Robert H. Hewsen

Robert H. Hewsen (May 20, 1934-November 17, 2018) was an American historian and Professor Emeritus of History at Rowan University. He was an expert on the ancient history of the South Caucasus.[2] Hewsen is the author of Armenia: A Historical Atlas (2001), a major reference book,[3] acclaimed as an important achievement in Armenian studies.[4][5]

Robert H. Hewsen
BornMay 20, 1934
New York City, US
DiedNovember 17, 2018[1]
Fresno, CA
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma materGeorgetown University
Known forArmenia: A Historical Atlas (2001)
Scientific career
FieldsHistory of Armenia and the Caucasus
InstitutionsRowan University
Doctoral advisorCyril Toumanoff


Hewsen was born Robert H. Hewsenian[6] in New York City in 1934 to Armenian American parents. He spent seven years in Europe with the US Air Force and studying.[7] He received his B.A. in history from the University of Maryland and his Ph.D. from Georgetown University in 1967. The same year he joined the history department of Rowan University, where he taught Byzantine and Russian history for more than 30 years. After retiring from Rowan University in July 1999, Professor Hewsen lectured at University of Chicago, Columbia University, California State University, Fresno and University of California, Los Angeles.[8]

Professor Hewsen is also the co-founder and president of the Society for the Study of Caucasia.


Hewsen has written a multitude of books and articles on the history of the Caucasus, especially Armenia. Professor Hewsen's most recent publication is Armenia: A Historical Atlas (University of Chicago Press, 2001). The book received wide critical acclaim.[9][10] In his review Michael E. Stone wrote: "Robert Hewsen has prepared an opus magnum that has no rival in Armenian studies. This pioneering and largely definitive work is the best atlas of Armenia ever prepared."[4] Merrill D. Peterson wrote that it "may by itself be considered a monument of American scholarship."[11] Charles King wrote that the book is an "outstanding achievement not only as a geographical reference but also as a guide to the demographic and political history of the entire Caucasus."[12] Adam T. Smith wrote of the Atlas as "an important milestone in the development of Armenian studies."[5]

  • Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0-226-33228-4.
  • Ethno-history and the Armenian influence upon the Caucasian Albanians. Classical Armenian culture: Influence and creativity. Philadelphia: Scholars Press. 1982.
Book chapters
  • Samuelian, Thomas J.; Stone, Michael E., eds. (1984). "The Kingdom of Arc'ax". Medieval Armenian Culture (University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies). Chico, California: Scholars Press.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  • "Science in Seventh-Century Armenia: Ananias of Širak". Isis. 59 (1): 32–45. Spring 1968. doi:10.1086/350333.
  • "The Autumn Glossary". Armenian Review. 13 (3): 90–93. Autumn 1960.
  • "The Legend of Akhtamar (A Ballad)". Armenian Review. 12 (2): 64–66. Summer 1959.
  • Anatolia and Historical Concepts // The California Institute for Ancient Studies, a Velikovskian site


  1. ^
  2. ^ de Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-8147-1945-9. ...the [Caucasian] Albanian question. Fortunately, Professor Robert Hewsen of Rowan College, New Jersey, the foremost expert on this period of Caucasian history, was able to advise.
  3. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (2002). Armenian Tsopk/Kharpert. Mazda Publishers. p. xiv. ...and recently published Armenia: A Historical Atlas, a major reference work with an extensive bibliography.
  4. ^ a b "Armenia: A Historical Atlas by Robert H. Hewsen Review by: Michael E. Stone". Slavic Review. 62 (1): 174–175. Spring 2003.
  5. ^ a b Smith, Adam T. (2004). Tsetskhladze,Gocha, ed. Ancient West and East, Volume 3. Brill. pp. 186–188.
  6. ^ "Volume 12 (1959-1960)". The Armenian Review. Archived from the original on August 18, 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  7. ^ Biographical note in Ararat magazine, 1961
  8. ^ "News of Members". Armenian Studies Program, California State University, Fresno. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014.
  9. ^ "Armenia: A Historical Atlas by Robert H. Hewsen Review by: Nicholas B. Breyfogle". Russian Review. 66 (1): 136–137. January 2007. Robert Hewsen is to be vigorously applauded for the publication of his historical atlas of Armenia.
  10. ^ Whitby, Mary (2007). Byzantines and Crusaders in Non-Greek Sources, 1025-1204. British Academy. p. 203. Excellent atlas that, despite its title, encompasses the whole of Caucasia, including the various Georgian lands.
  11. ^ Peterson, Merrill D. (2004). "Starving Armenians": America and the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1930 and After. University of Virginia Press. p. 174.
  12. ^ King, Charles. The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus: A History of the Caucasus. Oxford University Press. p. 269.

External links


Anariacae is an ancient Asian people mentioned by Polybius, Strabo, and Pliny. The Armenian geographer Anania Shirakatsi mentions Anariacae (‘Anariaki’ in Armenian) among the people inhabiting the northern foothills of Mount Imeon in Central Asia.

Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania

The Arsacid dynasty was a dynasty of Parthian origin, which ruled the kingdom of Caucasian Albania from the 1st to the 5th century AD. They were a branch of the Parthian Arsacid dynasty and together with the Arsacid rulers of the neighboring Armenia and Iberia formed a pan-Arsacid family federation. The Arsacids were succeeded by the Mihranid dynasty. The historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi provided a list of the last ten Arsacid kings of Albania from Vachagan I the Brave in the 2nd half of the third century to Vachagan III the Pious at the end of the fifth. It included the following rulers:

Vachagan the Brave

Vache I


Vachagan II





Vache II

Vachagan III the Pious


Atabekians — Armenian Princely (Meliqly) house of Lords of the Jraberd principality (Meliqdom) in Artsakh, which ruled in the 19th century. The most renowned representative of this family was Prince Hovhannes (Vani) Atabekian, Prince of Jraberd, who took an active part in the Russo-Persian War (1804–13).

The Atabekians are descendants of Prince Ivane-Atabek I Hasan-Jalalian, son of Prince Hasan-Jalalian, the Lord of Khachen. His offspring, Prince Atabek III, settled in the north-eastern part of the paternal domain, along the banks of the Tartar and Kusapat rivers and there gave birth to a new dynasty. Therefore, the Atabekians consider themselves to be a dynastic branch of the House of Hasan-Jalalian, and through them trace their ancestry to the noble houses of the Vakhtangian, Aranshahik, Syuni, and the Haykazuni. The DNA studies on 2009 also revealed kinship between the Atabekians and princes Argutian of Lori, Meliq-Yeganians of Dizak and Meliq-Dadians of Goris; all mentioned families belong to R1b1b2a haplogroup.


Bazmavep (Pazmaveb in Western Armenian; Armenian: Բազմավէպ, "Polyhistory") is an academic journal covering Armenian studies. It is published by the Mechitarist monastery in San Lazzaro degli Armeni, Venice, Italy. According to Robert H. Hewsen, it is the first Armenian scholarly journal. It is the longest-running Armenian publication still being published.

Bazmavep was established by Gabriel Aivazovsky and Ghevond Alishan in May 1843, with the initial intention of publishing for three years. Previous editors-in-chief have been Gabriel Aivazovsky (1843–48) and Ghevont Alishan (1849-51). The current editor is Sahak Chemchemean.


Caspiane or Kaspiane (Greek: Κασπιανή, Armenian: Կասպք Kaspkʿ) was the land populated by the tribe of Caspians, after whom it received its name. Originally a province of Medes in the 3rd-2nd centuries BC, the land of the Caspians was conquered by Armenians in the 2nd century BC, then passed to Caucasian Albania under Sassanid Persian suzerainty in the 5th century, and later became an independent state. In the 2nd century AD it became known as Paytakaran, and after 387 AD became a part of the larger region of Balasakan.

Caucasian Albania

Caucasian Albania is a modern exonym for an ancient country in the eastern Caucasus, on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and southern Dagestan. Its endonym is unknown. The name Albania is derived from the Ancient Greek name Ἀλβανία and Latin Albanía. The prefix "Caucasian" is used purely to avoid confusion with modern Albania of the Balkans, which has no known geographical or historical connections to Caucasian Albania.

Little is known of the region's prehistory, including the origins of Caucasian Albania as a geographical and/or ethnolinguistic concept. In the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, the area south of the Greater Caucasus and north of the Lesser Caucasus was divided between Caucasian Albania in the east, Caucasian Iberia in the center, Kolchis in the west, Armenia in the southwest and Atropatene to the southeast.

After the rise of the Parthian Empire the kings of Caucasian Albania were replaced with an Arsacid family and would later be succeeded by another Iranian royal family in the 5th century AD, the Mihranids.

Church of Kish

The Church of Kish (Azerbaijani: Kiş kilsəsi; Georgian: გიშის ეკლესია), also known by different sources as Church of Saint Elishe (Azerbaijani: Müqəddəs Yelisey kilsəsi, Armenian: Սուրբ Եղիշէ եկեղեցի) or Holy Mother of God Church (Armenian: Սուրբ Աստուածածին եկեղեցի), is an inactive 12th or 13th century Caucasian Albanian church located in the village of Kiş approximately 5 km north of Shaki, Azerbaijan. It has functioned at different times as a Caucasian Albanian Apostolic church a Chalcedonian church within the Georgian Orthodox Church and later as Armenian Apostolic Church.


Dizak (Armenian: Դիզակ), also known as Ktish after its main stronghold, was a medieval Armenian principality in the historical Artsakh and later one of the five melikdoms of Karabakh, which included the southern third of Khachen (present-day Nagorno-Karabakh) and from the 13th century also the canton of Baghk of Syunik. The founder of this principality was Esayi abu-Muse, in the 9th century. In the 16-18th centuries Dizak was ruled by the Armenian Melik-Avanian dynasty, a branch of the House of Syunik-Khachen. The seat of the princes of Dizak was the town of Togh (or Dogh) with the adjacent ancient fortress of Ktish. One of the last princes of Dizak, Esayi Melik-Avanian, was killed by Ibrahim Khalil Khan in 1781, after a long-lasting resistance in the fortress of Ktish.

Today the name "Dizak" is often used to refer to the province Hadrut of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.

Hasköy, Muş

Hasköy (Armenian: Խասգեղ, Kurdish: Dêrxas) is a town and district of Muş Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of present-day Turkey. The mayor is Mürsel Özen (AKP).

Kalbajar District

Kalbajar District (Azerbaijani: Kəlbəcər), is a district of Azerbaijan. Kalbajar is a Turkic word meaning Castle on the mouth of the river. The entire region is now under the control of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh, making up part of the province of Shahumyan Region. Azeri population of Kalbajar were displaced by the fighting and currently live as internally displaced persons in other regions of Azerbaijan.

Melikdoms of Karabakh

The Five Melikdoms of Karabakh, also known as Khamsa Melikdoms (Armenian: Խամսայի մելիքություններ, translit. Khamsayi melikutyunner), were Armenian feudal entities that existed on the territory modern Nagorno Karabakh and neighboring lands from the times of the dissolution of the Principality of Khachen in the 15th century and up to the abolition of ethnic feudal formations in the Russian Empire in 1822.

Mount Imeon

Mount Imeon () is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan, extending from the Zagros Mountains in the southwest to the Altay Mountains in the northeast, and linked to the Kunlun, Karakoram and Himalayas to the southeast. The term was used by Hellenistic-era scholars as "Imaus Mount", even though non-Greek in etymology, and predating Alexander the Great.


Nagorno-Karabakh ( nə-GOR-noh kar-ə-BAHK; Russian: Нагорно-Карабах, lit. 'mountainous Karabakh'; Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ; Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ), also known as Artsakh (Armenian: Արցախ), is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. The region is mostly mountainous and forested.

Nagorno-Karabakh is a disputed territory, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but most of the region is governed by the Republic of Artsakh (formerly named Nagorno-Karabakh Republic), a de facto independent state with Armenian ethnic majority established on the basis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Azerbaijan has not exercised political authority over the region since the advent of the Karabakh movement in 1988. Since the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994, representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group on the region's disputed status.

The region is usually equated with the administrative borders of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast comprising an area of 4,400 square kilometres (1,700 sq mi). The historical area of the region, however, encompasses approximately 8,223 square kilometres (3,175 sq mi).

Qubadli District

Qubadli (Azerbaijani: Qubadlı rayonu) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. However, it has been de facto controlled by the forces of the Republic of Artsakh as part of its Qashatagh Province since the Nagorno-Karabakh War. According to the last Soviet census of 1989, population was 28,110. According to undated Azerbaijani data, the population was 34,100. Qubadli was part of Ancient Armenia and the Kingdom of Artsakh but was deliberately excluded from the Karabakh Autonomous Region in 1923, but then reunited with the rest of Nagorno-Karabakh (today called Artsakh) during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.

Sahl Smbatean

Sahl Smbatjan Eṙanshahik (Armenian: Սահլ Սմբատյան Եռանշահիկ, in Arabic sources: Sahl ibn Sunbat or Sahl ibn Sunbat al-Armaniyy; birthdate unknown – circa 855) was an Armenian prince of Arran and Shaki, who played a considerable role in the history of eastern Caucasus during the 9th century and was the ancestor of the House of Khachen established in 821.

Sisak (eponym)

Sisak (Armenian: Սիսակ) was the legendary ancestor of the Armenian princely house of Syuni, also called Siunids, Syunid and Syuni. The Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi states that Sisak was the brother of Harmar who was known as Arma, son of Gegham and a descendant of the legendary patriarch of the Armenians, Hayk. Gegham had taken up residence near Lake Sevan and, following his death, the lands encompassing the areas from Lake Sevan to the Araxes River were inherited by Sisak. The region assumed Sisak's name (Armenian: Սիսական; Sisakan) after he died, and those who descended from his dynastic line were known in Armenian as Syunis (in Armenian, Սյունիներ; Syuniner) or Sisakyaner (Սիսակյաններ). After the Kingdom of Armenia introduced the system of administrative divisions known as nahangs (provinces) in the second century B.C., the Siunis were confirmed by King Vologases (Vagharshak) the Parthian as the lords of the province of Syunik.According to historian Robert H. Hewsen:

Sisak...can only be another eponym, and a late one at that. Sisak is said to have been the ancestor of the princes of Siwnik', a province on the southern border of Geghak’uni. It was called Sisakan by the Sasanids (who ruled Persia from 226 to 637 A.D.); this term was unknown to Armenian historiography before the seventh century A.D. and was first used by a Syrian writer only in the sixth century.


Urnayr was the king of Caucasian Albania from the Arsacid Dynasty. According to the Albanian historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi who provided a list of the Arsacid kings of Albania, he followed king Vache I and was succeeded by king Vachagan II.

King Urnayr went to Syria and accepted Christianity and was baptized around 314 AD by Gregory the Illuminator and tried to spread Christianity in his kingdom through the Church of Caucasian Albania, one of the earliest autocephalous churches in Christianity. He declared Christianity as the state's religion in the 4th century CE. Albania would remain a Christian state until the 8th century.


Varagavank (Armenian: Վարագավանք, "Monastery of Varag"; Turkish: Yedi Kilise, "Seven Churches") was an Armenian monastery on the slopes of Mount Erek, 9 km (5.6 mi) southeast of the city of Van, in eastern Turkey.

The monastery was founded in the early 11th century by Senekerim-Hovhannes Artsruni, the Armenian King of Vaspurakan, on a preexisting religious site. Initially serving as the necropolis of the Artsruni kings, it eventually became the seat of the archbishop of the Armenian Church in Van. The monastery has been described as one of the great monastic centers of the Armenian church by Ara Sarafian and the richest and most celebrated monastery of the Lake Van area by Robert H. Hewsen.

During the Armenian Genocide, in April–May 1915, the Turkish army attacked, burned, and destroyed much of the monastery. More of it was destroyed in the 1960s, although some sections are still extant.


Vazashen (Armenian: Վազաշեն) is a town in the Tavush Province of Armenia. It is the site of ancient Xałxał (Armenian: Խաղխաղ), where Saint Vardan won his first military victory. Until recently, it was known as Lala Geł (Armenian: Լալա գեղ), then Lali Gyuł (Armenian: Լալի գյուղ). The name of Vazashen was chosen to reflect the local vineyard production (վազ/vaz 'grapevine' and շեն/shen 'village').

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