Robert (Bob) Melancton Metcalfe (born April 7, 1946) is an engineer-entrepreneur from the United States who helped pioneer the Internet starting in 1970, co-invented Ethernet, co-founded 3Com and formulated Metcalfe's law. Starting in January 2011, he is Professor of Innovation and Entrepreneurship at The University of Texas at Austin. He is also the Murchison Fellow of Free Enterprise.
Robert Melancton Metcalfe
Robert Metcalfe wearing the US National Medal of Technology (2003)
|Born||April 7, 1946|
Brooklyn, New York, United States
|Alma mater||MIT - B.S. Electrical Engineering, B.S. Industrial Management, 1969 |
Harvard University - M.S. Applied Mathematics, 1970; Ph.D. Computer Science (Applied Mathematics), 1973
|Known for||Internet pioneer, Ethernet inventor, 3Com founder, Metcalfe's Law|
|Fields||Computer networking |
Innovation and Entrepreneurship
|Institutions||MIT, Xerox PARC, 3Com, IDG/InfoWord, Polaris Venture Partners, The University of Texas at Austin.|
|Thesis||Packet Communication (1973)|
|Doctoral advisor||Jeffrey P. Buzen|
Robert Metcalfe was born in 1946 in Brooklyn, New York. His father was a gyroscope test technician, who specialized in gyroscopes. His mother was a homemaker but later became the secretary at Bay Shore High School. In 1964, Metcalfe graduated from Bay Shore High School to join the MIT Class of 1968. He finally graduated from MIT in 1969 with two S.B. degrees, one in electrical engineering and the other in industrial management from the MIT Sloan School of Management. He then went to Harvard for graduate school, earning his M.S. in applied mathematics in 1970 and his PhD in computer science (applied mathematics) in 1973.
While pursuing a doctorate in computer science, Metcalfe took a job with MIT's Project MAC after Harvard refused to let him be responsible for connecting the school to the brand-new ARPAnet. At MAC, Metcalfe was responsible for building some of the hardware that would link MIT's minicomputers with the ARPAnet. Metcalfe was so enamored with ARPAnet, he made it the topic of his doctoral dissertation. The first version wasn't accepted. His inspiration for a new dissertation came while working at Xerox PARC, where he read a paper about the ALOHA network at the University of Hawaii. He identified and fixed some of the bugs in the AlohaNet model and made his analysis part of a revised thesis, which finally earned him his Harvard PhD in 1973.
Metcalfe was working at PARC in 1973 when he and David Boggs invented Ethernet, initially a standard for connecting computers over short distances. Metcalfe identifies the day Ethernet was born as May 22, 1973, the day he circulated a memo titled "Alto Ethernet" which contained a rough schematic of how it would work. "That is the first time Ethernet appears as a word, as does the idea of using coax as ether, where the participating stations, like in AlohaNet or ARPAnet, would inject their packets of data, they'd travel around at megabits per second, there would be collisions, and retransmissions, and back-off," Metcalfe explained. Boggs identifies another date as the birth of Ethernet: November 11, 1973, the first day the system actually functioned.
In 1979, Metcalfe departed PARC and co-founded 3Com, a manufacturer of computer networking equipment. In 1980 he received the ACM Grace Hopper Award for his contributions to the development of local networks, specifically Ethernet. In 1990, the board of directors chose Eric Benhamou to succeed Bill Krause as CEO of the networking company Metcalfe had founded in his Palo Alto apartment in 1979. Metcalfe left 3Com and began a 10-year stint as a publisher and pundit, writing an Internet column for InfoWorld. He became a venture capitalist in 2001 and is now a general partner at Polaris Venture Partners. In 1997, he cofounded Pop!Tech, an executive technology conference.
Metcalfe was a keynote speaker at the 2016 Congress of Future Science and Technology Leaders.
Metcalfe was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1996 for "exemplary and sustained leadership in the development, standardization, and commercialization of Ethernet." He received the 2003 Marconi Award for "For inventing the Ethernet and promulgating his Law of network utility based on the square of the nodes"
Metcalfe received the National Medal of Technology from President Bush in a White House ceremony on March 14, 2003, "for leadership in the invention, standardization, and commercialization of Ethernet", having been selected for the honor in 2003.
Outside of his technical achievements, Metcalfe is perhaps best known for his 1995 prediction that the Internet would suffer a "catastrophic collapse" the following year; he promised to eat his words if it did not. During his keynote speech at the sixth International World Wide Web Conference in 1997, he took a printed copy of his column that predicted the collapse, put it in a blender with some liquid and then consumed the pulpy mass. This was after he tried to eat his words printed on a very large cake, but the audience would not accept this form of "eating his words."
During an event where he talked about predictions at the eighth International World Wide Web Conference in 1999, a participant asked: what is the bet?. He stated that there was no bet as he was not ready to eat another column.
He later recanted to some extent, saying in a column two weeks later:
He predicted that wireless networking would die out in the mid 1990s.:
He predicted in 2006 that Windows and Linux wouldn't be able to handle video:
|accessdate=(help)CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
|Awards and achievements|
Joel S. Engel, Richard H. Frenkiel and William C. Jakes, Jr.
| IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
Gerald R. Ash and Billy B. Oliver
| ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award
Daniel S. Bricklin
3Com Corporation was a digital electronics manufacturer best known for its computer network products. The company was co-founded in 1979 by Robert Metcalfe, Howard Charney and others. Metcalfe explained the name 3Com was a contraction of "Computer Communication Compatibility", with its focus on Ethernet technology that he had co-invented, which enabled the networking of computers.
3Com provided network interface controller and switches, routers, wireless access points and controllers, IP voice systems, and intrusion prevention systems. The company was based in Santa Clara, California. From its 2007 acquisition of 100 percent ownership of H3C Technologies Co., Limited (H3C) —initially a joint venture with China-based Huawei Technologies—3Com achieved a market presence in China, and a significant networking market share in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. 3Com products were sold under the brands 3Com, H3C, and TippingPoint.
On April 12, 2010, Hewlett-Packard completed the acquisition of 3Com, and it no longer exists as a separate entity.Computer network
A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections (data links) between nodes. These data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as Wi-Fi.
Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes are generally identified by network addresses, and can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, and servers, as well as networking hardware such as routers and switches. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably.
Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, topology, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet.David Boggs
David Reeves Boggs (born 1950) is an electrical and radio engineer from the United States who developed early prototypes of Internet protocols, file servers, gateways, network interface cards
and, along with Robert Metcalfe and others, co-invented Ethernet, the most popular family of technologies for local area computer networks.EFF Pioneer Award
The EFF Pioneer Award is an annual prize by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) for people who have made significant contributions to the empowerment of individuals in using computers. Until 1998 it was presented at a ceremony in Washington, D.C., United States. Thereafter it was presented at the Computers, Freedom, and Privacy conference. In 2007 it was presented at the O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference.Ethernet
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, and has since retained a good deal of backward compatibility and been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET.
The original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches. Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest 400 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet.
Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses, and error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded; most often, higher-layer protocols trigger retransmission of lost frames. As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer. The 48-bit MAC address was adopted by other IEEE 802 networking standards, including IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi, as well as by FDDI, and EtherType values are also used in Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) headers.
Ethernet is widely used in home and industry. The Internet Protocol is commonly carried over Ethernet and so it is considered one of the key technologies that make up the Internet.IEEE Medal of Honor
The IEEE Medal of Honor is the highest recognition of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). It has been awarded since 1917, when its first recipient was Major Edwin H. Armstrong. It is given for an exceptional contribution or an extraordinary career in the IEEE fields of interest. The award consists of a gold medal, bronze replica, certificate and honorarium. The Medal of Honor may only be awarded to an individual.
The medal was created by the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) as the IRE Medal of Honor. It became the IEEE Medal of Honor when IRE merged with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) to form the IEEE in 1963. It was decided that IRE's Medal of Honor would be presented as IEEE's highest award, while the Edison Medal would become IEEE's principal medal.
Ten persons with an exceptional career in electrical engineering received both the IEEE Edison Medal and the IEEE Medal of Honor, namely Edwin Howard Armstrong, Ernst Alexanderson, Mihajlo Pupin, Arthur E. Kennelly, Vladimir K. Zworykin, John R. Pierce, Sidney Darlington, Nick Holonyak, Robert H. Dennard, Dave Forney, and Kees Schouhamer Immink.Local area network
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building. By contrast, a wide area network (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally involves leased telecommunication circuits.
Ethernet and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies in use for local area networks. Historical technologies include ARCNET, Token ring, and AppleTalk.MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Housed within the Stata Center, CSAIL is the largest on-campus laboratory as measured by research scope and membership.MIT club of Norway
The MIT club of Norway is an alumni association for MIT graduates living in Norway.
The club was founded after the second world war when the number of Norwegian MIT graduates were relatively large. The club was revived in the 1990s.
The mission of the club is to create positive contributions to society through the specific human, intellectual, organizational and professional values provided by MIT.
The club hosts events with members of the MIT faculty and distinguished MIT graduates. Among them: Nicholas Negroponte, Robert Metcalfe, Lester Thurow, Mario Molina, Rafael Reif.Magheralin
Magheralin (from Irish Machaire Lainne, meaning 'plain of the pool') is a village and civil parish in County Down, Northern Ireland. It is on the main Moira to Lurgan road, beside the River Lagan. It had a population of 1,144 people in the 2001 Census. It is within the Craigavon Borough Council area. The civil parish of Magheralin covers areas of County Armagh as well as County Down.The parish church was built in medieval times and its remains form part of the ruined church in the old village graveyard. The post-medieval settlement appears to have developed along the main road and near to the parish church, with an industrial focus to the south, beside the river. The village is grouped around the junction of a number of roads, and has an attractive parish church and several fine planters' houses, such as Blacklion and Drumcro by Newforge Bridge over the River Lagan. There are two village churches dating back to the 1840s and displaying fine architecture and stained glass.Marconi Prize
The Marconi Prize is an annual award recognizing achievements and advancements made in field of communications (radio, mobile, wireless, telecommunications, data communications, networks, and Internet). The prize is awarded by the Marconi Foundation. and it includes a $100,000 honorarium and a work of sculpture.Marconi Society
The Guglielmo Marconi International Fellowship Foundation, briefly called Marconi Foundation and currently known as The Marconi Society, was established by Gioia Marconi Braga in 1974 to commemorate the centennial of the birth (April 24, 1874) of her father Guglielmo Marconi. The Marconi International Fellowship Council was established to honor significant contributions in science and technology, awarding the Marconi Prize and an annual $100,000 grant to a living scientist who has made advances in communication technology that benefits mankind.
The Marconi Fellows are Sir Eric A. Ash (1984), Paul Baran (1991), Sir Tim Berners-Lee (2002), Claude Berrou (2005), Sergey Brin (2004), Francesco Carassa (1983), Vinton G. Cerf (1998), Andrew Chraplyvy (2009), Colin Cherry (1978), John Cioffi (2006), Arthur C. Clarke (1982), Martin Cooper (2013), Whitfield Diffie (2000), Federico Faggin (1988), James Flanagan (1992), David Forney, Jr. (1997), Robert G. Gallager (2003), Robert N. Hall (1989), Izuo Hayashi (1993), Martin Hellman (2000), Hiroshi Inose (1976), Irwin M. Jacobs (2011), Robert E. Kahn (1994) Sir Charles Kao (1985), James R. Killian (1975), Leonard Kleinrock (1986), Herwig Kogelnik (2001), Robert W. Lucky (1987), James L. Massey (1999), Robert Metcalfe (2003), Lawrence Page (2004), Yash Pal (1980), Seymour Papert (1981), Arogyaswami Paulraj (2014), David N. Payne (2008), John R. Pierce (1979), Ronald L. Rivest (2007), Arthur L. Schawlow (1977), Allan Snyder (2001), Robert Tkach (2009), Gottfried Ungerboeck (1996), Andrew Viterbi (1990), Jack Keil Wolf (2011), Jacob Ziv (1995). In 2015, the prize went to Peter T. Kirstein for bringing the internet to Europe.
Since 2008, Marconi has also issued the Paul Baran Marconi Society Young Scholar Awards. Recipients are Himanshu Asnani (2014), Salman Abdul Baset (2008), Aleksandr Biberman (2010), Salvatore Campione (2013), Keun Yeong Cho (2012), Aakanksha Chowdhery (2012), Guilhem de Valicourt (2012), Felix Gutierrez Jr. (2009), Joseph Kakande (2011), Bill Ping Piu Kuo (2011), Rafael Laufer (2008), Domanic Lavery (2013), Joseph Lukens (2015), Diomidis Michalopoulos (2010), Marco Papaleo (2009), Ken Pesyna (2015), Eric Plum (2009), Yuan Shen (2010), Kiseok Song (2014), Sebastien Soudan (2009), Jay Kumar Sundararajan (2008), Kartik Venkat (2015), Eitan Yaakobi (2009), Ke Wang (2013), Yihong Wu (2011), and Hao Zou (2008).
In describing the mission and objective of the Foundation, Braga characterized the Fellowship as "unique...in that it does not reward a person for intellectual achievements alone, but seeks to recognize and sustain those spiritual aspirations that a creative thinker may wish to apply to the establishment of a better world in which to live".
Although Braga died in July 1996, the Marconi Society has continued to award the annual Marconi Prize and fellowship, which were first awarded in 1975. The Marconi Society also grants annual Marconi Society-Paul Baran Young Scholar Awards to young scientists who, by the time they turn 27, have made significant contributions in the fields of communication and information science. Originally, the Foundation was located at the Aspen Institute. In 1997, it relocated, by invitation, to Columbia University's Fu School of Engineering and Applied Science.Metcalfe's law
Metcalfe's law states the effect of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users
Metcalfe is a surname, originating in Dentdale, Yorkshire, and is very common in places such as Wensleydale and Swaledale. It may refer to:
Andrew Metcalfe, former senior Australian public servant
Ben Metcalfe, Canadian journalist and environmentalist
Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe, British administrator in India
Ciara Metcalfe, Irish cricketer
Clive Metcalfe, British musician
Daryl Metcalfe, Pennsylvania state representative
Edward Metcalfe, British Benedictine monk
Edward Dudley Metcalfe, friend and equerry of King Edward VIII
Edwin C. Metcalfe, American saxophonist and television station manager
Glenn Metcalfe, Scottish rugby player
Jane Metcalfe, American magazine publisher
Jean Metcalfe, British broadcaster
Jennifer Metcalfe, British actress
Jesse Metcalfe, American actor
Joanne Metcalfe (born 1969), Australian basketball player
John Metcalfe (composer), British violist and composer
John Metcalfe (writer), British science fiction and horror writer
John William Metcalfe (1872-1952), British reverend and entomologist
Philip Metcalfe, distiller and MP
Percy Metcalfe, British artist
Ralph Metcalfe, American athlete and politician
Richard Metcalfe, Scottish rugby player
Richard Lee Metcalfe, Governor of Panama Canal Zone
Robert Metcalfe, American networking technology pioneer (Metcalfe's law)
Simon Metcalfe (1735–1794), American maritime fur trader
Theophilus Metcalfe (c 1610-c 1645), English stenographer
Thomas Metcalfe (disambiguation), several people
Sir Thomas Theophilus Metcalfe, 4th Baronet, Honourable East India Company servant, Agent to Governor General of India
Vic Metcalfe, English professional footballer.NYU Tandon School of Engineering Lynford Lecture Series
Every year, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering hosts the Lynford Lecture Series which brings in a prominent thinker who explains complex information and important ideas with clarity and concision. The lecture series is sponsored by Tondra and Jeffrey Lynford and the School of Engineering's Institute for Mathematics and Advanced Supercomputing (IMAS). As of 2016, the lecture series featured three Nobel Prize winners, one Turing Award winner and alumnus of the School of Engineering, the inventor of Ethernet, a nominee of the Democratic Party for President of the United States, a top American nuclear scientist, and the co-founder and Chief Scientist of Sun Microsystems, among others.Notable lecturers include:
Eric Schadt, Mathematician and Computational Biologist
Judea Pearl, Winner of the ACM Turing Award, the highest distinction in computer science
Daniel Kahneman, Nobel laureate in Economic Sciences
Myron Scholes, Nobel Laureate and Co-originator of the Black-Scholes options pricing model
Frances Allen, IBM Fellow Emerita
Jeremy Grantham, Chairman and Co-Founder, GMO
Lt. Gen. Robert J. Elder, Jr, Commander, 8th Air Force and Joint Functional Component Commander For Global Strike and Integration, U.S. Strategic Command
Robert Metcalfe, Inventor of Ethernet
John L. Petersen, President and Founder of The Arlington Institute (TAI)
Hillary Clinton, nominee of the Democratic Party for President of the United States in the 2016 election. U.S. Senator, New York State
Richard L. Garwin, Top American Nuclear Scientist
Gerald M. Rubin, Genome Sequence Pioneer
Robert A. Mundell, 1999 Nobel Laureate for Economics
Alan Kay, Pioneer of the Modern Personal Computer
Bill Joy, Co-founder, Chief Scientist and Corporate Executive Officer, Sun Microsystems Inc.
J. Craig Venter, President, CSO, Celera Genomics
Ed Witten, Professor of Physics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ
Bonnie Bassler, chair of the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a MacArthur Fellow and a TED Talk Lecturer.Prairie Theatre Exchange
Prairie Theatre Exchange (PTE) is a professional theatre in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is located on the third floor of Portage Place mall in downtown Winnipeg. By the end of the 2016-17 season, PTE had presented 340 plays on its thrust stage over its 44 year history, 149 of which were world premieres, to an annual average attendance of 35,000 people.
Approximately 700 students enroll annually in onsite acting classes, from adults to children as young as five. Classes range from acting for stage, film and TV to Improv to Theatre Production to Musical Theatre, Voice, Movement and others.
Every year, the Prairie Theatre Exchange's Theatre for Young Audiences touring program performs in elementary and junior high schools, as well as for community audiences throughout the province.Educational partners of the PTE include the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg School Division, and other school divisions, alternative learning centres, and community arts groups across the province of Manitoba.During the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, two of the festival's venues are the Prairie Theatre Exchange's Mainstage and Colin Jackson Studio, and both Folklorama and the Winnipeg Jazz Festival have been regular users of the facilities. PTE also rents office space to Shakespeare in the Ruins, Manitoba Chamber Orchestra, and Patient Puppets, pairing a very low rent with access to office equipment and staff expertise to support those endeavours.Regius Professor of Hebrew (Cambridge)
The Regius Professorship of Hebrew in the University of Cambridge is an ancient academic chair at the University of Cambridge founded by King Henry VIII in 1540.
When created, the professorship carried a permanent stipend of £40 per year. In 1848 this was increased a canonry of Ely Cathedral being attached to the post in perpetuity.Robert Metcalfe (Hebraist)
Robert Metcalfe (1579–1652) was an English priest and Regius Professor of Hebrew at the University of Cambridge.The Internet Age
The Internet Age is a 10-part Chinese documentary television series produced by CCTV. It was first broadcast on CCTV-2 from 25 August 2014 to 4 September 2014. It discusses the "Internet".
Grace Murray Hopper Award recipients