Robert Bellarmine

Saint Robert Bellarmine, S.J. (Italian: Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino; 4 October 1542 – 17 September 1621) was an Italian Jesuit and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was canonized a saint in 1930 and named Doctor of the Church, one of only 36. He was one of the most important figures in the Counter-Reformation.

Bellarmine was a professor of theology and later rector of the Roman College, and in 1602 became Archbishop of Capua. He supported the reform decrees of the Council of Trent. He is also widely remembered for his role in the Giordano Bruno affair, the Galileo affair, and the trial of Friar Fulgenzio Manfredi.[1]

Saint
Robert Bellarmine, S.J.
Saint Robert Bellarmine
Bishop, Confessor and Doctor of the Church
Born4 October 1542
Montepulciano
Died17 September 1621 (aged 78)
Jesuit college of St. Andrew in Rome
Venerated inCatholic Church
Beatified13 May 1923, Rome by Pope Pius XI
Canonized29 June 1930, Rome by Pope Pius XI
Major shrineChiesa di Sant'Ignazio, Rome, Italy
Feast17 September; 13 May (General Roman Calendar, 1932–1969)
PatronageBellarmine University; Bellarmine Preparatory School; Fairfield University; Bellarmine College Preparatory; canonists; canon lawyers; catechists; Robert Barron (bishop); catechumens; Archdiocese of Cincinnati,
Stemma dei Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino
Bellarmine's coat of arms

Early life

Bellarmine was born at Montepulciano, the son of noble, albeit impoverished, parents, Vincenzo Bellarmino and his wife Cinzia Cervini, who was the sister of Pope Marcellus II.[2] As a boy he knew Virgil by heart and composed a number of poems in Italian and Latin. One of his hymns, on Mary Magdalene, is included in the Roman Breviary.

He entered the Roman Jesuit novitiate in 1560, remaining in Rome three years. He then went to a Jesuit house at Mondovì, in Piedmont, where he learned Greek. While at Mondovì, he came to the attention of Francesco Adorno, the local Jesuit Provincial Superior, who sent him to the University of Padua.[3]

Career

Bellarmine's systematic studies of theology began at Padua in 1567 and 1568, where his teachers were adherents of Thomism. In 1569 he was sent to finish his studies at the University of Leuven in Flanders. There he was ordained, and obtained a reputation both as a professor and as a preacher. He was the first Jesuit to teach at the university, where the subject of his course was the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas. His residency in Leuven lasted seven years. In poor health, in 1576 he made a journey to Italy. Here he remained, commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII to lecture on polemical theology in the new Roman College, now known as the Pontifical Gregorian University. Later, he would promote the cause of the beatification of Aloysius Gonzaga, who had been a student at the college during Bellarmine's tenure.[2]

New duties after 1589

Until 1589, Bellarmine was occupied as professor of theology. After the murder in that year of Henry III of France, Pope Sixtus V sent Enrico Caetani as legate to Paris[4] to negotiate with the Catholic League of France, and chose Bellarmine to accompany him as theologian.[5] He was in the city during its siege by Henry of Navarre.

The next pope, Clement VIII, said of him, "the Church of God had not his equal in learning".[2] Bellarmine was made rector of the Roman College in 1592, examiner of bishops in 1598, and cardinal in 1599. Immediately after his appointment as Cardinal, Pope Clement made him a Cardinal Inquisitor, in which capacity he served as one of the judges at the trial of Giordano Bruno, and concurred in the decision which condemned Bruno to be burned at the stake as a heretic.[6]

Upon the death of Pope Sixtus V in 1590, the Count of Olivares wrote to King Philip III of Spain, "Bellarmine ... would not do for a Pope, for he is mindful only of the interests of the Church and is unresponsive to the reasons of princes."[7] In 1602 he was made archbishop of Capua. He had written against pluralism and non-residence of bishops within their dioceses. As bishop he put into effect the reforming decrees of the Council of Trent. He received some votes in the 1605 conclaves which elected Pope Leo XI, Pope Paul V, and in 1621 when Pope Gregory XV was elected. but his being a Jesuit stood against him in the judgment of many of the cardinals.[2]

Thomas Hobbes saw Bellarmine in Rome at a service on All Saints Day (1 November) 1614 and, exempting him alone from a general castigation of cardinals, described him as "a little lean old man" who lived "more retired".[8]

The Galileo case

In 1616, on the orders of Paul V, Bellarmine summoned Galileo, notified him of a forthcoming decree of the Congregation of the Index condemning the Copernican doctrine of the mobility of the Earth and the immobility of the Sun, and ordered him to abandon it.[9] Galileo agreed to do so.[10]

When Galileo later complained of rumours to the effect that he had been forced to abjure and do penance, Bellarmine wrote out a certificate denying the rumors, stating that Galileo had merely been notified of the decree and informed that, as a consequence of it, the Copernican doctrine could not be "defended or held".[11] Cardinal Bellarmine believed such a demonstration could not be found because it would contradict the unanimous consent of the Fathers' scriptural exegesis, to which the Council of Trent, in 1546,[12] defined all Catholics must adhere.

Bellarmine wrote to heliocentrist Paolo Antonio Foscarini in 1615:[13]

The Council [of Trent] prohibits interpreting Scripture against the common consensus of the Holy Fathers; and if Your Paternity wants to read not only the Holy Fathers, but also the modern commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms, Ecclesiastes, and Joshua, you will find all agreeing in the literal interpretation that the sun is in heaven and turns around the earth with great speed, and that the earth is very far from heaven and sits motionless at the center of the world.

and

I say that if there were a true demonstration that the sun is at the center of the world and the earth in the third heaven, and that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun, then one would have to proceed with great care in explaining the Scriptures that appear contrary, and say rather that we do not understand them, than that what is demonstrated is false. But I will not believe that there is such a demonstration, until it is shown me. Nor is it the same to demonstrate that by supposing the sun to be at the center and the earth in heaven one can save the appearances, and to demonstrate that in truth the sun is at the center and the earth in heaven; for I believe the first demonstration may be available, but I have very great doubts about the second, and in case of doubt one must not abandon the Holy Scripture as interpreted by the Holy Fathers.

In 1633, nearly twelve years after Bellarmine's death, Galileo was again called before the Inquisition in this matter.

In his article on Bellarmine in the Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Ernan McMullin cites Pierre Duhem and Karl Popper as prominent adherents to an "often repeated" view that "in one respect, at least, Bellarmine had shown himself a better scientist than Galileo", insofar as he supposedly denied that a "strict proof" of the Earth's motion could be possible on the grounds that an astronomical theory merely 'saves the appearances' without necessarily revealing what 'really happens.'"[14]McMullin himself emphatically rejects that view as untenable.[15]

Death

In his old age Bellarmine was bishop of Montepulciano for four years, after which he retired to the Jesuit college of St. Andrew in Rome, where he died on 17 September 1621, aged 78.

San Roberto Bellarmino
16th-century portrait of Bellarmine

Works

Bellarmine's books bear the stamp of their period; the effort for literary elegance (so-called "maraviglia") had given place to a desire to pile up as much material as possible, to embrace the whole field of human knowledge, and incorporate it into theology. His controversial works provoked many replies, and were studied for some decades after his death.[16] At Leuven he made extensive studies in the Church Fathers and scholastic theologians, which gave him the material for his book De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis (Rome, 1613). It was later revised and enlarged by Sirmond, Labbeus, and Casimir Oudin. Bellarmine wrote the preface to the new Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.[2]

Dogmatics

From his research grew Disputationes de controversiis christianae fidei (also called Controversiae), first published at Ingolstadt in 1581–1593. This major work was the earliest attempt to systematize the various religious disputes between Catholics and Protestants. Bellarmine calmly and fairly reviewed the issues[7] and devoted eleven years to it while at the Roman College. In August 1590 Pope Sixtus V decided to place the first volume of the Disputationes on the Index because Bellarmine argued in it that the Pope is not the temporal ruler of the whole world and that temporal rulers do not derive their authority to rule from God but from the consent of the governed. However Sixtus died before the revised Index was published, and the next Pope, Urban VII, removed the book from the Index during his brief twelve-day reign.[17]

In 1597 he wrote the Catechism (Dottrina cristiana) in two versions (short and full) which has been translated to 50 languages, becoming one of the greatest bestsellers and the official teaching of the Church in the 17th to 19th centuries.

Venetian Interdict

Under Pope Paul V (reigned 1605–1621), a major conflict arose between Venice and the Papacy. Paolo Sarpi, as spokesman for the Republic of Venice, protested against the papal interdict, and reasserted the principles of the Council of Constance and of the Council of Basel, denying the pope's authority in secular matters. Bellarmine wrote three rejoinders to the Venetian theologians, and may have warned Sarpi of an impending murderous attack, when in September 1607, an unfrocked friar and brigand by the name of Rotilio Orlandini planned to kill Sarpi for the sum of 8,000 crowns.[18] Orlandini's plot was discovered, and when he and his accomplices crossed from Papal into Venetian territory they were arrested.[19]

Allegiance oath controversy and papal authority

Bellarmine also became involved in controversy with King James I of England. From a point of principle for English Catholics, this debate drew in figures from much of Western Europe.[20] It raised the profile of both protagonists, King James as a champion of his own restricted Calvinist Protestantism, and Bellarmine for Tridentine Catholicism.[21]

Devotional works

Dottrina cristiana tradotta in lingua arabica
Dottrina cristiana breve, 1752

During his retirement, he wrote several short books intended to help ordinary people in their spiritual life: De ascensione mentis in Deum per scalas rerum creatorum opusculum (The Mind's Ascent to God – 1614) which was translated into English as Jacob's Ladder (1638) without acknowledgement by Henry Isaacson,[22] The Art of Dying Well (1619) (in Latin, English translation under this title by Edward Coffin),[23] and The Seven Words on the Cross.

Canonization and final resting place

Bellarmine was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1930; the following year he was declared a Doctor of the Church. His remains, in a cardinal's red robes, are displayed behind glass under a side altar in the Church of Saint Ignatius, the chapel of the Roman College, next to the body of his student, St. Aloysius Gonzaga, as he himself had wished. In the General Roman Calendar Saint Robert Bellarmine's feast day is on 17 September, the day of his death; but some continue to use pre-1969 calendars, in which for 37 years his feast day was on 13 May. The rank assigned to his feast has been "double" (1932–1959), "third-class feast" (1960–1968), and since the 1969 revision "memorial".

Legacy

Bellarmine University in Louisville, Kentucky, is named after him, as are Bellarmine College Preparatory in San Jose, California, and Bellarmine Preparatory School in Tacoma, Washington. Saint Joseph's University, Fairfield University, and Seattle University all have a Bellarmine Hall dedicated to the saint. The Jesuit Sogang University in Seoul, South Korea, has a Bellarmino Dormitory, named after the saint's Italian name. The Ateneo de Manila University, another Jesuit institution in the Philippines, also has a Bellarmine Hall, which serves as a classroom building and home of the University Press.

St. Robert Bellarmine Church in Bayside Hills, Queens County, New York, of the Diocese of Brooklyn, was the original site of Our Lady of the Roses Shrine where the alleged Marian apparitions to Veronica Lueken occurred. Veronica Lueken's apparitions were condemned as "contrary to the Faith of the Catholic Church" by Bishop Francis Mugavero of the Diocese of Brooklyn.[24]

References

  1. ^ Gibbings, Richard (1852). Were "Heretics" Ever Burned Alive at Rome?. London: John Petheram. pp. 44–45.
  2. ^ a b c d e Wikisource-logo.svg Smith, Sydney Fenn (1907). "St. Robert Francis Romulus Bellarmine" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ Rule, William Harris (1853). "A Jesuit cardinal: Robert Bellarmine". Celebrated Jesuits. 2. London: John Mason. p. 20.
  4. ^ Miranda, Salvador. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographical Dictionary – Consistory of December 18, 1585". www2.fiu.edu. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  5. ^ Miranda, Salvador. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographical Dictionary – Consistory of March 3, 1599". www2.fiu.edu. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  6. ^ Blackwell (1991, pp. 47–48).
  7. ^ a b "The Galileo Project | Christianity | Robert Cardinal Bellarmine". galileo.rice.edu. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  8. ^ Martinich, A. P. (1999). Thomas Hobbes: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. p. 34.
  9. ^ Blackwell (1991, p. 126).
    The Vatican archives contain an unsigned copy of a more strongly worded formal injunction purporting to have been served on Galileo shortly after Bellarmine's admonition, ordering him "not to hold, teach, or defend" the condemned doctrine "in any way whatever, either orally or in writing", and threatening him with imprisonment if he refused to obey.
    However, whether this injunction was ever properly served on Galileo is a subject of much scholarly disagreement.(Blackwell, 1991, p. 127–128)
  10. ^ Fantoli (2005, p.119). Some scholars have suggested that Galileo's agreement was only obtained after some initial resistance. Otherwise, the formal injunction purporting to have been served on him during his meeting with Bellarmine (see earlier footnote) would have been contrary to the Pope's instructions (Fantoli. 2005, pp.121, 124).
  11. ^ Blackwell (1991, p.127). Unlike the previously mentioned formal injunction (see earlier footnote), this milder restriction would have allowed Galileo to continue using and teaching the mathematical content of Copernicus's theory as a purely theoretical device for predicting the apparent motions of the planets. Maurice Finocchiaro's English translations of the purported formal injunction, the decree of the Congregation of the Index and Cardinal Bellarmine's certificate are available on-line.
  12. ^ "Fourth Session of the Council of Trent". 8 April 1546.
  13. ^ Bellarmine's letter of 12 April 1615 to Foscarini, translated in Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (ed.) (1989). The Galileo Affair: a Documentary History. Berkeley: U. California P. pp. 67–8. ISBN 0520066626.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  14. ^ McMullin, Ernan (2008). "Robert Bellarmine". In Gillispie, Charles (ed.). Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Scribner & American Council of Learned Societies.
  15. ^ McMullin (2008)
  16. ^ On Laymen or Secular People; On the Temporal Power of the Pope. Against William Barclay; and On the Primary Duty of the Supreme Pontiff, are included in Bellarmine, On Temporal and Spiritual Authority, Stefania Tutino, trans., Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2012
  17. ^ Galileo, Bellarmine and the Bible, Richard J Blackwell, University of Notre Dame Press 1991 p.30
  18. ^ The Cambridge Modern History, Volume 4: Fra Paolo Sarpi (Cambridge University Press 1906), p. 671
  19. ^ Robertson, Alexander (1893) Fra Paolo Sarpi: the Greatest of the Venetians, London: Sampson, Low, Marston & Co. pp. 114–117
  20. ^ W. B. Patterson, James VI and I and the Reunion of Christendom (1997), pp. 76–77.
  21. ^ "Bellarmine, Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  22. ^ "Iacob's ladder consisting of fifteene degrees or ascents to the knowledge of God by the consideration of his creatures and attributes". quod.lib.umich.edu. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  23. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Edward Coffin" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  24. ^ DECLARATION CONCERNING THE "BAYSIDE MOVEMENT"

Sources

  • Blackwell, Richard J. (1991). Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-01024-2.
  • Fantoli, Annibale (2005). The Disputed Injunction and its Role in Galileo's Trial. In McMullin (2005, pp.117–149).

Further reading

External links

Aloysius Gonzaga

Saint Aloysius de Gonzaga, SJ (Italian: Luigi Gonzaga; 9 March 1568 – 21 June 1591) was an Italian aristocrat who became a member of the Society of Jesus. While still a student at the Roman College, he died as a result of caring for the victims of a serious epidemic. He was beatified in 1605 and canonized in 1726.

Bellarmine-Jefferson High School

Bellarmine-Jefferson High School was a private, Roman Catholic high school in Burbank, California. It was located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles.

Bishop Borgess High School

Bishop Borgess High School was a Catholic secondary school in the Detroit suburb of Redford, Michigan. Named after Caspar Henry Borgess, the second Roman Catholic bishop of Detroit, it was founded by the parishes of St. Suzanne (in Detroit), Our Lady of Grace (Dearborn Heights), and St. Hilary (Redford). Later contributing parishes included St. Monica (Detroit), St. Robert Bellarmine (Redford),St. Gemma(Detroit).St, Valentine(Redford), Christ the King(Detroit), St. Scholastica(Detroit),St. Thomas Aquinas(Detroit) and St. Gerard (Detroit).

When the school opened in September 1966, it had 317 students. During the 1970s, Bishop Borgess was the largest coeducational Catholic high school in Michigan, with a peak enrollment of 1,912 in 1978. Soon after reaching this peak, the demographics of northwest Detroit began to change and enrollment began decreasing. The Archdiocese of Detroit closed the school in 2005.

Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption (Trenton, New Jersey)

The Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, also known simply as St. Mary’s Cathedral, is the Catholic cathedral in Trenton, New Jersey, United States. Along with the Co-Cathedral of St. Robert Bellarmine in Freehold, it is the seat of the Diocese of Trenton.

Co-Cathedral of St. Robert Bellarmine

The Co-Cathedral of St. Robert Bellarmine is a Catholic co-cathedral located in Freehold, New Jersey, United States. Along with the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption in Trenton it is the seat of the Diocese of Trenton. The parish was founded in 1971, the church was dedicated in 2002, and it became a co-cathedral in 2017.

James Patrick Broderick

James Patrick Brodrick s.j. (26 July 1891 in Kingsland, Athenry – 26 August 1973) was an Irish Jesuit and writer.

Brodrick was educated in Dublin and Stonyhurst. He joined the Jesuits in February 1910 at Manresa, London, and was ordained in 1923. Most of his working life was spent at Farm Street in London. He graduated MA from the University of London and was a contributor to periodicals such as The Tablet and The Month.Brodrick published several books. Most of his career as a writer was almost exclusively dedicated to writing Jesuit History. His primary interest was the early history of the Society of Jesus. The first work to come from his pen was his two-volume biography of the Jesuit Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. In 1935 there followed his biography of St. Peter Canisius. Both works were considered major achievements and his success resides in that his work is not one of adulation and hero worship.

Joseph Devine

Joseph Devine (born 7 August 1937, Kirkintilloch) was the Roman Catholic Bishop of Motherwell in Scotland.He was educated at St Ninian's School, Kirkintilloch, St. Mary's College, Blairs and St. Peter's College, Cardross. He was ordained priest on 29 June 1960 at the Pontifical Scots College in Rome. He received his Ph.D. in 1964 from the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

He was private secretary to the Archbishop of Glasgow from 1964-65. He was assistant priest at St. Robert Bellarmine, Pollok, Glasgow (1965–67) and at St. Joseph's, Helensburgh (1967–72). He was on staff at St. Peter's College, Cardross (1967–74).

He served on the staff of the Episcopal Vicar for the Lay Apostolate from 1974-83. He was appointed as Auxiliary Bishop on 5 May 1977, aged 39. He was ordained bishop by Thomas Joseph Winning, Archbishop of Glasgow, in St. Francis' Church, Gorbals, Glasgow, on 31 May 1977. He was translated to the Diocese of Motherwell on 13 May 1983, aged 45.Bishop Devine handed his resignation to the Vatican on 7 August 2012, his 75th birthday, as required by canon law. The Diocese of Motherwell was a Sede Vacante until his successor, Bishop Joseph Toal, was appointed. Joseph Devine is now known as Bishop Emeritus of Motherwell.

List of Jesuit theologians

This is a list of Jesuit theologians, Roman Catholic theological writers from the Society of Jesus, taken from the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913, article list and textual allusions, for theologians up to the beginning of the twentieth century.

It is chronologically arranged by date of death.

List of saints of the Society of Jesus

The list of saints of the Society of Jesus here is alphabetical. It includes Jesuit saints from Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. Since the founder of the Jesuits, St Ignatius of Loyola, was canonised in 1622, there have been 52 other Jesuits canonised.

List of university and college namesakes

Persons for whom colleges or universities were named.

Jacob Albright

Richard Allen (reverend)

Saint Andrew

James Osgood Andrew

Francis Asbury

Osman Cleander Baker

John Baldwin (educator)

Robert Bellarmine

Mary McLeod Bethune

Warren Akin Candler

Andrew Carnegie

Davis Wasgatt Clark

Ezra Cornell

Jean-Baptiste de la Salle

Washington C. DePauw

John Emory

Simon Fraser

Robert Gordon

Leonidas Lent Hamline

John Harvard (clergyman)

Eugene Russell Hendrix

Thomas Jefferson

Patrick Henry

George Heriot

William Samuel Johnson

Walter Russell Lambuth

Robert E. Lee

Edith Lesley

James Madison

Albertus Magnus

William McKendree

William Fletcher McMurry

Andrew W. Mellon

Reuben Webster Millsaps

Petro Mohyla

John Moores (merchant)

Henry Muhlenberg

John Frederick Oberlin

Daniel Payne

George Pepperdine

Jean Piaget

William Paul Quinn

B. T. Roberts

Oral Roberts

Bénilde Romançon

John Ruskin

Albert Benjamin Simpson

Matthew Simpson

Leland Stanford Jr.

William Taylor (bishop)

Stephen Van Rensselaer III

George Washington

James Watt

John Wesley

William Wilberforce

Mariology of the saints

Throughout history Roman Catholic Mariology has been influenced by a number of saints who have attested to the central role of Mary in God's plan of salvation. The analysis of Early Church Fathers continues to be reflected in modern encyclicals. Irenaeus vigorously defended the title of "Theotokos" or Mother of God. The views of Anthony of Padua, Robert Bellarmine and others supported the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, which was declared a dogma in 1850.

Writings of the saints have contributed to both popular piety and a greater understanding of Mary's role in salvation history.

Romolo

Romolo is an Italian given name, and may refer to:

Robert Bellarmine (1542–1621), Saint and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church

Romolo Ferri (1928–2015), Italian Grand Prix motorcycle road racer

Romolo Gessi (1831–1881), Italian soldier

Romolo Valli (1925–1980), Italian actor

Saint-Robert-Bellarmin, Quebec

Saint-Robert-Bellarmin is a municipality in the Municipalité régionale de comté du Granit in Estrie, Quebec, Canada, located on the Canada–United States border. Population is 645 as of 2006.

It is also the location of the Saint-Robert-Bellarmin Wind Project, an 80 MW project located 3 km East-South-East of the town.

The area had already been settled in 1907. The local economy revolves mostly around lumber, sugar bushes and the seasonal deer hunt. Many Bellarminois work in neighbouring Saint-Gédéon-de-Beauce.

The municipality was named after Robert Bellarmine, an Italian Jesuit who participated actively in the Counter-Reformation.

Saint Robert

Saint Rupert or Robert may refer to:

Rupert of Salzburg (d. 710)

Rupert of Bingen (d. 732)

Robert de Turlande (c. 1001–1067)

Robert of Molesme (d. 1111)

Robert of Newminster, established the Abbey of Newminster (d. 1159)

Robert of Knaresborough (c. 1160–1218), early thirteenth century hermit

Robert Bellarmine, Doctor of the Church (d. 1621)Saint-Robert as a toponym:

Saint-Robert, Quebec

Saint-Robert, Corrèze

Saint-Robert, Lot-et-Garonne

Saint-Egrève-Saint-Robert, a train station in Rhône-Alpes

Javerlhac-et-la-Chapelle-Saint-Robert

St. Robert, Missouri

San Roberto Bellarmino, Rome

San Roberto Bellarmino (Saint Robert Bellarmine), is a church in Rome founded by Pope Pius XI in 1933, after the canonisation of the Jesuit Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621) in 1930, and his being named a Doctor of the Church in 1931. The architect Clemente Busiri Vici made the designs in the years 1931–1933. Construction took more than two decades, and it was consecrated in 1959 by Archbishop Luigi Traglia. It is served by the Jesuits, and has a mosaic by Renato Tomassi and a high altar donated by Beniamino Gigli. San Roberto Bellarmino is a titular church. Its cardinal priest is Cardinal Mario Aurelio Poli, who was created Cardinal on 22 February 2014.

Scientific formalism

Scientific formalism is a family of approaches to the presentation of science. It is viewed as an important part of the scientific method, especially in the physical sciences.

Sibrandus Lubbertus

Sibrandus Lubbertus (c.1555–1625) (also referred to as Sibrand Lubbert or Sybrandus Lubbertus) was a Dutch Calvinist theologian and was a professor of theology at the University of Franeker for forty years from the institute's foundation in 1585. He was a prominent participant in the Synod of Dort (1618–1619). His primary works were to counter Roman Catholic doctrine (especially that championed by Robert Bellarmine) and to oppose Socinianism and Arminianism.

St. Robert Bellarmine Catholic Church (Burbank, California)

St. Robert Bellarmine Catholic Church is a Catholic parish on North Fifth Street in Burbank, California. It includes a Catholic church, elementary school, and high school. Founded in 1907, it was one of the first Catholic churches in the San Fernando Valley. Known as Holy Trinity Parish until 1939, it was renamed in honor of St. Robert Bellarmine. The church and school buildings on the St. Robert Bellarmine campus are modeled after colonial American buildings, including Monticello, Independence Hall, Mount Vernon and the library at the University of Virginia.

Veronica Lueken

Veronica Lueken (July 12, 1923 – August 3, 1995) was a Roman Catholic housewife from Bayside, New York, who, between 1970 until her death in 1995, reported experiencing apparitions of the Virgin Mary, Jesus, and numerous Catholic saints.

She gave messages she claimed to have received from them at both the grounds of Saint Robert Bellarmine Catholic Church in Bayside, and at the exedra monument at the 1964 New York World's Fair Vatican Pavilion site in Flushing Meadows Park. Lueken and her husband Arthur W. Lueken, Sr. (died August 28, 2002) had five children. They met in Flushing Meadows Park skating rink on 28 April 1945 (Saturday, Labor Day weekend) and married the following November 1945.Bishop Francis Mugavero, then Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn, stated in 1986 that "a thorough investigation revealed that the alleged visions of Bayside completely lacked authenticity" and that "the messages and other related propaganda contain statements which, among other things, are contrary to the teachings of the Catholic Church".

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