Robert Fitzgerald

Robert Stuart Fitzgerald (/fɪtsˈdʒɛrəld/; 12 October 1910 – 16 January 1985) was an American poet, critic and translator whose renderings of the Greek classics "became standard works for a generation of scholars and students".[1] He was best known as a translator of ancient Greek and Latin. He also composed several books of his own poetry.

Robert Fitzgerald portrait
Fitzgerald in 1943 by Walker Evans


Fitzgerald grew up in Springfield, Illinois, and graduated from The Choate School (now Choate Rosemary Hall) in Wallingford, Connecticut. He entered Harvard in 1929, and in 1931 a number of his poems were published in Poetry magazine. After graduating from Harvard in 1933 he became a reporter for The New York Herald Tribune for a year.

Later he worked several years for TIME magazine. In 1940, William Saroyan lists him among "associate editors" at Time in the play, Love's Old Sweet Song.[2][1] Whittaker Chambers mentions him as a colleague in his 1952 memoir, Witness.[3]

In World War II, he served in the U.S. Navy in Guam and Pearl Harbor. Later he was an instructor at Sarah Lawrence and Princeton University, poetry editor of The New Republic. He succeeded Archibald MacLeish as Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory at Harvard in 1965 and served until his retirement in 1981.[1]

He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a Chancellor of the Academy of American Poets. From 1984 to 1985 he was appointed Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, a position now known as Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry, the United States' equivalent of a national poet laureate, but did not serve due to illness. In 1984 Fitzgerald received a L.H.D. from Bates College.[4]

Fitzgerald is widely known as one of the most poetic translators into the English language. He also served as literary executor to Flannery O'Connor, who was a boarder at his home in Redding, Connecticut, from 1949 to 1951. Fitzgerald's wife at the time, Sally Fitzgerald, compiled O'Connor's essays and letters after O'Connor's death. Benedict Fitzgerald (who co-wrote the screenplay for The Passion of the Christ with Mel Gibson), Barnaby Fitzgerald, and Michael Fitzgerald are sons of Robert and Sally.[5]

Fitzgerald was married three times. He later moved to Hamden, Connecticut, where he died at his home after a long illness.[1]



  • Euripides (1936). The Alcestis of Euripides. Translators Dudley Fitts, Robert Fitzgerald. Harcourt, Brace and company.
  • Sophocles (1951). Oedipus Rex. Translators Dudley Fitts, Robert Fitzgerald. Faber and Faber.
  • Sophocles (1954). Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus; Antigone. Translators David Grene, Robert Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Wyckoff. University of Chicago press.
  • Homer's The Odyssey. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 1961.
    • Homer (1965). The Odyssey. Translator Robert Fitzgerald. Houghton Mifflin Company.
    • Homer (1998). The Odyssey. Translator Robert Fitzgerald. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-22438-7.
  • Homer (1998). The Iliad. Translator Robert Fitzgerald. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-283405-8.
  • Virgil (1983). The Aeneid. Translator Robert Fitzgerald. Random House. ISBN 0-394-52827-1.


  • Poems. Arrow Editions. 1935.
  • A Wreath for the Sea. Arrow editions. 1943.
  • In the Rose of Time: Poems, 1939-1956. W W Norton & Co Inc. 1956. ISBN 978-0-8112-0279-4.
  • Spring Shade: Poems, 1931-1970. New Directions. 1971. ISBN 978-0-8112-0052-3.


  • Robert Fitzgerald, ed. (1969). The Collected Poems of James Agee. Calder and Boyars. ISBN 978-0-7145-0887-0.
  • James Agee (1976). Robert Fitzgerald, ed. The Collected Short Prose of James Agee. Cherokee Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87797-302-7.
  • Flannery O'Connor (1969). Sally Fitzgerald, Robert Fitzgerald, ed. Mystery and manners: occasional prose. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-374-50804-3.
  • Flannery O'Connor (1965). Sally Fitzgerald, Robert Fitzgerald, ed. Everything that rises must converge. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-374-50464-9.


  1. ^ a b c d Mitgang, Herbert (January 17, 1985). Robert Fitzgerald, 74, poet who translated the classics. New York Times
  2. ^ Saroyan, William (1940). Love's Old Sweet Song: A Play in Three Acts. Samuel French. p. 72. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  3. ^ Chambers, Whittaker (1952). Witness. New York: Random House. p. 478. LCCN 52005149.
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Robert Fitzgerald - American poet". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 1, 2019.

External links

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George Des Brisay de Blois

George DesBrisay DeBlois (October 21, 1887 –April 22, 1958) was a wholesale merchant and political figure on Prince Edward Island. He served as 14th Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island from December 1933 to September 1939.

He was born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, the son of Robert Fitzgerald DeBlois and Ethel Helen DesBrisay, and educated at Saint Peter's Collegiate. DeBlois married Marion Ella Newbery in 1915. He was commissioner for the Provincial Tuberculosis Sanatorium.

George Robert FitzGerald

George Robert Fitzgerald, aka Fighting Fitzgerald, Irish eccentric, died 1786.

FitzGerald came from Turlough, near Castlebar. He was of an upper-class family, nephew of the Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry, and was educated at Eton. A highly eccentric character, he is said to have become so after a blow to the head sometime in his 20s. Most of his life was spent on his paternal estate in Mayo. There he hunted by torchlight, terrified his friends by keeping bears and other ferocious animals as pets, erected a fort and set the law at defiance. He even held his father to ransom for a sum of £3,000. In 1770 he married Jane, daughter of William James Conolly, but the marriage effectively ended as soon as he had spent her dowry.He fought many duels, including one with Richard Martin in the barrack's yard of Castlebar, in which both were wounded. Another, with a Mr. French, occurred in Castlebar. French was accused of rustling cattle from Fitzgerald's father; the duel "is said to have started near the bridge at the bottom of Main Street and proceeded with the contestants jumping from one side of the street to the other, smashing traders' stalls in the process. The duel ended on Ellison Street and there appears to have been no serious injury to the pair."FitzGerald was hanged for murder in 1786 along with his law agent, Timothy Brecknock.

John Fitzgerald (center)

John Robert Fitzgerald (born April 16, 1948) is a former American football center in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys from 1971 to 1980, including four Super Bowls. He played college football at Boston College and was drafted in the fourth round of the 1970 NFL Draft.


Robert Fitzgerald Diggs (born July 5, 1969), better known by his stage name RZA ( RIZ-ə), is an American rapper, record producer, musician and actor. He is the de facto leader of the Wu-Tang Clan. He has produced almost all of Wu-Tang Clan's albums, as well as many Wu-Tang solo and affiliate projects. He is a cousin of two other original Wu-Tang Clan members: GZA and Ol' Dirty Bastard. He has also released solo albums under the alter-ego Bobby Digital, along with executive producing credits for side projects. Prior to forming the Wu-Tang Clan, RZA was a founding member of the horrorcore group Gravediggaz, where he went by the name The RZArector.

RZA has been heavily involved in filmmaking since the late 1990s. He has scored a number of films, most notably Kill Bill: Volume 1 (2003) and Kill Bill: Volume 2 (2004). He has written and directed in film and television, starting with his directorial debut, The Man with the Iron Fists, in 2012. He has also acted in numerous films and TV series, including the films American Gangster and Brick Mansions, and the TV series Gang Related and Californication.

He is especially known for his music production, with a style that includes the use of soul samples and sparse beats that has proved highly influential. The magazine The Source placed him on its list of the 20 greatest producers in the magazine's twenty-year history. Vibe listed him among the top 8 greatest hip-hop producers of all time. NME placed him on their list of the 50 Greatest Producers Ever.

Robbie Earle

Robert Fitzgerald Earle MBE (born 27 January 1965) is an English-born Jamaican former international footballer who played as a midfielder. He played 578 league games in senior club football, scoring 136 goals.

A former youth player with Stoke City, Earle broke into the professional game with Port Vale in 1982. He spent nine years at the Burslem based club, helping "The Vale" to promotion out of the Fourth Division in 1982–83 and 1985–86, and out of the Third Division via the play-offs in 1989; he was later voted the club's PFA Fans' Favourites. He moved on to Wimbledon in 1991, where he also spent nine years. He made nearly 300 league games for each club, scoring 77 and 59 goals respectively. He also represented Jamaica on 8 occasions between 1997 and 1998, scoring one international goal. He appeared in the 1998 World Cup, scoring his nation's first ever goal in the finals.

Following his retirement in 2000, Earle has established himself in the world of football journalism. He regularly appears in print, on the radio and on television. He was dismissed from his punditry role with ITV in 2010 after he passed ITV World Cup tickets to a third party. After spending time as television broadcast analyst for the Portland Timbers of Major League Soccer, he is now a commentator for the Premier League on NBCSN.

Robert F. Kennedy

Robert Francis Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a U.S. Senator from New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968. Kennedy, like his brothers John and Edward, was a prominent member of the Democratic Party and has come to be viewed by some historians as an icon of modern American liberalism.Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, the seventh child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. After serving in the U.S. Naval Reserve as a seaman apprentice from 1944 to 1946, Kennedy returned to Harvard University and graduated in 1948. He received his law degree from the University of Virginia and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1951. He began his career as a lawyer at the Justice Department but later resigned to manage his brother John's successful campaign for the U.S. Senate in 1952. The following year, he worked as an assistant counsel to the Senate committee chaired by Senator Joseph McCarthy. He gained national attention as the chief counsel of the Senate Labor Rackets Committee from 1957 to 1959, where he publicly challenged Teamsters President Jimmy Hoffa over the corrupt practices of the union and authored The Enemy Within, a book about corruption in organized labor.

Kennedy resigned from the committee to conduct his brother's campaign in the 1960 presidential election. He was appointed United States Attorney General after the successful election and served as the closest advisor to the President from 1961 to 1963.His tenure is best known for its advocacy for the civil rights movement, the fight against organized crime and the Mafia, and involvement in U.S. foreign policy related to Cuba. After his brother's assassination, he remained in office in the Johnson Administration for several months. He left to run for the United States Senate from New York in 1964 and defeated Republican incumbent Kenneth Keating. In office, Kennedy opposed racial discrimination and U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. He was an advocate for issues related to human rights and social justice and formed relationships with Martin Luther King Jr. and Cesar Chavez.

In 1968, Kennedy became a leading candidate for the Democratic nomination for the presidency by appealing to poor, African American, Hispanic, Catholic, and young voters. His main challenger in the race was Senator Eugene McCarthy. Shortly after winning the California primary around midnight on June 5, 1968, Kennedy was mortally wounded when shot with a pistol by Sirhan Sirhan, a 24-year-old Palestinian, allegedly in retaliation for his support of Israel following the 1967 Six-Day War. Kennedy died the following day. Sirhan was arrested, tried, and convicted, though Kennedy's assassination, like his brother's, continues to be the subject of widespread analysis and numerous conspiracy theories.

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Robert Fitzgerald (Australian politician)

Robert George Dundas Fitzgerald (5 January 1846 – 24 December 1933) was a New Zealand-born Australian politician.

He was born at Auckland to cotton planter Robert Appleyard Fitzgerald and Isabella Stevenson. The family moved to New South Wales in 1851 and Fitzgerald attended Sydney Grammar School and also a private school at Muswellbrook. He then became a solicitor's clerk in Maitland and was admitted a solicitor in 1869. In 1870 he married Elizabeth Frances Mary Batten, with whom he had a daughter. He established a partnership in Muswellbrook, and served as a local alderman (1871–73, 1878–80, 1885–86) and mayor (1878–79). In 1885 he was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as one of the two members for Upper Hunter. Although associated with the Free Trade Party early in his career, by 1889 he was a Protectionist. In 1894 he was elected the member for the single-member seat of Robertson. In April 1901 he was appointed Minister for Justice in John See's ministry, but the post was abolished in July shortly after Fitzgerald retired from the Assembly. He was appointed to the New South Wales Legislative Council in September and served until his death in 1933.

Robert Fitzgerald (disambiguation)

Robert Fitzgerald (1910–1985) was an American classicist and translator of ancient Greek and Latin

Robert Fitzgerald may also refer to:

Robert FitzGerald (1637–1698), Irish MP for Kildare County

Robert FitzGerald (1654–1718), Irish MP for Castlemartyr and Youghal

Robert FitzGerald (1671–1725), Irish MP for Charleville

Robert FitzGerald, 19th Earl of Kildare (1675–1743), Irish peer

Robert FitzGerald, 17th Knight of Kerry (1717–1781), Irish MP for Dingle

Lord Robert Stephen FitzGerald (1765–1833), 6th son of James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster, and British diplomat in Switzerland 1792–1795

Robert Uniacke Fitzgerald (1771–1842), Irish MP for Cork County, 1797

Robert Fitzgerald (pastoralist) (1807–1865), Australian pastoralist and politician

Robert D. FitzGerald (1830–1892), Irish-Australian botanist and surveyor

Robert Allan Fitzgerald (1834–1881), English cricketer

Robert Fitzgerald (Australian politician) (1846–1933), New South Wales parliamentarian

R. D. Fitzgerald (1902–1987), Australian poet and grandson of the above botanist/surveyor

Robert Fitzgerald (speed skater) (1923–2005), U.S. speed skater

Bob Fitzgerald (basketball) (1923–1983), American basketball player

Bob Fitzgerald (born 1968), sports commentator

Robert Fitzgerald (speed skater)

Robert Emmett "Bobby" Fitzgerald (October 3, 1923 in Minneapolis, Minnesota – April 22, 2005 in Luverne, Minnesota) was an American speed skater who competed in the 1948 Winter Olympics and in the 1952 Winter Olympics.He was a member of the US Army Air Corps in World War II, and was discharged due to injuries sustained in a plane crash.He was a Feb., 1947 graduate of St. Thomas College, when he won the national and North American Speed Skating crowns. Later that year, he skated in the "Winter Carnival" held at Como Park, in St. Paul, which was the US Olympic trials for speed skating. His 1st place there was enough to qualify him for the seven man team.

In 1948 he won a silver medal in the 500 metres event. He also finished 28th in the 1500 metres competition.

In 2005, he was inducted to the Minneapolis South High School's (1941 Graduate) "Wall of Honor".Fitzgerald was also a chiropractor, a 1956 graduate of Northwestern College of Chiropractic, he was also a supporter of the International Chiropractor's Association.

Robert Fitzgerald Prosody Award

The Robert Fitzgerald Prosody Award is awarded to scholars who have made a lasting contribution to the art and science of versification. The award was named after the poet, critic, and translator Robert Fitzgerald. It was established in 1999 at the Fifth Annual West Chester University Poetry Conference. Each awardee has been interviewed at the conference by linguist and literary historian Dr. Thomas Cable of the University of Texas at Austin.

Robin Cooper (politician)

Robert Fitzgerald "Robin" Cooper (born 25 April 1936) is a former Australian politician.

Born in Melbourne, Victoria, he attended Xavier College and later the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology before embarking on a career in sales and marketing in the building supplies industry. In 1972 he was elected to Mornington Shire Council, and became president of the council 1979–80.In 1985 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as the Liberal member for Mornington and was immediately elevated to the front bench, serving as Shadow Minister for Local Government and Public Works. In 1987 he was given the portfolios of Arts and Police and Emergency Services, exchanging Arts for Corrections in 1988. In 1989 he moved to Local Government and Tourism, and in 1990 to Public Transport. In 1991, however, he left the front bench. He was appointed a parliamentary secretary in 1996 in the Kennett Government before being promoted to the Ministry of Transport in 1997. He left the front bench again on the Coalition's defeat in 1999. He spent a period as Manager of Opposition Business in the Assembly in 2006 before retiring at that year's state election.

William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster

William Robert FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster, KP, PC (Ire) (12/13 March 1749 – 20 October 1804) was an Irish liberal politician and landowner. He was born in London.

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