Robert, Duke of Bar

Robert I of Bar (8 November 1344 – 12 April 1411) was Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson and Count and then Duke of Bar. He succeeded his elder brother Edward II of Bar as count in 1352. His parents were Henry IV of Bar and Yolande of Flanders.[1]

When Robert was less than a year old, his father died and his elder brother, Edward II of Bar, became Count of Bar under their mother's regency. As neither Robert nor Edward had a strong constitution, Yolande obtained a papal dispensation from Clement VI to allow them to eat meat during periods of abstinence. When his brother Edward died, Robert was still only seven years old and political problems associated with his mother's continued position as regent had arisen.

Yolande was on the point of remarrying to Philip of Navarre, count of Longueville, a member of the Navarre family which was attempting to claim the French crown from John the Good. Joan of Bar, Robert's grandaunt, made known to the king that she was ready to replace Yolande and assume the regency. The Parliament of Paris, by decree of 5 June 1352, declared that the county was under the king's control. John the Good then entrusted the regency to Joan on 27 July of that year. Yolande initially renounced the regency, but then went back on her decision, levying troops to fight Joan. John the Good intervened to force Yolande to renounce the regency again on 2 July 1353.

In 1354 the County of Bar was raised to the status of duchy by King John the Good.[2] That same year another possession, Pont-à-Mousson, was raised to a marquisate by Emperor Charles IV.[2] Subsequent emperors recognised Robert's ducal title and his state's right to a vote in the Imperial Diet. It is unclear if Robert was regarded as a Peer of France after becoming duke.

The defeat of Poitiers and the capture of John the Good in 1356 deprived Joan of John's support and Yolande retook the regency. Robert was knighted in December 1356 and declared of age on 8 November 1359. He assisted at the coronation of Charles V of France at Reims on 9 May 1364, then at that of Charles VI of France on 4 November 1380. During Charles V's reign he fought in several engagements in 1374 during the campaign to eject the English from Normandy. In 1401, Robert ceded his duchy to his son Edward, but reserved the usufruct on it, bypassing his grandson Robert (son of Henry of Bar). The younger Robert unsuccessfully opposed this in the parliament of Paris that ran from 1406 to 1409. Charles VI's madness put him under the control of the Duke of Orleans and Duke of Burgundy. The elder Robert supported the duke of Orleans, and after that duke's assassination was more and more inclined to remain within his duchy. In his later years he suffered from attacks of gout that prevented him from walking.

Robert I
Duke of Bar
Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson
Robert Bar
Robert I of Bar
Born8 November 1344
Died12 April 1411 (aged 66)
Noble familyHouse of Scarponnois
Spouse(s)Marie of Valois
FatherHenry IV of Bar
MotherYolande of Flanders

Marriage and issue

In 1364 he married Marie of Valois, the daughter of king John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg.[3] Their children were:

Notes

  1. ^ Brachmann 2011, p. 156.
  2. ^ a b Brachmann 2011, p. 155.
  3. ^ d'Arras 2012, p. 234.
  4. ^ Lanz 2002, p. 59-60.
  5. ^ a b Vaughan 2009, p. 264.
  6. ^ Souchal 1974, p. 124.
  7. ^ Brachmann 2011, p. 158.

Sources

  • d'Arras, Jean (2012). Melusine; or, The Noble History of Lusignan. Translated by Maddox, Donald. The Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Brachmann, Christoph (2011). "The Crusade of Nicopolis, Burgundy, and the Entombment of Christ at Pont-a-Mousson". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 74.
  • Poull, Georges (1994). La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (in French). Presses universitaires de Nancy.
  • Lanz, Eukene Lacarra, ed. (2002). Marriage and Sexuality in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia. Routledge.
  • Souchal, Geneviève (1974). Masterpieces of Tapestry from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Translated by Oxby, Richard A.H. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  • Vaughan, Richard (2009). Philip the Bold, The formation of the Burgundian State. The Boydell Press.
German nobility
Preceded by
Edward II
Count of Bar
1352 – 1354
Elevated to duchy
New title Duke of Bar
1354 – 1411
Succeeded by
Edward III
Bonne of Luxembourg

Bonne of Luxemburg or Jutta of Luxemburg (20 May 1315 – 11 September 1349), was born Jutta (Judith), the second daughter of John the Blind, king of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France; however, as she died a year prior to his accession, she was never a French queen. Jutta was referred to in French historiography as Bonne de Luxembourg. She was a member of the House of Luxembourg. Among her children were Charles V of France, Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, and Joan, Queen of Navarre.

Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon

The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon (French: Transi de René de Chalon, also known as the Memorial to the Heart of René de Chalon or The Skeleton) is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. It consists of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.

The tomb dates from a period of societal anxiety over death, as plague, war and religious conflicts ravaged Europe. It was commissioned as the resting place of René of Chalon, Prince of Orange, son-in-law of Duke Antoine of Lorraine. René was killed aged 25 at the siege of St. Dizier on 15 July 1544, from a wound sustained the previous day. Richier presents him as an écorché, with his skin and muscles decayed, leaving him reduced to a skeleton. This apparently fulfilled his deathbed wish that his tomb depict his body as it would be three years after his death. His left arm is raised as if gesturing towards heaven. Supposedly, at one time his heart was held in a reliquary placed in the hand of the figure's raised arm. Unusually for contemporaneous objects of this type, his skeleton is standing, making it a "living corpse", an innovation that was to become highly influential. The tomb effigy is positioned above the carved marble and limestone altarpiece.

Designated a Monument historique on 18 June 1898, the tomb was moved for safekeeping to the Panthéon in Paris during the First World War, before being returned to Bar-le-Duc in 1920. Both the statue and altarpiece underwent extensive restoration between 1998 and 2003. Replicas of the statue are in the Musée Barrois in Bar-le-Duc and the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.

Château de Boursault

The Château de Boursault is a neo-Renaissance château in Boursault, Marne, France. It was built between 1843 and 1850 by Madame Clicquot Ponsardin, the Veuve Clicquot (Cliquot Widow) who owned the Veuve Clicquot champagne house. It was sold by her heir to the Berry family of Canada from 1913 to 1927 and was used as a military hospital in both the first and second world wars. Today the Château de Boursault brand of champagne is made from grapes grown in the vineyards around the château and is aged in its cellars.

Edward III, Duke of Bar

Edward III of Bar (late June 1377 - 25 October 1415) was made Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson by his father Robert I, Duke of Bar in 1399 (his mother was Mary of France, daughter of John II of France) and held it until his death. He then became heir to the Duchy of Bar following the death of his elder brothers Henry and Philippe at or soon after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

In 1405, Charles VI of France charged him with defending the Boulonnais, then threatened by the English. At the end of 1406 he participated in the Guyenne campaign under the orders of Louis of Orleans, but dysentery decimated the French forces. After Louis's assassination in 1407, Edward joined John the Fearless and rallied the Burgundians. Succeeding his father on 12 April 1411, Edward was killed at the battle of Agincourt and succeeded by his brother (he never married, though he left several illegitimate children).

Marie of Valois, Prioress of Poissy

Marie of France (24 August 1393 – 19 August 1438) was the daughter of Charles VI and his wife, Isabeau of Bavaria. She was a member of the House of Valois and became a nun.

Violant of Bar

Violant of Bar (c. 1365 – 3 July 1431) was queen consort of Aragon by marriage to John I of Aragon. She served as "Queen-Lieutenant" (regent) of Aragon during in the place of her spouse from 1388 until 1395.

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