Robert Franz (28 June 1815 – 24 October 1892) was a German composer, mainly of lieder.
He was born Robert Franz Julius Knauth in Halle, Germany, the son of Christoph Franz Knauth. In 1847, Christoph Knauth adopted his middle name Franz as his new surname, and his son followed suit.
He suffered in early life from the hostility of his parents to a musical career. He was twenty years old when his father's animosity was conquered and he was allowed to live in Dessau to study organ playing under Friedrich Schneider. The two years of study under that famous teacher were advantageous chiefly in making him uncommonly intimate with the works of Bach and Händel, his knowledge of which be shown in his editions of the former's St Matthew Passion, Magnificat and ten cantatas, and the latter's Messiah and L'Allegro, although some of these editions have long been controversial among musicians.
In 1843 he published his first book of songs, which was followed by some fifty more books, containing in all about 250 songs. In his native Halle he filled various public offices, including those of city organist as well as conductor of the Singakademie and the Symphony. He also served as royal music-director and music master at the university. The first book of songs was warmly praised by Liszt and Schumann, and the latter wrote a lengthy review of it in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik and later published it separately as well.
Deafness began to make itself apparent as early as 1841. Franz also suffered from a nervous disorder that in 1868 compelled him to resign his offices. His future was then provided for by Franz Liszt, Joseph Joachim and others, who gave him the receipts of a concert tour amounting to some 100,000 marks.
In 1878 or 1879, he made an extensive search for Bach manuscripts in various towns, villages and country houses in Germany. Supposedly, he discovered a park surrounding Schloss Witzthun where young trees were being protected from their supporting poles by paper instead of the customary cloth or leather. On examination, the paper turned out to be Bach manuscripts. After questioning the gardener, Franz found a trunk of them, including a number of violin sonatas. Although this account was printed in the New York Times, Franz declared it was "entirely untrue".
In addition to songs, he set the 117th Psalm for double choir and wrote and a four-part Kyrie; he also edited Emanuele d'Astorga's Stabat Mater and Francesco Durante's Magnificat. He also transcribed Schubert's String Quartet in D minor ("Death and the Maiden") for piano duet (1878) and made arrangements of Mozart's Quintets in C minor and C major.
He died in Halle.
Der Messias, K. 572, is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's 1789 German-language version of Messiah, George Frideric Handel's 1741 oratorio. On the initiative of Gottfried van Swieten, Mozart adapted Handel's work for performances in Vienna.
The libretto of Mozart's adaptation was largely based on Luther's translation of the Bible. Mozart re-orchestrated about three-fifths of Handel's composition, primarily providing additional parts for an extended section of wind instruments, which was called Harmonie at the time. In general, a half-century after the inception of the work, Mozart adapted an English-language work conceived for a baroque orchestra in a public venue, to accommodate the constraints of private performances and the musical tastes of Vienna.
Mozart's arrangement, first published in 1803, was instrumental in making Messiah Handel's most widely known oratorio. However, the adaptation has had few supporters amongst Mozart or Handel scholars.Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt (German: [ˈlɪst]; Hungarian: Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc [ˈlist ˈfɛrɛnt͡s]; 22 October 1811 – 31 July 1886) was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger and organist of the Romantic era. He was also a writer, a philanthropist, a Hungarian nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary.
Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was a friend, musical promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Ole Bull, Joachim Raff, Mikhail Glinka, and Alexander Borodin.A prolific composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School (Neudeutsche Schule). He left behind an extensive and diverse body of work which influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated 20th-century ideas and trends. Among Liszt's musical contributions were the symphonic poem, developing thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form, and radical innovations in harmony.Franz Liszt's treatments of the works of other composers
This article lists the various treatments given by Franz Liszt to the works of almost 100 other composers.
These treatments included transcriptions for other instruments (predominantly solo piano), arrangements, orchestrations, fantaisies, reminiscences, paraphrases, illustrations, variations, and editions.
Liszt also extensively treated his own works in a similar manner, but these are not tallied here—neither are his treatments of national (or "folk") melodies whose composers are unknown, nor other anonymous works.
In most cases, Liszt arranged only one or two pieces by a composer, but he delved more deeply into the works of Bach, Beethoven, Berlioz, Donizetti, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Mozart, Rossini, Schubert, Verdi, Wagner, and Weber.
The earliest-born composer whose works Liszt dealt with was Orlande de Lassus (born c. 1532). Jacques Arcadelt was born earlier (c. 1507), but Liszt's treatment was not of Arcadelt's original work, rather of a setting by Pierre-Louis Dietsch loosely based on Arcadelt. The last composer to die whose works Liszt dealt with was Géza Zichy (1849–1924).Gurre-Lieder
Gurre-Lieder is a large cantata for five vocal soloists, narrator, chorus and large orchestra, composed by Arnold Schoenberg, on poems by the Danish novelist Jens Peter Jacobsen (translated from Danish to German by Robert Franz Arnold). The title means "songs of Gurre", referring to Gurre Castle in Denmark, scene of the medieval love-tragedy (related in Jacobsen's poems) revolving around the Danish national legend of the love of the Danish king Valdemar Atterdag (Valdemar IV, 1320–1375, spelled Waldemar by Schoenberg) for his mistress Tove, and her subsequent murder by Valdemar's jealous Queen Helvig (a legend which is historically more likely connected with his ancestor Valdemar I).Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March [O.S. 21 March] 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, and the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.The Bach family already counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After becoming an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar—where he expanded his repertoire for the organ—and Köthen—where he was mostly engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor (cantor at St. Thomas) in Leipzig. He composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, and for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum. From 1726 he published some of his keyboard and organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened in some of his earlier positions, he had a difficult relation with his employer, a situation that was little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by his sovereign, Augustus, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, in 1736. In the last decades of his life he reworked and extended many of his earlier compositions. He died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65.
Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of cantatas, both sacred and secular. He composed Latin church music, Passions, oratorios, and motets. He often adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance also in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs. He wrote extensively for organ and for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, and suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra. Many of his works employ the genres of canon and fugue.
Throughout the 18th century Bach was mostly renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities. The 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, and by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals and websites exclusively devoted to him, and other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV, a numbered catalogue of his works) and new critical editions of his compositions. His music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including for instance the Air on the G String, and of recordings, for instance three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's works marking the 250th anniversary of his death.List of compositions by Franz Liszt
This is a list of compositions by Franz Liszt, based on the catalogue of Humphrey Searle – The Music of Liszt, 1966; and on the additions by Sharon Winklhofer and Leslie Howard.
The catalogue up to S.350 is generally confined to the fully original works; arrangements and transcriptions are generally covered in numbers S.351–S.686. However, a number of entries in the first half are in fact arrangements of other composers' works (see Franz Liszt's treatments of the works of other composers for more details), and the latter half includes most of Liszt's arrangements of his own original works. Unfinished, lost or doubtful works are covered in numbers S.687–S.768.Los Altos High School (Hacienda Heights, California)
Los Altos High School is a comprehensive four-year public education high school located in the bedroom community of Hacienda Heights, California, United States, in eastern Los Angeles County. It should not be confused with the Los Altos High School located in the city of Los Altos, California.Mick Peak
Mick Peak (77°11′31″S 161°23′02″E) is a peak rising to c. 1500 meters 1.5 nautical miles (2.8 km) west-northwest of Mount James in the Helicopter Mountains of the Saint Johns Range. Named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names in 2007 after Robert Franz Mick, helicopter mechanic in support of the U.S. Antarctic Program at McMurdo Sound and the McMurdo Dry Valleys in eight austral field seasons, from 2000-01 to 2007-08.Niels Gade
Niels Wilhelm Gade (22 February 1817 – 21 December 1890) was a Danish composer, conductor, violinist, organist and teacher. He is considered the most important Danish musician of his day.Night and No Morning
Night and No Morning (German: Die Nacht ohne Morgen) is a 1921 German silent drama film directed by Karl Grune and starring Eugen Klöpfer, Hans Mierendorff and Hanni Weisse. It premiered in Berlin on 17 August 1921.Robert Franz Schmidt
Robert Franz Schmidt (16 September 1932 in Ludwigshafen – 13 September 2017) was a German physiologist and professor emeritus. From 1982 until 2000 he was the director of the Institute of Physiology at the University of Würzburg.Robert Schmidt
Robert Schmidt may refer to:
Robert Franz Schmidt (1932–2017), German physiologist and professor emeritus
Robert Hans Schmidt (died 24 October 1962), general director of Ford Germany
Robert Schmidt (bobsleigh), bobsledder who competed in the early 1930s
Robert Schmidt (politician) (1864–1943), leader in the Weimar Republic in the late 1910s and early 1920s
Robert Schmidt (actor) (1882–1941), Danish actor
Robert Schmidt (American football), American football coach in the United States
Robert Schmidt (Wisconsin) (1913–1988), American politicianSankt Florian
Sankt Florian is a town in the Austrian state of Upper Austria. It is 10 miles (16 km) from Linz.
Sankt Florian is the home of St Florian's Priory, a community of Canons Regular named after Saint Florian and one of the oldest operational monasteries in the world following the Rule of St Augustine. Composer Anton Bruckner (1824–96), who was a choirboy and later organist in the town, is buried beneath the organ inside the monastic church, which was elevated to the rank of basilica minor in 1999.Shahriyar Jamshidi
Shahriyar Jamshidi (Persian: شهریار جمشیدی, Sorani Kurdish: شەهریار جەمشیدی) (born 1971) is a Kurdish Iranian Kamancheh player and composer. His focus is mainly on Kurdish and Iranian music.Shamefaced Lanky and Impure in Heart
"Shamefaced Lanky and Impure in Heart" (German: "Der Unredliche in seinem Herzen") is the name usually given to Franz Kafka's earliest surviving work of fiction, a short story that he wrote in 1902 and that has survived only because it was included in a letter to his friend Oskar Pollack.Shootings of Alfred and Rosemary Podgis
On July 5, 1982, Alfred Podgis and his wife Rosemary Podgis were fatally shot in their home in Loch Arbour, New Jersey, United States. Scott Robert Franz, Rosemary's son by a previous marriage, was convicted of the murder of Alfred, his stepfather. Franz's high school friend Bruce Anthony Curtis, a Canadian citizen who was visiting the Podgis home, was convicted of the aggravated manslaughter of Rosemary. Both were sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.The crime attracted significant public attention in Canada, where supporters of Curtis – whose defense was that the killing of Rosemary Podgis was accidental – believed he had not received a fair trial or sentence in the United States, and successfully lobbied for his repatriation to Canada to serve out his sentence in the Canadian prison system. The case became the subject of a book and a television film.Wilhelm Grosz
Wilhelm Grosz (11 August 1894 – 10 December 1939) (sometimes credited as Hugh Williams) was an Austrian composer, pianist, and conductor.
Wilhelm Grosz was born in Vienna. He studied music with Richard Robert, Franz Schreker and Guido Adler. In 1921 he was appointed conductor of the Mannheim Opera, but returned to Vienna in 1922, where he worked as a pianist and composer. From 1927 he was the artistic manager of the Ultraphone Gramophone company in Berlin. In 1933 he became conductor of the Kammerspiele Theater in Vienna.
Forced to flee his native land because of the Nazi takeover, Grosz resettled in England in 1934. However, he found little interest there for his avant garde musical style. He was able to apply a considerable melodic gift to setting the lyrics of popular songs, some of which became international successes. Most of his most popular titles were written with lyricist Jimmy Kennedy: "Harbour Lights", "Red Sails in the Sunset", "When Budapest Was Young", and "Isle of Capri".
Grosz's classical compositions include three operas, two ballets, incidental music for three plays, scores for a number of films, orchestral works, a Symphonic Dance for piano and orchestra, chamber music, piano pieces and songs.
Afrika-Songs, a song cycle for two vocal soloists and chamber ensemble, was first performed in 1930. It utilizes texts by Afro-American poets, mainly Langston Hughes, and a strongly blues-flavored sound. Both Afrika-Songs and a selection of the pop tunes, along with other of Grosz's works, were recorded in the mid-1990s by Decca Records, as part of their series called Entartete Musik (subtitled "Music Suppressed By the Third Reich").
He died in 1939 in New York City.