUF).[3]

Fascist career

In Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists, Row saw policies that would put Britain first and "banish the slump".[3] He became highly active in the movement but with the outbreak of the Second World War, he was detained by the British government under the newly introduced Defence Regulation 18B.[4] He spent time at Walton jail. He was also held for a time at a prison camp near Huyton where the most prominent inmate was John Beckett. The two associated freely during their incarceration, although they argued regularly, Beckett having left the BUF in 1938.[5] He was released while the war was still on and joined the British Army, serving in Palestine.[2]

After the war, Row worked as an agricultural labourer in Surrey and began to send articles to Union, organ of the Union Movement, successor to the BUF, which was edited by Alexander Raven Thomson. In the early 1950s, Thomson appointed Row as deputy editor of Union and he became editor after Thomson's death in 1955. The paper became The National European in 1964 and Action in 1966 before the Union Movement also changed its party name to Action in 1973. He was editor of all of these titles until the closure of Sanctuary Press in 1992.[2] He also edited Lodestar with Jeffrey Hamm from 1985 to 1992.[6]

Row was assaulted or intimidated several times during his fascist activities. In 1963, six young men of the anti-fascist Yellow Star Movement broke into the Union Movement headquarters at 302 Vauxhall Bridge Road and assaulted Row and Keith Gibson, the movement's political secretary.[7] All six were arrested and later fined (one aged 16 was bound over) at the Old Bailey after pleading guilty to assault and causing damage to property.[8] According to testimony, Row was made to kneel on the floor and rip up copies of Action.[9] Both Row and Gibson required hospital treatment.[10] Soon after, according to Comrade, he was attacked again by the same group on his way home from work.[2]

Row was close to Raven Thomson politically and in the early 1950s supported his view that the Union Movement should move closer to the neo-Nazism that was gaining some support in Germany, rather than Mosley's unpopular "Europe a Nation" policy.[11] Later, with Jeffrey Hamm, he was a key figure in Action.[12] Increasingly, in the post-war decades, Row through his writings became a unifying force for the dwindling and ageing band of former BUF members as the movement engaged less in political action and more in rhetoric and nostalgia for the BUF.


Row remained a committed fascist until his death, continuing to contribute to publications of the offshoots of the BUF until the end, such as Comrade, newsletter of the Friends of Oswald Mosley. He died in 1999 after a minor operation. He was 83. His ashes were scattered by his niece in Lancashire at a site where he and his brothers cycled in his youth.[2] He never married.

Selected publications

  • Union Movement – The answer to the slump. Union, London, c. 1948.
  • Sir Oswald Mosley: British patriot and national European. European Action, n.d.
  • The coloured question in Britain: Cause and solution. Sanctuary Press, n.d.


  1. ^ "British Union of Fascists (act. 1932–1940)", Julie V. Gottlieb, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, online edition. Retrieved 20 November 2015. (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c d e "One of those Blackshirts", Comrade, No. 53, December 2000, pp. 2–3.
  3. ^ a b "Testimony of faith" by Robert Row in Comrade, No. 48, 7 February 1998, pp. 2–3.
  4. ^ Warburton, John & Jeffrey Wallder. (2008) The Defence Regulation 18B British Union Detainees List. Revised edition. Friends of Oswald Mosley. p. 7.
  5. ^ Beckett, Francis. (1999) The rebel who lost his cause: The tragedy of John Beckett, MP. London: Allison and Busby. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-1902809045
  6. ^ Gottlieb, Julie V.; Linehan, Thomas P. (Eds.) (2004). The culture of fascism: Visions of the far right in Britain. London & New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 232. ISBN 9781860647987.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  7. ^ "Two Hurt in Raid on Mosley H.Q.", The Times, 13 May 1963, p. 12.
  8. ^ "Raiders of Mosley H.Q. Fined", The Times, 23 July 1963, p. 13.
  9. ^ "Editor "Made To Kneel", The Times, 5 June 1963, p. 16.
  10. ^ Hann, David. (2013). Physical Resistance: A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism. Winchester: Zero Books. ISBN 9781780991771.
  11. ^ Macklin, Graham (2007). Very deeply dyed in black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the resurrection of British fascism after 1945. London & New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-84511-284-4.
  12. ^ Barberis, Peter; John McHugh; Mike Tyldesley (2000). Encyclopedia of British and Irish political organizations: Parties, groups and movements of the 20th century. London & New York: Pinter. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8264-5814-8.
1919 Birthday Honours (MC)

This is a list of Military Crosses (MC) awards in the 1919 Birthday Honours.

The 1919 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, and were published in The London Gazette from 3 June to 12 August. The vast majority of the awards were related to the recently ended War, and were divided by military campaigns. A supplementary list of honours, retroactive to the King's birthday, was released in December 1919.

36th Battalion (New Zealand)

The 36th Battalion was an infantry battalion of the New Zealand Military Forces, which served during the Second World War. Attached to the 8th Brigade, New Zealand 3rd Division, the battalion was formed in late 1941 and saw service in the Pacific against the Japanese. They were initially used for garrison duties on Fiji and Norfolk Island before being committed to the fighting in the Solomon Islands in 1943. The battalion was disbanded in late 1944 as part of a partial demobilisation of New Zealand forces, which saw some of its personnel being returned to civilian employment while others were sent to Italy as reinforcements for the New Zealand 2nd Division.

3rd Division (New Zealand)

The 3rd New Zealand Division was a division of the New Zealand Military Forces. Formed in 1942, it saw action against the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean Areas during the Second World War. The division saw action in the Solomon Islands campaign during 1943–1944, during which it undertook landings on Vella Lavella, the Treasury Islands and the Green Islands. Due to manpower shortages, for most of its existence the division consisted of only two infantry brigades in addition to support personnel, with its third brigade being disbanded shortly after formation. In 1944, manpower shortages in the New Zealand economy became acute led to the disbandment of the division. The majority of its manpower was returned to civilian employment, although around 4,000 men were sent to Italy to reinforce the 2nd Division, seeing further action before the end of the war in May 1945.

8th Brigade (New Zealand)

The 8th Brigade was a formation of the New Zealand Military Forces, which served during the Second World War as part of the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force. Eventually forming part of the 3rd Division, the brigade served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of the war. Raised in late 1940, initially the brigade was employed on garrison duties on Fiji before returning to New Zealand in mid-1942. In December 1942, it was sent to New Caledonia where they remained until early September 1943, when they moved to Guadalcanal to prepare for operations in the Solomon Islands. The brigade's only combat operation of the war came in October–November 1943, when it captured the Treasury Islands. It was disbanded in late 1944 due to manpower shortages in the New Zealand economy.

Adam Marshall Diston

Adam Marshall Diston (1893–1956; born in Scotland) was a journalist for the Sunday Dispatch and ghostwriter for Winston Churchill. He had 'close affinities' to Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists. He had a military background, serving in a Scottish regiment from 1914-1918.

Battle of the Treasury Islands

The Battle of the Treasury Islands was a Second World War battle that took place between 27 October and 12 November 1943 on the Treasury Islands group, part of the Solomon Islands. The battle formed part of the wider Pacific War and involved New Zealand and US forces fighting against Japanese troops. The majority of the ground forces were provided by the New Zealand 3rd Division.

The Allied invasion of the Japanese held island group intended to secure Mono and Stirling Islands so that a radar station could be constructed on the former and the latter be used as a staging area for an assault on Bougainville. The attack on the Treasury Islands would serve the long term Allied strategy of isolating Bougainville and Rabaul and the elimination of the Japanese garrison in the area.

Bougainville Campaign

The Bougainville Campaign was a series of land and naval battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II between Allied forces and the Empire of Japan. It was part of Operation Cartwheel, the Allied grand strategy in the South Pacific. The campaign took place in the Northern Solomons in two phases. The first phase, in which American troops landed and held the perimeter around the beachhead at Torokina, lasted from November 1943 through November 1944. The second phase, in which primarily Australian troops went on the offensive, mopping up pockets of starving, isolated but still-determined Japanese, lasted from November 1944 until August 1945, when the last Japanese soldiers on the island surrendered. Operations during the final phase of the campaign saw the Australian forces advance north towards the Bonis Peninsula and south towards the main Japanese stronghold around Buin, although the war ended before these two enclaves were completely destroyed.

Brixton (London County Council constituency)

Brixton was a constituency used for elections to the London County Council between 1919 and the council's abolition, in 1965. The seat shared boundaries with the UK Parliament constituency of the same name.

Cove, Devon

Cove is a small village in the county of Devon, England. It is situated 4 miles north of Tiverton and 2 miles from Bampton in the Exe Valley some 450 feet above sea level. Cove was formed into an ecclesiastical parish in 1886. The church of St. John the Baptist, erected in 1856 on the site of an earlier building, is an edifice of stone in the plain Gothic style consisting of chancel, nave and vestry. Services ceased in 1987 and the building and former churchyard are now a private residence. The register dates from the years 1680 to 1987. The Exe Valley Railway used to run through the village and you can still see the platform and old station house which is currently lived in.

The manor of Cove was acquired in 1763 by Robert Row of Livingshayes, Silverton, from Thomas Carew of Crowcombe, Somerset. Cove House, erected in 1800, is a pillared Bath stone mansion, standing on an elevated plateau, surrounded by park land and woodland with panoramic views of the valley.

The Cove Estate, along with the fishing rights, was sold in 1922 by the North-Row family and gave the opportunity for many tenants to acquire the freehold of their properties.

English Defence League

The English Defence League (EDL) is a far-right, Islamophobic organisation in the United Kingdom. A social movement and pressure group that employs street demonstrations as its main tactic, the EDL presents itself as a single-issue movement opposed to Islamism and Islamic extremism, although its rhetoric and actions target Islam and Muslims more widely. Founded in 2009, its heyday lasted until 2011, after which it entered a decline. It is presently chaired by Tim Ablitt.

Established in London, the EDL coalesced around several football hooligan firms protesting the public presence of the small Salafi Islamist group Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah in Luton, Bedfordshire. Tommy Robinson, a former member of the British National Party (BNP), soon became its de facto leader. The organisation grew swiftly, holding demonstrations across England and often clashing with anti-fascist protesters from Unite Against Fascism and other groups, who deemed it a racist organisation victimising British Muslims. The EDL also established a strong social media presence on Facebook and YouTube. Moving towards electoral politics, it established formal links with the far-right British Freedom Party, a breakaway from the BNP. The EDL's reputation was damaged in 2011 after supporters were convicted of plotting to bomb mosques and links were revealed with Norwegian far-right terrorist Anders Breivik. In 2013 Robinson—supported by the Quilliam think tank—left the group; he claimed it had become too extreme, and established the rival Pegida UK. The group's membership declined significantly following Robinson's departure and various branches declared independence.

Ideologically on the extreme-right or far-right of British politics, the EDL is part of the international counter-jihad movement. Officially, it presents itself as being opposed to Islamism, Islamic extremism, and jihadism, although its rhetoric repeatedly conflates these with Islam and Muslims more broadly. Rejecting the idea that Muslims can truly be English, the EDL presents Islam as an intolerant, primitive threat seeking to take over Europe. Political scientists and other commentators have characterised this Islamophobic stance as culturally racist. Both online and at its events, EDL members have incited violence against Muslims, with supporters carrying out violent acts both at demonstrations and independently. The EDL's broader ideology features nationalism and populism, blaming a perceived decline in English culture on high immigration rates and an uncaring political elite. It distinguished itself from Britain's traditional far-right by rejecting biological racism, anti-Semitism, and homophobia. Although several of its leaders were previously involved in fascist organisations and some neo-Nazis and other fascists attended EDL events, commentators differ on whether the EDL itself is ideologically fascist or not.

Headed by a small leadership team, the EDL sub-divided into over 90 local and thematic divisions, each with considerable autonomy. Its support base consisted primarily of young, working-class white British men, some from established far-right and football hooligan subcultures. Polls indicated that most UK citizens opposed the EDL, and the group was repeatedly challenged by anti-fascist groups. Many local councils and police forces discouraged EDL marches, citing the high financial cost of policing them, the disruptive influence on community harmony, and the damage caused to counter-terrorism operations.

Football Lads Alliance

The Football Lads Alliance (FLA) is a movement in the United Kingdom founded by John Meighan in 2017. According to The Times, "the movement was set up as a self-proclaimed 'anti-extremist' movement" but has increasingly become associated with far-right politics and far-right activists.The Premier League has warned clubs that "the group is using fans and stadiums to push an anti-Muslim agenda". Concern has also been expressed that the Alliance is "giving cover to the far right" and "uses a secret Facebook page full of violent, racist and misogynistic posts".

Jeffrey Hamm

Edward Jeffrey Hamm (15 September 1915 – 4 May 1992) was a leading British Fascist and supporter of Oswald Mosley. Although a minor figure in Mosley's pre-war movement he became a leading figure after the Second World War and eventually succeeded as leader of the Union Movement on Mosley's retirement.

John Greig (minister)

John Greig was a 17th century Presbyterian minister from Scotland.

He was the minister of Skirling, a small parish in the western side of Peebles-shire, subsequent to the year 1649. Anderson relates that "of his history while in that charge, as well as during the earlier part of his life, nothing is now known."

Greig was ejected from Skirling by the Act of 1662. Ten years later we find him incumbent of Carstairs, as one of the indulged ministers, and tied down to preach nowhere but within the bounds of that parish. With this restriction, Greig could not agree. He went "afield" and held conventicles at Boghall, Leith, and other parts. In 1675 he was apprehended, at Leith, while conducting a meeting in the house of Thomas Stark, his brother-in-law, and committed to the Tolbooth of Edinburgh. Having been brought before the Privy Council on 9 March 1675, Greig was ordered to the Bass.Meanwhile, that sentence was not carried out, and he remained in the Tolbooth, preaching to his fellow-prisoners whenever an opportunity presented itself. Shortly after he was set at liberty on condition that he would, as an indulged minister, "live orderly," and confine his ministrations to the parish of Carstairs, under a penalty of two thousand merks, in the event of default. But, Greig again soon fell through his obligations and was present at conventicles, beyond the bounds of his parish. Summoned to compear before the Lords of Council, he failed to "show face," and was, in consequence thereof, deprived of all his ecclesiastical rights. He was, however, shortly afterwards reinstated. For the next seven years Greig drops out of view. But, on 8 October, we find him again in "deep waters" owing to his refusal to commemorate the Anniversary of the Restoration of Charles II. and to join in a day of National Thanksgiving for the "deliverance of His Majesty’s sacred person" from the Rye-house Plot. Because of these and other acts of recalcitration, he was relegated to the Bass about the beginning of May, 1685. Here he remained for about 14 months. He petitioned for release, on the score of health. The Council, on 15 July, having heard and considered this petition, "grant warrant to the Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of the Bass to set the petitioner at liberty; he, first finding caution, under the penalty of five thousand merks Scots money, to compear before the Council upon Tuesday next, the 20th instant, or that day to enter his person in prison within the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, or Canongate under the foresaid penalty in case of failure." He was liberated along with William Spence.

From this time until his death—the date of which is uncertain—Greig appears to have eaten "humble pie," as he was constantly "appearing" before "My Lords" in order to ensure the continuance of his liberty.He was present at the first meeting of ministers in the bounds of Lothian and Tweeddale on 6 July 1687, after Toleration had been granted. He died on 17 May 1689, aged about 71.

John Warburton (fascist)

John Warburton (30 April 1919 – 26 August 2004) was an English fascist and press photographer. He was an assistant district leader for the Clapham branch of Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists (BUF) before the Second World War, and afterwards was a key member of the Union Movement, the founder editor of Comrade, and the senior Council member of Friends of Oswald Mosley.

Row (surname)

Row is a surname. Notable people by that name include:

John Row, was a Scottish historian.

John Row (poet) (born 1947), English storyteller.

John Row (MP) for Totnes.

Robert Row (1915–1999), English fascist.

Sharon Ebanks

Sharon Elizabeth Ebanks (born 1967 or 1968) is a former member of the British National Party and one of the founder members of the New Nationalist Party. In 2006, she was wrongly declared elected to Birmingham City Council.

The Link (UK organization)

The Link was established in July 1937 as an 'independent non-party organisation to promote Anglo-German friendship'. It generally operated as a cultural organisation, although its journal, the Anglo-German Review, reflected the pro-Nazi views of Barry Domvile, and particularly in London it attracted a number of anti-semites and pro-Nazis. At its height the membership numbered around 4,300.

The Link was opposed to war between Britain and Germany, and because of this attracted the support of some British pacifists. When The Link and the Anglo-German Review were included among a number of peace organisations across the political spectrum in the Peace Service Handbook (a publication put out by the Peace Pledge Union), the Daily Telegraph and The News Chronicle published articles accusing the PPU of supporting Nazism. In response, PPU member Stuart Morris wrote to the papers stating there was no connection between the PPU and The Link, and that the former organisation did not support the German demand for colonies or peace at the expense of smaller nations. The PPU also sent a letter to its group leaders dissociating The Link from the PPU, and ceased publishing the Peace Service Handbook.The organisation was investigated by Maxwell Knight, head of counter-subversion in MI5 and future role model for James Bond's boss M. The organisation closed shortly after the start of World War II in 1939.

Barry Domvile was interned in 1940 as someone who might "endanger the safety of the realm".According to Anthony Masters, the Link was allegedly resurrected in 1940 by Ian Fleming, then working in the Department of Naval Intelligence, in order to successfully lure Rudolf Hess (deputy party leader and third in leadership of Germany, after Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring) to Britain in May 1941.

Union Movement

The Union Movement (UM) was a far-right political party founded in Britain by Oswald Mosley. Where Mosley had been associated with a peculiarly British form of fascism, the Union Movement attempted to redefine the concept by stressing the importance of developing a European nationalism rather than narrower country-based nationalisms. The UM has therefore been characterised as an attempt by Mosley to start again in his political life by embracing more democratic and international policies, than those with which he had previously been associated. The UM has been described as post-fascist by former members such as Robert Edwards, the founder of the pro-Mosley European Action UK pressure group.

W. G. Barlow

W. G. Barlow was a Royal Flying Corps pilot during the First World War, a racing driver in the 1920s, and a fascist before and after the Second World War. He was detained by the British government under Defence Regulation 18B during the Second World War.

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