Road traffic control

For the road traffic science, see various articles under Road traffic management.

Road traffic control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public.

Traffic control also includes the use of CCTV and other means of monitoring traffic by local or state roadways authorities to manage traffic flows and providing advice concerning traffic congestion. This is not dealt with in this article.

Traffic Control Technicians (TCT's) or Traffic Control Supervisors (TCS's) are often known as "lollipop men" (usually this name only applies to TCT's working near schools to aid pupils in road crossing) from the appearance of their Stop/Slow signs, known as "Stop bats".

BollardsOnWorksite
Traffic Control bollards separating the road from the worksite. Note the chevron signs indicating worksite exit points.

Overview

Road Traffic control is an outdoors occupation, night or day for long hours in all weathers, and is considered a dangerous occupation due to the high risk of being struck by passing vehicles. Safety equipment is vitally important. Fatigue is a big issue, as tired TCT's may forget to watch their traffic, or may inadvertently turn their "Stop bats" to the "Slow" position. Many drivers are annoyed by the disruption to their route, and some are sufficiently antisocial as to aim at traffic controllers. Other drivers simply don't pay enough attention to the road, often from using their mobile (cell-) phones, or because they are tired from a night shift at work. Not a few are exceeding the posted speed limit.

A45 cov july06
Traffic cones on the A45 in South Coventry (U.K.).

Typically, a worksite will be set up with warning signage well in advance of the actual work area. This may involve (in Australia) "Roadworks Ahead", temporary speed restrictions, "Worker Symbolic" (a stylized workman with a pile of rubble, black silhouette on a retroflective orange background), "Reduce Speed", "Lane Status" boards (indicating that some lanes on a multilane roadway will be closed), "Prepare to Stop" and advisory signs telling what is happening (e.g. Water Over Road, Trucks Entering, and Power Line Works Ahead). If lanes have been closed, large flashing arrows (Arrow Boards) on trailers may be utilized to give motorists hundreds of meters warning to move over. Motorists will be advised they are leaving a worksite by speed reinstatement or "End Roadworks" signs.

The worksite will usually involve closing a part of the road for the work area. How this is done depends on the type of road: on a multi-lane road, one or more lanes will be closed off and traffic merged into the remaining lane(s), using cones and "Chevron" signs and Arrow Boards to guide motorists. On a wide road (more than 3 meters per lane in Australia), traffic could be "diverted" around the work area by using cones to define a new road centerline and another line of cones around the work area. Sometimes, it is necessary to close a road and detour traffic.

DiversionHalfSize
Traffic diverted around work area in Kwinana, Western Australia

Often, the road is not wide enough to permit opposing streams of traffic past the work area. Then it is necessary to use "Stop/Slow Paddles", where each stream is allowed past the work area in turn. On an intersection, this may involve four or more streams. At signalised intersections, it may be necessary to have the traffic lights disabled.

Sometimes on dual carriageways, it is necessary to divert one carriageway onto the opposing carriageway, forming a "contraflow". This cannot be done "on the fly", as high-speed (100+km/h), high-volume (500 - 1000+ vehicles per hour) traffic is involved, generating a huge risk to workers. In this case advisory signs will be erected weeks or even months in advance, and new lanes defined by bollards anchored firmly to the road-base will be installed, usually at night when traffic is expected to be minimal. Programmable Variable Message Signs may be utilized at strategic locations to inform motorists.

International perspectives

Australia

Car accident-rollover
Traffic cones placed around a rollover accident in Sydney.

Traffic control is governed by the Australian Standard AS 1742.3 – 2009, and by State variations. Risk management is regulated under AS/NZS 4360:1999. Traffic controllers are required to wear high-visibility clothing which meets the Australian Standard AS/NZS 4602:1999.

Personal safety is emphasised in all Australian training. This ranges from proper clothing to learning appropriate behaviour (for example, always face oncoming traffic). Clothing is considered part of PPE—Personal Protective Equipment—which includes steel-capped boots, sunscreen, broad-brim hats, gloves and sunglasses.

The traffic control process usually starts with a traffic control plan. A traffic control crew may consist of one person running a simple diversion or closure of a cul-de-sac, up to multiple two- or three-person crews for a complex task. One example of such a complex task is the transport of very wide loads taking all available roadspace, over several kilometers, usually on an arterial road or highway. In these cases, the affected roads can be closed or contraflowed for the entire day, creating enormous disruption to motorists. Management of the event involves monitoring and closing all intersections, Stop/Slow to work traffic streams through partially closed intersections, and detours. The amount of signage required can be staggering, needing some hours to put in place. Normally a single two-person crew with one ute is sufficient for most jobs.

TrafficControlUte2
Traffic control ute at worksite

Not all TC's are employed by dedicated traffic management companies. Many construction companies and government authorities employ their own traffic management. In these cases, TC's will work in other capacities when traffic management is not required.

Traffic control is generally not seen as a career for young people, but rather as a stop-gap while something better is sought. However, older people are often valued by employers for their life-experience, and find that the relatively light manual labour compensates for the discomforts and rigours of the job. There is a career path, but it is dictated by one's own ability and willingness to work.

Western Australia

LaneClosureTaper
Cone taper for a "slow lane" closure showing small chevron (shifter), 40 km/h repeater, chevron and arrow-board

Accreditation course standards and variations to the Australian Standards are regulated by Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA), part of the Ministry of Planning and Infrastructure.

In Western Australia, use of the Stop/Slow bat is authorised under Regulation 83 of the Road Traffic Code 2000—it is an offence to disobey a traffic controller's bat, punishable by 3 demerit points and 3 penalty units (about A$175). Other States have similar provisions.

Traffic controllers must be accredited in Basic Worksite Traffic Management BCC3028A and the Worksite Traffic Controller Course BCC1014A. These qualifications must be renewed after three years, and a refresher course is necessary. The courses take about 4 hours each, and are designed as inductions to on-the-job training.

The Advanced Worksite Traffic Management (AWTM) requires two years experience as a qualified TC as a minimum prerequisite, and must also be renewed after three years. Roadworks Traffic Managers can be accredited with a minimum of five years experience, current "Road Safety Auditor" accreditation and current AWTM accreditation. This qualification is also valid for three years.

All employers require drug screening at least annually and often randomly, and many others require daily blood/alcohol tests; some require police clearance checks. Zero-tolerance is universal. Traffic controllers are usually employed on a casual basis, with wages around A$16 to A$25 per hour.

Canada

British Columbia

In BC, WorkSafeBC regulates the training of Traffic Control Persons (TCPs), stating that TCPs must be trained in a manner acceptable to the Board. This ensures a high level of training for this high-risk occupation. Currently, the only acceptable course in the province is a two-day session which includes theory and practical components. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Superintendent Derek Cooke of Langley believes that the RCMP should not perform the function of road traffic control to cater to events in support of for-profit corporations unless the municipal government has coordinated or is in support of the event.[1]

Nova Scotia

In Nova Scotia training is regulated by the Nova Scotia Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal. There is a one-day course for TCPs and a two-day course for Temporary Workplace Signers. Signers are responsible for the setup of signs, cones etc., and making sure the setup complies with the NS Temporary Workplace Traffic Control Manual

Newfoundland & Labrador (NL)

All flag persons – or traffic control persons (TCP) – in Newfoundland and Labrador are now required to complete a TCP training course approved by the Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission.

Proper traffic control is critical for the safety of workers, drivers and the general public. Without training by a Commission approved training provider, workers are not permitted to work as a TCP on our province’s roads.

The Commission's Traffic Control Person (TCP) Certification Training Standard establishes criteria for TCP training providers and trainers.

TCP training providers must apply and be approved by the Commission to deliver TCP certification training.

The delivery of training prepares the TCP to perform traffic control in a safe and competent manner by providing them with the knowledge and skills to work safely, consistent with industry and legislative standards.

Traffic Control Person (TCP) Certification Training has an expiry date of 3 years, upon which the course must be completed again for renewal.[2]

United Kingdom

Temporary road closure
A small traffic control scheme on a residential UK street

Traffic management in the UK is overseen by the Department for Transport but each country within the union has their own transport regulator.
All countries within the UK adhere to the same standards for most traffic control and temporary modifications to traffic and pedestrian control, such as street works and road works (sometimes referred to as the "Red Book"), entitled Safety at Street Works and Road Works - A Code of Practice [3]

Before permission for any temporary traffic control is given, a Traffic Management Plan must be submitted to the local planning office of the affected district.

England and Wales:
Responsibility is with the Department for Transport.
The code of practice for Street and Road works is issued by the Secretary of State for Transport and Welsh Ministers under Section 65 of the New Roads and Street Works Act 1991 (NRSWA) and section 174 of the Highways Act 1980.

Scotland:
Traffic management in Scotland is handled by Traffic Scotland and Transport Scotland.
The code of practice for Street and Road works is issued by the Scottish ministers under section 124 of the NRSWA.

Northern Ireland:
Responsibility is with the Department for Regional Development.
The code of practice for Street and Road works is issued by the same Department for Regional Development under Article 25 of the Street Works (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 and Article 31 of the Road Traffic Regulation Order (Northern Ireland) 1997.

Some of the most iconic images of a traffic controller in the UK, is the Crossing Guard (normally referred to as the "lollipop man" or "lollipop woman") who aids children in road crossing on their journey to school or the Stop / Go Marshall, (Traffic Guard) at temporary road works.

United States

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and guidelines which are used in highway design and construction throughout the United States. Despite its name, the association represents not only highways but air, rail, water, and public transportation as well

Although the Federal Highway Administration specifies standards and guidelines through the MUTCD which apply to the usage of traffic control equipment, individual state and local agencies often provide additions or slight variations to these standards.

Chicago 2007-4
Traffic controller on Michigan Avenue, Chicago

The transportation system in the United States is complex and extensive. Traffic volumes, types of vehicles, driving styles, population density, speed limits, and many other factors vary dramatically from one region to the next. As a result, highway traffic control measures (including type of equipment and implementation), are not strictly consistent. Federal Guidelines do not address certification methods for traffic controllers, flaggers, or other personnel responsible for traffic control. This responsibility is managed on a state or local agency level, and therefore certification requirements are not consistent and are administered locally. Safety standards (irrespective of traffic control) are mandated by OSHA as well as state-level occupational safety departments.

A construction traffic control company operates in the same basic way as any other construction company. Companies submit a bid for a job, the lowest bid is accepted (except in the case of disadvantaged companies), and the labor is provided to the contractor or agency in charge. Typically speaking, flaggers work in groups of 5 to 10 under a TCS, or Traffic Control Supervisor. The TCS is responsible for placing the flaggers correctly, ensuring that they receive the proper breaks and supervision, and placing the advance warning signs (such as Road Work Ahead, One Lane Road Ahead, and Uneven Lanes). Flaggers are the second line of attention (after the warning signs) for drivers. They are the first people in the work zone to deal with opposing traffic.

While construction traffic control in the U.S. used to be a widely unionized profession, it is now dominated by private business and wages are not controlled by the union.

While MUTCD and other standard practices have been instilled in traffic control workers for many years, workers still need to keep up to date on all the new regulations. [4]

Some road traffic control systems have started to optimize multiple traffic modes, including vehicles and pedestrians.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Natasha Jones (February 17, 2011). "Police question traffic control costs". Aldergrove Star. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  2. ^ http://whscc.nl.ca/prevention/TCPTraining.whscc
  3. ^ "Safety at Street Works and Road Works - A Code of Practice". www.gov.uk. Department for Transport. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  4. ^ City Rise Safety Why Traffic Control is so important to the livelihood of your Community.
  5. ^ Xiao-Feng Xie, et al. Real-time traffic control for sustainable urban living. IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Qingdao, China, 2014: 1863-1868.

External links

Berlin Ringbahn

The Ringbahn (German for Circular Railway) is a 37.5 km (23.3 mi) long railway line of the Berlin S-Bahn network in Germany, around the city centre. The circle route is made up of the double tracked S-Bahn ring and the parallel freight ring. S-Bahn service on the line is provided by lines S 41 (clockwise) and S 42 (anticlockwise), carrying 400,000 passengers a day. Due to its distinctive shape, the line is often referred to as Hundekopf (Dog's Head).The Ring is structured by the east-west railway thoroughfare called the Stadtbahn (city railway), crossing the Ring in the west at Westkreuz and in the east at Ostkreuz (Eastern Crossing) into a Südring (Southern Ring) and a Nordring (Northern Ring), and by the north-south S-Bahn link (with the North-South S-Bahn-tunnel as its central part) crossing at Gesundbrunnen station in the north and both Schöneberg station and Südkreuz in the south into a Westring (Western Ring) and an Ostring (Eastern Ring). These four sections served as tariff zones of the railway Berlin suburban fare structure before the previous world war.

Today, the Ringbahn is the boundary of the "A" zone in the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg transport association's fare structure, and the road traffic control zone for the low emissions established on 1 January 2008.

Box junction

A box junction, which was invented by Charles Hutchings, is a road traffic control measure designed to prevent congestion and gridlock at junctions. The surface of the junction is typically marked with a yellow criss-cross grid of diagonal painted lines (or only two lines crossing each other in the box), and vehicles may not enter the area so marked unless their exit from the junction is clear, or they are intending to turn right and are prevented from doing so by oncoming traffic, or other vehicles on the box waiting to turn right.

Box junctions were introduced in the UK during 1967, following a successful trial in London. In both Ireland and the United Kingdom (where cars drive on the left), drivers may enter the box and wait when they want to turn right and are stopped from doing so only by oncoming traffic or by other vehicles waiting to turn right.Box junctions may be painted on other areas of roadway which must be kept free of queuing traffic, such as exits from emergency vehicle depots, level crossings and car parks.

Box junctions are most widely used in many European countries such as Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Serbia and the United Kingdom; in parts of the United States, such as New York and Colorado; and other countries, including Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Africa, Taiwan and Brazil.

GEC 2050

The GEC 2050 was an 8-bit minicomputer produced during the 1970s, initially by Marconi Elliott Computer Systems of the UK, before the company renamed itself GEC Computers Limited. The first models were labeled MECS 2050, before being renamed GEC 2050.

The GEC 2050 was commonly used as a Remote Job Entry station, supporting a punched card reader, line printer, system console, and a data link to a remote mainframe computer system, and GEC Computers sold a complete RJE package including the system, peripherals, and RJE software. Another turnkey application was a ticketing system, whose customers included Arsenal Football Club. The system was also commonly used for road traffic control and industrial process automation.

The GEC 2050 supported up to 64KiB of magnetic core memory in 4KiB, 8KiB and 16KiB modules. The system had a single Channel Controller for performing autonomous I/O, and used the same peripheral I/O controllers as the GEC 4000 series minicomputer.

General Administration for Traffic Safety

The General Administration for Traffic Safety of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia (Russian: Главное управление по обеспечению безопасности дорожного движения МВД России, ГУ ОБДД), popularly known under its historical abbreviation GAI (ГАИ), is a law enforcement agency and the Russian Traffic Patrol. They are responsible for the regulation of traffic, investigating traffic accidents, and manning the stop lights.

The Administration is part of the Public Security Service of the MVD. The Administration (abbreviated as GIBDD or GUOBDD) has patrol jurisdiction over all Russia highways.

Hellenic Police

The Hellenic Police (Greek: Ελληνική Αστυνομία, Ellinikí Astynomía, abbreviated ΕΛ.ΑΣ.) is the national police service and the one of the three Security forces of Greece. It is a very large agency with its responsibilities ranging from road traffic control to counter-terrorism. Police Lieutenant General Michail Karamalakis currently serves as the Chief of the Hellenic Police. He replaces Aristeidis Andrikopoulos.The Hellenic Police force was established in 1984 under Law 1481/1-10-1984 (Government Gazette 152 A) as the result of the fusion of the Gendarmerie (Χωροφυλακή, Chorofylakí) and the Cities Police (Αστυνομία Πόλεων, Astynomía Póleon) forces.According to Law 2800/2000, the Hellenic Police is a security organ whose primary aims are:

Ensuring peace and order as well as citizens' unhindered social development, a mission that includes general policing duties and traffic safety.

Prevention and suppression of crime as well as protecting the state and its democratic form of government within the framework of the constitutional order, a mission which includes the implementation of public and state security policy.The Hellenic Police is constituted along central and regional lines. The force takes direction from the Minister for Citizen Protection.

The force consists of police officers, civilians, border guards and Special Police Guards.

Israel Police

The Israel Police (Hebrew: משטרת ישראל‎, romanized: Mišteret Yisra'el; Arabic: شرطة إسرائيل‎, romanized: Shurtat Isrāʼīl) is the civilian police force of Israel. As with most other police forces in the world, its duties include crime fighting, traffic control, maintaining public safety, and counter-terrorism. It is under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Public Security.The Israel Police operates throughout Israel, and the Area C of the West Bank, in all places in which Israel has civilian control. There are no local or "municipal" police departments in Israel.

The National Headquarters of the Israel Police are located at Kiryat HaMemshala in Jerusalem.In an emergency, the police can be reached by dialing 100 from any telephone in Israel.

John Vande Velde

John Vande Velde (born December 27, 1948) is an American track cyclist who competed on velodromes around the world, winning three national championships (4,000 meter Individual Pursuit, 1968-1972), and he competed at the 1968 Summer Olympics and the 1972 Summer Olympics.. He was a 2004 inductee into the U.S. Bicycling Hall of Fame. He grew up in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, racing with the West Suburban Wheelmen, founded in 1959 by family members and friends. His father Al, and Uncles Babe and Henry were active racers from their youth, and John switched his competitive focus from swimming (High School to Cornell University) to cycling. He was one of the youngest members of the 1968 US Olympic Cycling team that went to Mexico City, and a co-captain of the 1972 US Olympic Cycling team in Munich. Following the 1972 Games, he and his teammate Jackie Simes III. turned professional to race Six-Day pro races, soon representing SHIMANO in that European pro race circuit. He and his partner were second in the 1973 Berlin Six-Day.

After retiring from professional cycling, Vande Velde returned to his career, and family's full-time work in road traffic control and management, while staying close to other Olympians involved in promoting some of the largest cycling events in the United States. He and his family constructed a portable wooden velodrome, the Vandedrome, which was used to promote a number of races including in Detroit and Los Angeles.

John is the father of three successful athletes, including Christian Vande Velde.

Marconi Myriad

The Marconi Myriad was an early computer designed by the Marconi Company in the 1960s.

Myriad was a 24-bit machine largely built using integrated circuits from Ferranti which were packaged in small "TO-5" type cans. The architecture was "conventional", and was developed largely by the in-house Marconi team that designed similar, but physically larger computers based on SB345 discrete surface-barrier transistors. These machines were used successfully by the Royal Radar Establishment (RRE) and the Road Research Laboratory in the UK. In Sweden they were used by the Government in their "Fur Hat" defence system and in the Air Force where two computers were used for the meteorological service from the late 1960s to early 1990s. They also provided flight data for UK military air traffic control for 15 years. In Australia, two Myriads were used as part of each of the AF/TPS-802 "HUBCAP" air-defence systems from 1967–97. The Myriads were used in a coupled mode with one providing a radar data extractor and data quantiser role, and the other driving display overlays and tactical display information on radar and tactical screens.

The Myriad 1 computer was mounted in a small desk format and weighed 1,200 pounds (540 kg). Eight bit paper tape was (somewhat) standard input (the software could handle data input in either the ASCII or the rather idiosyncratic KDF9 character codes) – but a high speed 1000-characters per second electrostatic reader made by Facit was capable of projecting paper tape across a room in spectacular fashion. A high-speed printer was provided. The major machine cycle time was around 800 nanoseconds, with inner cycles around 200 nanoseconds.

Most early programming was performed in very amenable and complete assembly code. Some use was also made of a subset of Coral 66 known as Mini-Coral. The 24-bit architecture provided a logical and flexible address/data environment but the 15-bit address limited the memory size to 32K 24-bit words. The operating system allowed multiple programs to run concurrently but most systems were coded "on the bare metal". Addressing allowed easy integration of external computing and display equipment. An embedded parallel bus allowed two Myriads and some peripheral expansion devices to be directly addressed. For example, in the "Hubcap" configuration, two 16k Myriads shared a 32k 4-wire core memory "backing store" and could save, retrieve or share information at high speed.

In 1964, a Myriad prototype was displayed at a major computer show in London. To catch the public's attention, it was decided to deploy a model HO railroad layout containing numbered (1–10) rolling stock. The public were invited to enter the order in which they wanted to see the train assembled. Immediately Myriad developed a strategy for shunting trucks around the tracks to assemble the train correctly.

Myriad production started in 1965.Myriad II was demonstrated for the first time at the 1966 exhibition in Munich.Myriad III was announced in 1970.The Myriad was used in several defence systems and air traffic control systems such as the Linesman/Mediator and the Paris system. It was used by the National Physics Laboratory UK, and a road traffic control system in Glasgow. In Cambridge a Myriad computer was used to operate the Ryle Telescope tracking eight dishes across the sky, whilst processing the received interference fringe data in real time. Marconi delivered air defence systems coupled to radar to African and Far East counties using the Myriad. When Marconi attempted to open up the North American market considerable interest was given by the City of Montreal for a traffic control system as well as the Lawrence Seaway authority to control the seaway. A proposal to the Canadian Government for air traffic control systems for three Canadian airports was not accepted being deemed to be too advanced for the then current level of training for air traffic controllers.

Marconi Automation spent a year developing a proposal in conjunction with Wimpey's of London to produce petrol chemical plant design system which would not only produce accurate tske-off schedules but would flag any instances of pipe conflicts. When Wimpey bought an ICL 1900 computer the management asked that the system be run on that machine. This was not possible.

Canadian Marconi in Montreal had very advanced technology in integrated circuits and multiple level printed circuits from doppler navigation unit manufacture for the US Government and so a proposal was put forward to use these technologies for both the Myriad and the Elliot Bros computers. The proposal was not adopted due to Canadian Marconi's lack of computer knowledge.

In the late 1960s the Myriad was shown at a computer show in South Africa but unfortunately the machine was dropped out of the transporting aircraft resulting in the chassis being considerably distorted. The Myriad was placed against a wall and pushed back into shape using a fork lift truck. The machine then behaved perfectly at all the events where it was shown.

The Myriad was used extensively by the Marconi semiconductor division to design integrated circuits with facilities far in advance of other programs.

Road Traffic Control Department

The Road Traffic Control Department (Russian: Отдел по регулированию уличного движения, tr. Otdel po regulirovaniju ulichnogo dvizhenija), abbreviated as ORUD (Russian: ОРУД), was the road traffic control, highway patrol and traffic law enforcement department of the Soviet Militsiya. It was in operation from 1931 to 1961, when it was merged with the State Automobile Inspectorate.

Road traffic control device

Road traffic control devices are markers, signs and signal devices used to inform, guide and control traffic, including pedestrians, motor vehicle drivers and bicyclists. These devices are usually placed adjacent, over or along the highways, roads, traffic facilities and other public areas that require traffic control.

TIM-600

TIM-600 was an important PC computer system of the series of the TIM microcomputers, from Mihajlo Pupin Institute-Belgrade, developed 1987-1988 (see ref.Lit. #1, #2 and #6). It was based on the Intel microprocessor types 80386 and 80387. It has word-length of 32 bits, basic cycle time of 20 MHz and operating system Unix V.3 (ref.Lit.#3 and #6). Computer system TIM-600 was exposed at the Munich International Computer Exhibition on September 1988.

Fig.1, TIM designers.

Fig.2, TIM-600 computer system.

Traffic

Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel. Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic.

Organized traffic generally has well-established priorities, lanes, right-of-way, and traffic control at intersections.

Traffic is formally organized in many jurisdictions, with marked lanes, junctions, intersections, interchanges, traffic signals, or signs. Traffic is often classified by type: heavy motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck), other vehicle (e.g., moped, bicycle), and pedestrian. Different classes may share speed limits and easement, or may be segregated. Some jurisdictions may have very detailed and complex rules of the road while others rely more on drivers' common sense and willingness to cooperate.

Organization typically produces a better combination of travel safety and efficiency. Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include road construction, collisions, and debris in the roadway. On particularly busy freeways, a minor disruption may persist in a phenomenon known as traffic waves. A complete breakdown of organization may result in traffic congestion and gridlock. Simulations of organized traffic frequently involve queuing theory, stochastic processes and equations of mathematical physics applied to traffic flow.

Traffic Safety Store

Traffic Safety Store, winner of the 2006 Forbes Enterprise Award, is a privately held U.S. traffic safety supply company and online retailers specializing in the manufacturing and distribution of road traffic control device ranging from traffic cones to speed bumps (Speed Bump), and other safety products. Traffic Safety Store is also an EPA approved CPG product supplier. Additionally, Traffic Safety Store provides High visibility clothing and workwear solutions for traffic safety and high visibility.

Traffic control (disambiguation)

Traffic control or traffic controller or traffic management or traffic manager may refer to:

Traffic management, a branch of logistics

Road traffic control, directing vehicles and pedestrians around a construction zone etc

Traffic guard or traffic controller, a person who directs road traffic through a temporary traffic control zone

Traffic lights or traffic control signals, signalling devices control flows of road traffic

Traffic light control and coordination

Bandwidth management, measurement and control of communications traffic

Network traffic control, in computer networking

Air traffic management, systems that assist aircraft to depart and land and transit airspace

Air traffic control, a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers to aircraft

Train dispatcher or rail traffic controller, a person directing the movement of trains

"Traffic Control", a 2019 song by Giriboy

Traffic engineering (transportation)

Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and crosswalks, cycling infrastructure, traffic signs, road surface markings and traffic lights. Traffic engineering deals with the functional part of transportation system, except the infrastructures provided.

Traffic engineering is closely associated with other disciplines:

Transport engineering

Pavement engineering

Bicycle transportation engineering

Highway engineering

Transportation planning

Urban planning

Human factors engineering.Typical traffic engineering projects involve designing traffic control device installations and modifications, including traffic signals, signs, and pavement markings. Examples of Engineering Plans include pole engineering analysis and Storm Water Prevention Programs (SWPP). However, traffic engineers also consider traffic safety by investigating locations with high crash rates and developing countermeasures to reduce crashes. Traffic flow management can be short-term (preparing construction traffic control plans, including detour plans for pedestrian and vehicular traffic) or long-term (estimating the impacts of proposed commercial/residential developments on traffic patterns). Increasingly, traffic problems are being addressed by developing systems for intelligent transportation systems, often in conjunction with other engineering disciplines, such as computer engineering and electrical engineering.

Traffic guard

A traffic guard, traffic controller, flagman, or flagger is a person who directs traffic through a construction site or other temporary traffic control zone past an area using gestures, signs or flags. The person directing traffic is responsible for maintaining the safety and efficiency of traffic, as well as the safety of road workers, while allowing construction, accident recovery or other tasks to proceed. Traffic guards are commonly used to control traffic when two way roads are reduced to one lane, and traffic must alternate. Their duties are to direct traffic to safer areas where construction or traffic incidents are taking place. In addition they have to moderate the traffic density to not cause traffic jams. They guide motorists to follow the traffic laws; but may not be able to enforce the law. Most traffic guards are seen as construction workers; but in some nations, they dress or perform as security guards and police officers.

Traffic management

Traffic management is a key branch within logistics. It concerns the planning, control and purchasing of transport services needed to physically move vehicles (for example aircraft, road vehicles, rolling stock and watercraft) and freight.

Traffic management is implemented by people working with different job titles in different branches:

Within freight and cargo logistics: traffic manager, assessment of hazardous and awkward materials, carrier choice and fees, demurrage, documentation, expediting, freight consolidation, insurance, reconsignment and tracking

Within air traffic management: air traffic controller

Within rail traffic management: rail traffic controller, train dispatcher or signalman

Within road traffic management: traffic controllerTraffic Control Management is the design, auditing and implementation of traffic control plans at worksites and civil infrastructure projects. Traffic Management can include: flagging, lane closures, detours, full freeway closures, pedestrian access, traffic plans, traffic management vehicles and sidewalk closures.

Traffic paddle

A traffic paddle is a hand-held paddle-shaped signal used by police, traffic wardens, fire brigade, airport ground staff and others to direct traffic.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

Rules of the road
Road user guides
Enforcement
Speed limit
Moving violations
Driver licensing
Traffic violations reciprocity
Parking
Automotive safety
Road safety

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