Robert Kilwardby

Robert Kilwardby (c. 1215 – 11 September 1279) was an Archbishop of Canterbury in England and a cardinal. Kilwardby was the first member of a mendicant order to attain a high ecclesiastical office in the English Church.

Robert Kilwardby

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury
Primate of All England
Robert Kilwardby
Appointed11 October 1272
Term ended5 June 1278
PredecessorWilliam Chillenden
SuccessorRobert Burnell
Other postsCardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina
Consecration26 February 1273
by William of Bitton (II.)
Created cardinal12 March 1278
RankCardinal bishop
Personal details
Bornc. 1215
Died11 September 1279
BuriedDominican convent, Viterbo
EducationUniversity of Paris


Kilwardby studied at the University of Paris, then was a teacher of grammar and logic there. He then joined the Dominican Order and studied theology,[1] and became regent at Oxford University before 1261,[2] probably by 1245.[3] He was named provincial prior of the Dominicans for England in 1261,[4] and in October 1272 Pope Gregory X appointed him as Archbishop of Canterbury to end a dispute over the election. Kilwardby was provided to the archbishopric on 11 October 1272, given the temporalities on 12 December 1272, and consecrated on 26 February 1273.[5]

Kilwardby crowned Edward I and his wife Eleanor as king and queen of England in August 1274, but otherwise took little part in politics. He instead concentrated on his ecclesiastical duties, including charity to the poor and donating to the Dominicans.[6]

In 1278 Pope Nicholas III named Kilwardby Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina.[7] He then resigned Canterbury and left England,[5] taking with him papers, registers and documents belonging to the see. He also left the see deep in debt again, after his predecessor had cleared the debt.[8] He died in Italy in 1279 and was buried in the Dominican convent in Viterbo, Italy.[7] While in theory this was a promotion, probably it was not, as the pope was unhappy with Kilwardby's support of efforts to resist the payment of papal revenues and with the lack of effort towards the reforms demanded at the Second Council of Lyon in 1274.[9]

Kilwardby's theological and philosophical views were summed up by David Knowles who said that he was a "conservative eclectic, holding the doctrine of seminal tendencies and opposing...the Aristotelian doctrine of the unity of form in beings, including man."[10] Some sources state that he was the author of Summa Philosophiae, a history and description of the schools of philosophical thought then current, but the writing style is not similar to his other works, and Knowles, for one, does not believe it was authored by Kilwardby.[11]

It has been alleged that Kilwardby was an opponent of Thomas Aquinas. In 1277 he prohibited the teaching of thirty theses, some of which have been thought to touch upon Thomas Aquinas' teaching. Recent scholars, however, such as Roland Hissette, have challenged this interpretation.[12]


Writings on Grammar

  • Commentaria Priscianus minor (A Commentary on the books 17 and 18 of Priscian's Institutiones grammaticae)

Writings on Logic

  • Notulae super librum Praedicamentorum
  • Notulae super librum Perihermeneias
  • Notule libri Priorum
  • Notule libri Posteriorum
  • Comentum super librum Topicorum
  • Notulae super librum Porphyrii
  • De natura relationis
  • Priorum Analyticorum expositio
  • Notuale super librum Sex Principiorum

Writings on Natural Philosophy

  • De spiritu fantastico sive de receptione specierum
  • De tempore

Writings on Ethics

  • Quaestiones supra libros Ethicorum
  • Quaestiones in librum primun Sententiarum
  • Quaestiones in librum secundum Sententiarum
  • Quaestiones in librum tertium Sententiarum
  • Quaestiones in librum quartum Sententiarum
  • De ortu scientiarum

De tempore has been translated and edited by Alexander Broadie, and published as On Time and Imagination, Part 2: Introduction and Translation. A critical edition of De orto scientiarum was published by Albert G. Judy, for The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies in 1976.

Kilwardby was also the author of a summary of the writings of the Church Fathers, arranged alphabetically, Tabulae super Originalia Patrum, edited by Daniel A. Callus (Bruges: De Tempel, 1948).


  1. ^ Lawrence "Thirteenth Century" English Church and the Papacy p. 146
  2. ^ Knowles Evolution of Medieval Thought p. 288
  3. ^ Leff Paris and Oxford Universities pp. 290–293
  4. ^ Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 2: Monastic Cathedrals (Northern and Southern Provinces): Canterbury: Archbishops
  5. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 233
  6. ^ Moorman Church Life p. 371
  7. ^ a b Bellenger and Fletcher Princes of the Church p. 173
  8. ^ Moorman Church Life p. 173
  9. ^ Prestwich Edward I p. 249
  10. ^ Knowles Evolution of Medieval Thought p. 249
  11. ^ Knowles Evolution of Medieval Thought p. 287
  12. ^ Burton,Monastic and Religious Orders pp. 206–207


  • Bellenger, Dominic Aidan; Fletcher, Stella (2001). Princes of the Church: A History of the English Cardinals. Stroud, UK: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-2630-9.
  • Burton, Janet (1994). Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain: 1000–1300. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37797-8.
  • Clanchy, C. T. (1993). From Memory to Written Record: England 1066–1307 (Second ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-16857-7.
  • Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third Edition, revised ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.
  • Greenway, Diana E. (1971). Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 2: Monastic Cathedrals (Northern and Southern Provinces): Canterbury: Archbishops. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  • Knowles, David (1962). The Evolution of Medieval Thought. London: Longman. OCLC 937364.
  • Lawrence, C. H. (1999) [1965]. "The Thirteenth Century". In Lawrence, C. H. (ed.). The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages (Reprint ed.). Stroud: Sutton Publishing. pp. 117–156. ISBN 0-7509-1947-7.
  • Leff, Gordon (1975). Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: An Institutional and Intellectual History. Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Pub. Co. ISBN 0-88275-297-9.
  • Moorman, John R. H. (1955). Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century (Revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. OCLC 213820968.
  • Prestwich, Michael (1997). Edward I. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07157-4.

Further reading

  • Lagerlund, Henrik & Thom, Paul (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Robert Kilwardby, Leiden: Brill, 2012.
  • Lewry, Patrick Osmund Robert Kilwardby's Writings on the Logica vetus Studied with Regard to Their Teaching and Method. Ph.D. diss. Oxford, 1978.
  • Thom, Paul, Logic and Ontology in the Syllogistic of Robert Kilwardby, Leiden: Brill, 2007.
  • Tugwell, Simon (2004). "Kilwardby, Robert (c.1215–1279)" ((subscription or UK public library membership required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15546. Retrieved 12 March 2011.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
William Chillenden
as archbishop-elect
Archbishop of Canterbury
Succeeded by
Robert Burnell
as archbishop-elect
Preceded by
John of Toledo
Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina
Succeeded by
Bernard de Languissel
1270s in England

Events from the 1270s in England.


Year 1279 A.D (MCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Bitterne Manor

Bitterne Manor is a suburb of Southampton surrounding the manor house of the same name. It is located on the eastern bank of the River Itchen, across Cobden Bridge from St Denys.

Bryson of Heraclea

Bryson of Heraclea (Greek: Βρύσων Ἡρακλεώτης, gen.: Βρύσωνος; fl. late 5th-century BCE) was an ancient Greek mathematician and sophist who contributed to solving the problem of squaring the circle and calculating pi.

Conceptions of logic

The history of logic as a subject has been characterised by many disputes over what the topic deals with, and the main article 'Logic' has as a result been hesitant to commit to a particular definition of logic. This article surveys various definitions of the subject that have appeared over the centuries through to modern times, and puts them in context as reflecting rival conceptions of the subject.

Index of medieval philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in medieval philosophy.

Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri


Abner of Burgos

Abraham bar Hiyya

Abraham ibn Daud

Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī

Abu Rayhan Biruni

Abu Yaqub Sijistani

Acharya Hemachandra

Active intellect

Actus et potentia

Actus primus

Actus purus

Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio

Adam de Buckfield

Adam de Wodeham

Adam of Łowicz

Adam Parvipontanus

Adam Pulchrae Mulieris

Adelard of Bath

Adi Shankara

Ahmad Sirhindi






Al Amiri

Alain de Lille

Albert of Saxony (philosopher)

Albertus Magnus


Alessandro Achillini

Alexander Bonini

Alexander Neckam

Alexander of Hales

Alfred of Sareshel



Amalric of Bena

André of Neufchâteau

Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm of Laon

Antonio Beccadelli

Arab transmission of the Classics to the West

Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī

Auctoritates Aristotelis

Augustine Eriugena

Augustine of Hippo




Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani

Barlaam of Seminara

Bartholomew of Bologna (philosopher)

Bartolommeo Spina

Basilios Bessarion

Bernard of Chartres

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Trilia

Bernard Silvestris

Berthold of Moosburg


Boetius of Dacia


Brethren of Purity

Brunetto Latini

Byzantine philosophy

Byzantine rhetoric

Cahal Daly


Cardinal virtues

Carolus Sigonius

Catherine of Siena

Celestial spheres

Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)

Choe Chung

Christine de Pizan

Condemnations of 1210–1277

Consolation of Philosophy

Constantine of Kostenets

Contra principia negantem disputari non potest


Cosmographia (Bernard Silvestris)

Credo ut intelligam

Cristoforo Landino

Daniel of Morley

Dante Alighieri

David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas

De divisione naturae

Demetrius Chalcondyles

Denis the Carthusian

Divine apathy

Doctrine of the Mean


Dominicus Gundissalinus

Duns Scotus

Dynamics of the celestial spheres

Early Islamic philosophy

Elia del Medigo

Ethica thomistica

Étienne Tempier

Eustratius of Nicaea

Euthymius of Athos

Everard of Ypres

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Federico Cesi

Five wits

Francesco Filelfo

Francis of Marchia

Francis of Mayrone

Francis Robortello

Francisco de Vitoria

Francisco Suárez

Franciscus Bonae Spei

Fujiwara Seika

Gabriel Biel

Galileo Galilei

Garlandus Compotista

Gasparinus de Bergamo

Gaunilo of Marmoutiers

Gemistus Pletho

George of Trebizond

Gerard of Abbeville

Gerard of Bologna

Gerard of Brussels

Gerard of Cremona

Gerardus Odonis


Gilbert de la Porrée

Giles of Lessines

Giles of Rome

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Godfrey of Fontaines

Gonsalvus of Spain

Great chain of being

Gregor Reisch

Gregory of Rimini

Grzegorz of Stawiszyn

Guarino da Verona

Guido Terrena

Guillaume Pierre Godin

Guru Nanak Dev



Hayy ibn Yaqdhan

Henry Aristippus

Henry Harclay

Henry of Ghent

Herman of Carinthia

Hermannus Alemannus

Hervaeus Natalis

Heymeric de Campo

Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi



How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?

Hugh of Saint Victor

Hugh of St Cher


Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn al-Rawandi

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Bajjah

Ibn Hazm

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Masarrah

Ibn Taymiyyah

Ibn Tufail

Immanuel the Roman



Intelligible form

Ioane Petritsi


Isaac Abrabanel

Isaac Israeli ben Solomon


Isotta Nogarola

Jacob ben Nissim

Jacopo Zabarella

Jakub of Gostynin

Jan Szylling


Jean Buridan

Jean Capréolus

Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi



Jiva Goswami

Jocelin of Soissons

Johannes Scotus Eriugena

John Argyropoulos

John Blund

John de Sècheville

John Dumbleton

John Halgren of Abbeville

John Hennon

John Italus

John Major (philosopher)

John of Damascus

John of Głogów

John of Jandun

John of Mirecourt

John of Paris

John of Salisbury

John of St. Thomas

John Pagus

John Peckham

Joseph Albo

Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta

Judah ben Moses Romano

Judah Halevi

Julius Caesar Scaliger

Kitabatake Chikafusa

Kwon Geun

Lambert of Auxerre

Lambertus de Monte

Leo the Mathematician

Leon Battista Alberti

Leonardo da Vinci

List of scholastic philosophers

Madhusūdana Sarasvatī



Manuel Chrysoloras

Marcus Musurus

Marsilio Ficino

Marsilius of Inghen

Marsilius of Padua

Matheolus Perusinus

Matthew of Aquasparta

Medieval philosophy

Meister Eckhart

Michael of Ephesus

Michael of Massa

Michael Psellos

Michał Falkener


Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in

Moralium dogma philosophorum

Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi

Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi



Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

Nasir Khusraw


Niccolò Machiavelli


Nicholas of Autrecourt

Nicholas of Kues

Nicole Oresme

Nikephoros Choumnos

Odo of Châteauroux

Omar Khayyám

Oxford Calculators

Oxford Franciscan school

Palla Strozzi

Paolo da Pergola

Passive intellect

Patriarch Gennadios II of Constantinople

Paul of Venice

Peripatetic axiom

Peter Abelard

Peter Aureol

Peter Ceffons

Peter Crockaert

Peter de Rivo

Peter Helias

Peter Lombard

Peter of Auvergne

Peter of Capua

Peter of Corbeil

Peter of Poitiers

Peter of Spain (author)

Peter Olivi


Petrus Aureolus

Petrus Ramus

Photios I of Constantinople

Pierre d'Ailly

Pierre de Bar

Pietro Alcionio

Pietro d'Abano


Porphyrian tree


Primum movens

Problem of universals


Qotb al-Din Shirazi


Quinque viae

R. De Staningtona

Rabia al-Adawiyya

Radulfus Ardens

Radulphus Brito

Ralph of Longchamp

Ralph Strode



Ramon Llull

Remigius of Auxerre


Renaissance humanism

Renaissance philosophy

Richard Brinkley

Richard Kilvington

Richard of Campsall

Richard of Middleton

Richard of Saint Victor

Richard Rufus of Cornwall

Richard Swineshead

Richard Wilton

Robert Alyngton

Robert Cowton

Robert Grosseteste

Robert Holcot

Robert Kilwardby

Robert of Melun

Robert Pullus

Rodolphus Agricola

Roger Bacon

Roland of Cremona

Roscelin of Compiègne


Rota Fortunae


School of Saint Victor


Sensus communis



Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi


Siger of Brabant

Simon of Faversham

Simon of Tournai

Solomon ibn Gabirol


Sperone Speroni

Stephen of Alexandria

Substantial form

Sum of Logic


Summa contra Gentiles

Summa Theologica

Summum bonum

Supposition theory


Temporal finitism

Term logic

Theodore Metochites

Thierry of Chartres

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Bradwardine

Thomas Gallus

Thomas of Sutton

Thomas of Villanova

Thomas of York (Franciscan)

Thomas Wilton


Thought of Thomas Aquinas

Timeline of Niccolò Machiavelli

Ulrich of Strasburg

University of Constantinople


Urso of Calabria

Vācaspati Miśra


Vincent Ferrer

Vital du Four

Voluntarism (metaphysics)

Voluntarism (theology)

Walter Burley

Walter Chatton

Walter of Bruges

Walter of Mortagne

Walter of St Victor

Walter of Winterburn

Wang Yangming

William Crathorn

William de la Mare

William of Alnwick

William of Auvergne (bishop)

William of Auxerre

William of Champeaux

William of Conches

William of Falgar

William of Heytesbury

William of Lucca

William of Moerbeke

William of Ockham

William of Saint-Amour

William of Sherwood

William of Ware

Works by Thomas Aquinas

Yi Hwang

Yohanan Alemanno

Zhang Zai

Zhu Xi

Index of philosophy of science articles

An index list of articles about the philosophy of science.

List of English cardinals

This is a list of cardinals of the Catholic Church from England. It does not include cardinals of non-English national origin appointed to English ecclesiastical offices such as the cardinal protectors of England.

Dates in parentheses are the dates of elevation and death (or, in the case of Pope Adrian IV, the date of his election as pope). Cardinals of antipopes are listed in italics. Living cardinals are bolded.

Prior to the English Reformation, most English cardinals were non-bishops or Archbishop of Canterbury. Four were Archbishop of York. Since the re-establishment of the hierarchy of Roman Catholicism in England and Wales by Universalis Ecclesiae (1850), most have also been the Archbishop of Westminster. Every Archbishop of Westminster has been created cardinal. The current Archbishop of Westminster, Vincent Nichols, was elevated to the cardinalate on 22 February 2014 by Pope Francis in Rome.

List of logicians

A logician is a person whose topic is the scholarly study is logic. Some famous logicians are listed below in English alphabetical transliteration order (by surname).

List of scholastic philosophers

This is a list of philosophers and scholars working in the Christian tradition in Western Europe during the medieval period, including the early Middle Ages. See also scholasticism.

Osmund Lewry

Patrick Osmund Lewry (1929–1987) was a Dominican who made significant contributions to the history of logic and the philosophy of language in the thirteenth century. Lewry studied mathematical logic under Lejewski and A.N. Prior at Manchester (1961–2). From 1962–7 he taught the philosophy of language and logic at Hawkesyard. He was assigned to the Oxford Blackfriars in 1967. Dissatisfaction with teaching led him to work for an Oxford D.Phil. on the logic teaching of Robert Kilwardby. In 1979 he began the study of the history of grammar, logic and rhetoric at Oxford in the period 1220–1320. In 1979 he went to the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies in Toronto first as a research associate, then as a senior fellow. He died on 23 April 1987 at the age of 57 at the Oxford Dominican House.

Ralph Bocking

Ralph Bocking (died 1270), was an English Dominican.

Robert Burnell

Robert Burnell (sometimes spelled Robert Burnel; c. 1239 – 25 October 1292) was an English bishop who served as Lord Chancellor of England from 1274 to 1292. A native of Shropshire, he served as a minor royal official before entering into the service of Prince Edward, the future King Edward I of England. When Edward went on the Eighth Crusade in 1270, Burnell stayed in England to secure the prince's interests. He served as regent after the death of King Henry III of England while Edward was still on crusade. He was twice elected Archbishop of Canterbury, but his personal life—which included a long-term mistress who was rumoured to have borne him four sons—prevented his confirmation by the papacy. In 1275 Burnell was elected Bishop of Bath and Wells, after Edward had appointed him Lord Chancellor in 1274.

Burnell was behind the efforts of the royal officials to enforce royal rights during his term of office as chancellor, including the implementation of the Quo warranto procedures. He also helped with the legislative and legal reforms of Edward's reign. During Burnell's tenure the chancellor's office and records became fixed in London rather than travelling with the king. Burnell went abroad on diplomatic missions for Edward, and for a time governed Gascony. He continued to enjoy the king's trust until his death in 1292; one historian has suggested that Burnell may have been the most important royal official of the 13th century.

Robert FitzWalter, 1st Baron FitzWalter

Robert FitzWalter, 1st Baron FitzWalter (1247 – 18 January 1326) was an English peer.

Robertus Anglicus (disambiguation)

Robertus Anglicus or Robert the Englishman may refer to:

Robert of Chester, 12th-century Arabist

Robert of Retines, 12th-century Arabist and theologian

Robert (bishop of Olomouc), ruled 1201–40

Robert Kilwardby, archbishop of Canterburgy (1272–78)

Robertus Anglicus, 13th-century astronomer

Surrey Street Market

Surrey Street Market (also known as Croydon Market) is a street market located in Surrey Street, Croydon, south London. Records of a market on the site date back to the 13th century.

It operates six days a week, Monday to Saturday, and mainly sells fruit and vegetables.

Thomas de Cantilupe

Thomas de Cantilupe (c. 1218 – 25 August 1282) (alias Cantelow, Cantelou, Canteloupe, etc., Latinised to de Cantilupo) was Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Hereford and was canonised in 1320 by Pope John XXII.

William Chillenden

William Chillenden, (died 1274) also known as Adam of Chillenden, was a monk at Christ Church Priory, Canterbury, and treasurer of that priory when he was elected Prior of Christ Church in 1263 (or 1264).Chillenden was elected to be Archbishop of Canterbury in England on 9 September 1270. King Edward I, however, had wanted his Chancellor Robert Burnell elected. Chillenden's election was set aside by the pope in the summer of 1272 and he never received his pallium.Chillenden died on 13 September 1274.

William Middleton (bishop)

William Middleton (or William de Middleton; died 31 August or 1 September 1288) was a medieval Bishop of Norwich.


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