Robert Coleman Richardson (June 26, 1937 – February 19, 2013) was an American experimental physicist whose area of research included sub-millikelvin temperature studies of helium-3. Richardson, along with David Lee, as senior researchers, and then graduate student Douglas Osheroff, shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics for their 1972 discovery of the property of superfluidity in helium-3 atoms in the Cornell University Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics.
Richardson was born in Washington D.C. He went to high school at Washington-Lee in Arlington, Virginia. He later described Washington-Lee's biology and physics courses as "very old-fashioned" for the time. "The idea of 'advanced placement' had not yet been invented," he wrote in his Nobel Prize autobiography. He took his first calculus course when he was a sophomore in college.
At the time of his death, he was the Floyd Newman Professor of Physics at Cornell University, although he no longer operated a laboratory. From 1998 to 2007 he served as Cornell's vice provost for research, and from 2007 to 2009 was senior science adviser to the president and provost. His past experimental work focused on using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to study the quantum properties of liquids and solids at extremely low temperatures.
Robert Coleman Richardson
|Born||June 26, 1937|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Died||February 19, 2013 (aged 75)|
|Alma mater||Virginia Tech (B.S., M.S.)|
Duke University (Ph.D.)
|Known for||Discovering superfluidity in helium-3|
|Awards||Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1970)|
Nobel Prize in Physics (1996)
|Doctoral advisor||Horst Meyer|
was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1937th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 937th year of the 2nd millennium, the 37th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1930s decade.1937 in science
The year 1937 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.1937 in the United States
Events from the year 1937 in the United States.2013
was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the 3rd millennium, the 13th year of the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.
2013 was designated as:
International Year of Water Cooperation
International Year of QuinoaEagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America)
Eagle Scout is the highest achievement or rank attainable in the Scouts BSA program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Since its inception in 1911, only four percent of Scouts have earned this rank after a lengthy review process. The Eagle Scout rank has been earned by over 2.5 million youth.Requirements include earning at least 21 merit badges. The Eagle Scout must demonstrate Scout Spirit, an ideal attitude based upon the Scout Oath and Law, service, and leadership. This includes an extensive service project that the Scout plans, organizes, leads, and manages. Eagle Scouts are presented with a medal and a badge that visibly recognizes the accomplishments of the Scout. Additional recognition can be earned through Eagle Palms, awarded for completing additional tenure, leadership, and merit badge requirements.February 19
February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 315 days remain until the end of the year (316 in leap years).Horst Meyer (physicist)
Horst Meyer (March 1, 1926 – August 14, 2016) was a Swiss scientist doing research in condensed matter physics.
Meyer was the son of the surgeon Arthur Woldemar Meyer in Berlin and the grandson of the pharmacologist Hans Horst Meyer. After Arthur's sudden death in 1933 he was adopted by the chemist Kurt Heinrich Meyer, the brother of Arthur, and grew up in Switzerland. After graduating from the Collège Jean Calvin in Geneva, he studied physics and physical chemistry at the universities of Geneva and of Zürich, obtaining his PhD in 1953. He was first a postdoctoral associate, later a Nuffield Fellow in the Clarendon Laboratory at the University of Oxford, from 1957 lecturer at Harvard University. In 1959 he was appointed an assistant professor at Duke University (where Fritz London was formerly on the faculty), and where he became in 1984 the Fritz London Professor and finally professor emeritus in 2004. Meyer died from cancer in 2016.He was visiting professor at the Technische Universität München (1965), the University of Tokyo and Toyota Technological Institute in Nagoya, and also 1974 and 1975 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. In 1992 he became co-editor of the Journal of Low Temperature Physics, and in 2014 honorary editor. In 1988 he was guest scientist of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
He was involved with experimental low temperature physics. Among the topics he did research upon were magnetic compounds, beta-quinone clathrate compounds, solid and liquid helium, solid hydrogen and deuterium, and various phase transitions such as order-disorder phase transitions in solid hydrogen. His studies also included the normal-superfluid transition in helium-4 and in mixtures of helium-3 and helium-4, and also their Liquid-Vapor critical point. Furthermore, he did research on the Rayleigh-Bénard convection and its onset in supercritical helium-3. The list of his publications, as well as the list of his former PhD students and collaborators can be found in his weblink.
In 1993 he received the Fritz London Memorial Prize and in 1982 the Jesse Beams Award of the American Physical Society, of which he was a Fellow since 1970. From 1961 until 1965 he was an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow. In 2014 he was awarded the “University Medal” of Duke University. One of his PhD students, Robert Coleman Richardson, shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics with Douglas Osheroff and David Lee for the discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.In 1953 he married Ruth Mary Hunter (deceased in 2013) and he has one son, Christopher, who is a staff physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).Index of physics articles (R)
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.June 26
June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 188 days remain until the end of the year.Lake Sunapee
Lake Sunapee is located within Sullivan County and Merrimack County in western New Hampshire, the United States. It is the fifth-largest lake located entirely in New Hampshire.
The lake is approximately 8.1 miles (13.0 km) long (north-south) and from 0.5 to 2.5 miles (0.8 to 4.0 km) wide (east-west), covering 6.5 square miles (17 km2), with a maximum depth of 105 feet (32 m). It contains eleven islands (Loon Island, Elizabeth Island, Twin Islands, Great Island, Minute Island, Little Island, Star Island, Emerald Island, Isle of Pines and Penny Island) and is indented by several peninsulas and lake fingers, a combination which yields a total shoreline of some 70 miles (110 km). There are seven sandy beach areas including Mount Sunapee State Park beach; some with restricted town access. There are six boat ramps to access the lake at Sunapee Harbor, Georges Mills, Newbury, Mount Sunapee State Park, Burkehaven Marina, and a private marina. The lake contains three lighthouses on the National Register of Historic Places. The driving distance around the lake is 25 miles (40 km) with many miles of lake water view. The lake is 1,093 feet (333 m) above sea level.
The lake's outlet is in Sunapee Harbor, the headway for the Sugar River, which flows west through Newport and Claremont to the Connecticut River and then to the Atlantic Ocean. The lake discharges about 250 cubic feet per second (on average), and the Sugar River drops approximately 800 feet (240 m) on its 27-mile (43 km) journey to the Connecticut River.List of Nobel laureates
The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.List of Nobel laureates in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics. As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Physics)
This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.Michael Roukes
Michael Lee Roukes is an American experimental physicist, nanoscientist, and the Frank J. Roshek Professor of Physics, Applied Physics, and Bioengineering at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
Roukes earned B.A. degrees in physics and chemistry (double majors) in 1978 at University of California, Santa Cruz, with highest honors in both majors, he received his Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University in 1985. His graduate advisor at Cornell was Nobel Laureate, Robert Coleman Richardson.
Roukes’ thesis research at Cornell elucidated the electron-phonon bottleneck at ultra low temperatures; the hot electron effect that is now recapitulated in texts on solid state transport physics. Stated in simplest terms, when electrons carry current in normal conductors, they heat up. At low temperatures and, now, in nanoscale devices at ordinary temperatures, their ability to dissipate this heat can be significantly impaired. This has generic implications for the operation of powered nanodevices.
After earning his Ph.D., Roukes spent seven years as a Member of Technical Staff / Principal Investigator in the Quantum Structures Research group at Bell Communications Research in New Jersey, focusing on mesoscopic physics of electron transport in nanostructures. Roukes left Bellcore to become a tenured Associate Professor of Physics at Caltech in 1992, rising to full professorship in 1995, and subsequently became Professor of Physics, Applied Physics, and Bioengineering in 2000. Upon moving to Caltech, his principal research focus changed to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). As the earliest pioneer in this field, DARPA engaged Roukes to organize the first international workshop on NEMS in 1999, followed by a large international conference and school on nanoscale and molecular mechanics in 2002. The many alumni from his group continue to advance this field at major universities in the U.S. and abroad. Roukes' other research efforts at Caltech have focused on thermal properties of nanostructures, semiconductor spintronics, and, more recently, nanobiotechnology.
In 2002 Roukes was named the founding Director of the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech. After stepping down between 2006–2008, to focus on co-founding the international Alliance for Nanosystems VLSI (very large scale integration) and to pursue collaborative research on NEMS VLSI in connection with a Chaire d’Excellence in Nanoscience in Grenoble (with scientists at CEA/LETI-Minatec), Roukes returned as co-Director of the KNI in 2008.
Roukes was named a recipient of a National Institutes of Health Director's Pioneer Award in 2010. In 2012 he was named Chevalier (Knight) of the Ordre des Palmes Académiques by the Republic of France.Among his groups' principal achievements at Bell were observation of quenching of the Hall effect in a quasi-one-dimensional wire, elucidation of electron-boundary scattering in quantum wires, invention of "anti"-dots and elucidation of commensurability effects in this system, first elucidation of chaotic transport in mesoscopic conductor, and direct measurement of the transmission matrix for a mesoscopic conductor. Among his groups' principal achievements at Caltech are development of the first nanoelectromechanical systems, measurement of the quantum of thermal conductance, first attainment of attogram mass resolution with a NEMS resonator, first measurement of nanodevice motion at microwave frequencies, discovery of the giant planar Hall effect in semiconducting ferromagnets, observation and control of a single domain wall in a ferromagnetic semiconducting wire, first demonstration of zeptogram-scale mass sensing, first coupling of a qubit to a NEMS resonator, and first demonstration of nanomechanical mass spectrometry of single protein molecules. Roukes has authored or co-authored highly cited general interest articles on nanophysics, nanoelectromechanical systems, spintronics, and quantum electromechanics.Roukes and his collaborators have been issued 49 patents in his fields of research.
An electron micrograph of the quantum of thermal conductance device, taken by postdoc Keith Schwab and colorized by Roukes, was acquired for the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in 2008.Roukes organized TEDxCaltech: Feynman’s Vision - The Next 50 Years, held on January 14, 2011, which celebrated the genius of Caltech physicist Richard Feynman in a series of forward-looking talks in the TED (conference) format. Subsequently, he organized TEDxCaltech: The Brain, which was held on January 19, 2013 at Caltech. Talks from these events can be found online.
In 2002, with three other scientists, Roukes met with, Elias Zerhouni, the Director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, and the Directors of the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and several other NIH directors to propose what ultimately became the National Cancer Institute's Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.
In 2011, Roukes was one of the six scientists first advocating, to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), a large-scale U.S. national neuroscience project to accelerate technology for functional connectomics. The group’s concept of a Brain Activity Map project ultimately led to President Obama’s BRAIN Initiative, launched in 2013. In 2016, Roukes founded the multi-institution Neurotech Alliance to disseminate state-of-the-art neurotechnology to the neuroscience research community.Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize
The Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize is an annual award given by the American Physical Society "to recognize and encourage outstanding theoretical or experimental contributions to condensed matter physics." It was endowed by AT&T Bell Laboratories as a means of recognizing outstanding scientific work. The prize is named in honor of Oliver Ellsworth Buckley, a former president of Bell Labs.
The prize is normally awarded to one person but may be shared if multiple recipients contributed to the same accomplishments. Nominations are active for three years. The prize was endowed in 1952 and first awarded in 1953.Robert Richardson
Robert Richardson may refer to:
Robert Richardson (cinematographer) (born 1955), American cinematographer
Robert Richardson (travel writer) (1779–1847), British medical doctor and author of a travelogue
Robert Richardson (religion) (1806–1876), American medical doctor and religious leader
Robert Richardson Jr. (racing driver) (born 1982), American racing car driver
Robert Richardson (Labour politician) (1862–1943), British Labour Party Member of Parliament, 1918–1931
Robert Richardson (basketball), American basketball coach for the Utah Utes
Robert Richardson (poet) (1850–1901), Australian poet
Robert Richardson (Lord Treasurer) (died 1578), Scottish cleric and administrator
Robert Richardson (British Army officer) (1929–2014)
Robert Richardson (RAAF officer) (born 1941)
Robert A. Richardson (1827–1895), American lawyer and justice for the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals
Robert Coleman Richardson (1937–2013), American physicist, 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics
Robert C. Richardson, Jr. (1882–1954), United States Army General who served during World Wars I and II
Robert C. Richardson III (1918–2011), U.S. Army officer
Robert D. Richardson (born 1934), American historian
Robert Lorne Richardson (1860–1921), Canadian journalist
Robert S. Richardson (1902–1981), American astronomer and science fiction writer (as Philip Latham)
Robert V. Richardson (1820–1870), Confederate States Army general in the American Civil War
Robert W. Richardson (1910–2007), editor of Narrow Gauge News
Robert Richardson (sitting volleyball) (born 1982), captain of the Great Britain sitting volleyball team
Robert Richardson (alpine skier) (1927–2004), Canadian alpine skierTapio Alvesalo
Dr. Tapio Alvesalo (born November 19, 1943 in Jokioinen, Finland) acted as the Secretary General of the Millennium Prize Foundation (2004–2009) and as the Secretary of the Foundation's International Prize Selection Committee.Before joining the Millennium Prize Foundation he held the position of Vice President, Corporate Technology at Fortum Corporation until his retirement from that position in 2004.
Dr. Alvesalo has served as a Board Member in a number of high technology companies both within and outside Fortum Corporation.Timeline of low-temperature technology
The following is a timeline of low-temperature technology and cryogenic technology (refrigeration down to –273.15 °C, –459.67 °F or 0 K).
1996 Nobel Prize laureates
Wisława Szymborska (Poland)
|Physiology or Medicine|