A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.[1][2] Unlike garments described as capes or cloaks, robes usually have sleeves. The English word robe derives from Middle English robe ("garment"), borrowed from Old French robe ("booty, spoils"), itself taken from the Frankish word *rouba ("spoils, things stolen, clothes"), and is related to the word rob.[1]

A dragon robe from Qing Dynasty of China
Academic robes


There are various types of robes, including:

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "Robe". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Picken, Mary Brooks (1957). The Fashion Dictionary. Funk and Wagnalls. p. 265.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of robe at Wiktionary
Ancient Chinese clothing

Ancient Chinese clothing refers to the historical clothing styles of China, particularly those before the Qing dynasty. The Han Chinese historically worn a robe or a shirt for the upper garment, while the lower garment was commonly a pleated skirt. Since the Han dynasty, Chinese clothing had developed varied styles and exquisite textile techniques, particularly on silk, and absorbed favorable elements in foreign cultures. Ancient Chinese clothing was also influential to other traditional clothing such as the Japanese kimono, yukata, and the Vietnamese Áo giao lĩnh.


Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing. An example of asphyxia is choking. Asphyxia causes generalized hypoxia, which affects primarily the tissues and organs. There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia, all of which are characterized by an inability of an individual to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time. Asphyxia can cause coma or death.

In 2015 about 9.8 million cases of unintentional suffocation occurred which resulted in 35,600 deaths. The word asphyxia is from Ancient Greek α- "without" and σφύξις sphyxis, "squeeze" (throb of heart).

Banyan (clothing)

A banyan (through Portuguese banian and Arabic بنيان, banyān, from the Gujarati વાણિયો, vāṇiyo, meaning "merchant") is a garment worn by men in the 18th century influenced by Persian and Asian clothing. Banyan is also commonly used in present-day Indian English and other countries in the Indian Subcontinent to mean "vest" ("undershirt" in American English, "singlet" in Australian English).

Also called a morning gown, robe de chambre or nightgown, the banyan was a loose, T-shaped or kimono-like garment of cotton, linen, or silk gown worn at home as a sort of dressing gown or informal coat over the shirt and breeches. The typical banyan was cut en chemise, with the sleeves and body cut as one piece. It was usually paired with a soft, turban-like cap worn in place of the formal periwig. An alternative style of banyan was cut like a coat, fitted, with set-in sleeves, and was closed with buttons and buttonholes.

Black Robe (film)

Black Robe is a 1991 biography film directed by Bruce Beresford. The screenplay was written by Irish Canadian author Brian Moore, who adapted it from his novel of the same name.

The film's main character, Father LaForgue, is played by Lothaire Bluteau, with other cast members including Aden Young, Sandrine Holt, Tantoo Cardinal, August Schellenberg, Gordon Tootoosis and Raoul Trujillo. It was the first official co-production between a Canadian film team and an Australian one. It was shot entirely in the Canadian province of Quebec.

Close-bodied gown

A close-bodied gown, English nightgown, or robe à l'anglaise was a women's fashion of the 18th century. Like the earlier mantua, from which it evolved, the back of the gown featured pleats from the shoulder, stitched down to mould the gown closely to the body until the fullness was released into the skirt. Through the 1770s, the back pleats became narrower and closer to the center back, and by the 1780s these pleats had mostly disappeared and the skirt and bodice were cut separately. The gown was open in front, to reveal a matching or contrasting petticoat, and featured elbow-length sleeves, which were finished with separate frills called engageantes.


A closet (especially in North American usage) is an enclosed space used for storage, particularly that of clothes. "Fitted closet" are built into the walls of the house so that they take up no apparent space in the room. Closets are often built under stairs, thereby using awkward space that would otherwise go unused.

A piece of furniture such as a cabinet or chest of drawers serves the same function of storage, but is not a closet, which is an architectural feature rather than a piece of furniture. A closet always has space for hanging, whereas a cupboard may consist only of shelves for folded garments. The word "wardrobe" can refer to a free-standing piece of furniture (also known as an armoire), but according to the Oxford English Dictionary, a wardrobe can also be a "large cupboard or cabinet for storing clothes or other linen", including "built-in wardrobe, fitted wardrobe, walk-in wardrobe, etc."

Court dress

Court dress comprises the style of clothes prescribed for courts of law, and for royal courts.

District Council of Robe

The District Council of Robe is a local government area located in the Limestone Coast area of South Australia. The main offices are in Robe, the town after which the council is named. The district relies on a mix of agriculture, fisheries and tourism as major components of its economy.

El hogar que yo robé

El hogar que yo robé (English title: The Home I Robbed") is a Mexican telenovela produced by Valentín Pimstein for Canal de las Estrellas in 1981.

Angélica María starred has dual role as protagonist/antagonist, Juan Ferrara starred as protagonist, while Angélica Aragón starred as antagonist. Virginia Manzano, Aldo Monti and Socorro Bonilla starred as stellar performances.

Harry Nilsson

Harry Edward Nilsson III (June 15, 1941 – January 15, 1994), usually credited as Nilsson, was an American singer-songwriter who achieved the peak of his commercial success in the early 1970s. His work is characterized by pioneering vocal overdub experiments, returns to the Great American Songbook, and fusions of Caribbean sounds. A tenor with a 3½ octave range, Nilsson was one of the few major pop-rock recording artists of his era to achieve significant commercial success without ever performing major public concerts or undertaking regular tours. The craft of his songs and the defiant attitude he projected remains a touchstone for later generations of indie rock musicians.Born in Brooklyn, Nilsson moved to Los Angeles as a teenager to escape his family's poor financial situation. While working as a computer programmer at a bank, he grew interested in musical composition and close-harmony singing, and was successful in having some of his songs recorded by various artists such as the Monkees. In 1967, he debuted on RCA Victor with the LP Pandemonium Shadow Show, followed by a variety of releases that include a collaboration with Randy Newman (Nilsson Sings Newman, 1970) and the original children's story The Point! (1971). His most commercially successful album, Nilsson Schmilsson (1971), produced the international top 10 singles "Without You" and "Coconut". His other top 10 hit, "Everybody's Talkin'" (1968), was a prominent song in the 1969 film Midnight Cowboy. A version of Nilsson's "One", released by Three Dog Night in 1969, also reached the U.S. top 10.During a 1968 press conference, the Beatles were asked what their favorite American group was and answered "Nilsson". He soon formed close friendships with John Lennon and Ringo Starr. In the 1970s, Nilsson and Lennon were members of the Hollywood Vampires drinking club, embroiling themselves in a number of widely publicized, alcohol-fueled incidents. At the same time, they produced one collaborative album, Pussy Cats (1974). After 1977, Nilsson left RCA, and his record output diminished. In response to Lennon's 1980 murder, he took a hiatus from the music industry to campaign for gun control. For the rest of his life, he recorded only sporadically.

Nilsson created the first remix album (Aerial Pandemonium Ballet, 1971) and recorded the first mashup song ("You Can't Do That", 1967). He was voted No. 62 in Rolling Stone's 2015 list of the "100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time", where he was described as "a pioneer of the Los Angeles studio sound, a crucial bridge between the baroque psychedelic pop of the late Sixties and the more personal singer-songwriter era of the Seventies". The RIAA certified Nilsson Schmilsson and Son of Schmilsson as gold records, indicating over 500,000 units sold each. His honors include Grammy Awards for two of his recordings; Best Contemporary Vocal Performance, Male in 1970 for "Everybody's Talkin'" and Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male in 1973 for "Without You". In 1994, Nilsson died of a heart attack while in the midst of recording new material for a since-unreleased comeback album.

Kappa (brand)

Kappa is an Italian sportswear brand founded in Turin, Piedmont, Italy.Kappa was founded as a sock firm in Turin, Italy, in 1916 but didn't become ‘Kappa’ until 1967.

Lake Robe Game Reserve

Lake Robe Game Reserve is a protected area located about 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) south of the town of Robe in South Australia. It covers the saline lake, Lake Robe, and some surrounding land and also immediately adjoins the northern boundary of the Little Dip Conservation Park. It was proclaimed on 4 November 1993 to protect "valuable habitats for a variety of waterbirds, and terrestrial mammals notably the hooded plover (Thinomis rubricollis), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and the swamp rat (Rattus lutreolus)" and to manage recreational duck hunting activity. The area is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Mantle (royal garment)

A royal mantle, or more simply a mantle, is a garment normally worn by emperors, kings or queens as a symbol of authority. When worn at a coronation, such mantles may be referred to as coronation mantles. Many princes also wear such a mantle. Sometimes the mantles are worn only once, but in other instances they may be worn or used on other occasions, such as during the opening of a session of the nation's legislature. Mantles also feature prominently in state portraiture and artwork featuring monarchs and princes.

In principle, there is no difference between the mantles of an emperor and king. Different countries have their own styles, and the shape of mantles has changed somewhat over the centuries. The oldest coats were not very long, and they were not lined with fur. In the 18th century, cloaks become more like each other and appeared everywhere in Europe. The French example was lined with fur, and a cloak with a long train became standard. Only the German emperors continued their short coat from the 12th century to the end of their empire.

The non-crowned but inaugurated Dutch kings wear a robe on the French model. In the Netherlands, one does not speak of a coronation mantle but uses the term "royal robe" (Dutch: Koningsmantel; Dutch phonetic: γoningsmant∂l).

River Robe (Ireland)

The River Robe (Irish: Abhainn an Róba) is a river in County Mayo, Ireland.

It rises near Ballyhaunis, then flows generally west for 64 kilometres (40 mi), where it drains into Lough Mask.The river's name in Irish is An Róba, first recorded as Rodba in medieval manuscripts.The river is the longest tributary of Lough Mask and it drains 320 square kilometres of south Mayo.

The total length of the river Robe's journey from its source near Ballyhaunis to Galway Bay (via Lough Mask, Cong canal and river, Lough Corrib and River Corrib) is 72 miles.

The Robe's Environmental Protection Agency River ID is 30_1579.

Robe, South Australia

Robe is a town and fishing port located in the Limestone Coast of South Australia. The town's distinctive combination of historical buildings, ocean, fishing fleets, lakes and dense bush is widely appreciated. Robe lies on the southern shore of Guichen Bay, just off the Princes Highway. At the 2006 census, Robe had a population of 1,246. Robe is the main town in the District Council of Robe local government area. It is in the state electorate of MacKillop and the federal Division of Barker.

Robe River (Australia)

Robe River is a river in the Pilbara region of Western Australia.

The headwaters of the river rise in the Hamersley Range near Marana Spring then flow in a north westerly direction past the Robe River-Deepdale mine, crossing the North West Coastal Highway near the Pannawonica turnoff then discharging into the Indian Ocean near Robe Point.

Robe River has two tributaries; Mungarathoona Creek and Kumina Creek.

The Robe is an ephemeral river and is restricted to a series of permanent pools that act as important refugia for native fauna through the dry season.The rivers experiences periodical flooding. Following Cyclone Monty in 2004 the river was in full flood resulting in Pannawonnica being cut off and people being rescued from the roof of Yarraloola homestead.In 2009, following heavy rainfall, the river burst its banks cutting roads and railway lines. Yarraloola Station was evacuated and Rio Tinto railway network was disrupted as a result.

Robe wine region

Robe is a wine region located in the south east of South Australia immediately adjoining the town of Robe. The region received appellation as an Australian Geographical Indication (AGI) in 2006. It is part of the Limestone Coast wine zone.

Sack-back gown

The sack-back gown or robe à la française was a women's fashion of the 18th century. At the beginning of the century, the sack-back gown was a very informal style of dress. At its most informal, it was unfitted both front and back and called a sacque, contouche, or robe battante. By the 1770s the sack-back gown was second only to court dress in its formality. This style of gown had fabric at the back arranged in box pleats which fell loose from the shoulder to the floor with a slight train. In front, the gown was open, showing off a decorative stomacher and petticoat. It would have been worn with a wide square hoop or panniers under the petticoat. Scalloped ruffles often trimmed elbow-length sleeves, which were worn with separate frills called engageantes.

The casaquin (popularly known from the 1740s onwards as a pet-en-l'air) was an abbreviated version of the robe à la française worn as a jacket for informal wear with a matching or contrasting petticoat. The skirt of the casaquin was knee-length but gradually shortened until by the 1780s it resembled a peplum.The loose box pleats which are a feature of this style are sometimes called Watteau pleats from their appearance in the paintings of Antoine Watteau. The various Watteau terms, such as Watteau pleat, Watteau back, Watteau gown etc., date from the mid-19th century rather than reflecting authentic 18th century terminology, and normally describe 19th and 20th century revivals of the sack-back.

The Robe (film)

The Robe is a 1953 American Biblical epic film that tells the story of a Roman military tribune who commands the unit that is responsible for the Crucifixion of Jesus. The film was released by 20th Century Fox and was the first film released in the widescreen process CinemaScope. Like other early CinemaScope films, The Robe was shot with Henri Chrétien's original Hypergonar anamorphic lenses.

The film was directed by Henry Koster and produced by Frank Ross. The screenplay was adapted by Gina Kaus, Albert Maltz, and Philip Dunne from Lloyd C. Douglas' eponymous 1942 novel. The score was composed by Alfred Newman, and the cinematography was by Leon Shamroy.

The film stars Richard Burton, Jean Simmons, Victor Mature, and Michael Rennie and co-stars Dean Jagger, Jay Robinson, Richard Boone, and Jeff Morrow. The Robe had a 1954 sequel Demetrius and the Gladiators.

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