Rize

Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

Rize
View of Rize
View of Rize
Rize is located in Turkey
Rize
Rize
Coordinates: 41°01′29″N 40°31′20″E / 41.02472°N 40.52222°ECoordinates: 41°01′29″N 40°31′20″E / 41.02472°N 40.52222°E
CountryTurkey
ProvinceRize
Government
 • MayorReşat Kasap (AKP)
Area
 • District250.14 km2 (96.58 sq mi)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
104,508
 • District
141,524
 • District density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Post code
53000
ClimateCfa
Websitewww.rize.bel.tr

Name

The name comes from Greek ρίζα (riza) or Ριζαίον (Rizaion), meaning "mountain slopes",ρίζα in Greek means root.[3] In modern times, its name in Greek was usually Ριζούντα (Rizunda). Its Latin forms are Rhizus and Rhizaeum, the latter of which is used in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees as the name of bishopric of the town, which was once part of the late Roman province of Pontus Polemoniacus[4]). The name Rize is spelled ريزه in Ottoman Turkish, and რიზე in Georgian. The name in Laz is Rizini (რიზინი).[5]

History

The first written mention of Rize is made by Arrian in a work named Periplus of the Euxine Sea,[6] as a city founded at the mouth of the homonymous river (the ancient and Byzantine ῾Ρίζιος ποταμός[7]). Dated at 130–131 AD and written as a letter to Roman Emperor Hadrian, the work records how its author, the governor of Cappadocia, made an inspection tour of the Eastern Black Sea territories that were part of his jurisdiction, first visiting the Roman Empire's Eastern Anatolian frontier garrisons before pushing on to the Black Sea coast in the Trabzon (Trebizond) region.[8]

The city of Rize formed part of historic Georgian province of Chaneti (Georgian: ჭანეთი). From 1547 Chaneti province was incorporated by the Ottoman Empire and became a part of the sancak of Lazistan. The city was claimed by the short-lived Democratic Republic of Georgia between 1918 and 1920. On the basis of the 1921 Treaty of Kars, Soviet Russia granted Rize to Turkey just as the other territories of Artvin, Ardahan, and Hopa (Georgian: ხუფათი).

Geography

Rize-postakarti-osmanli
Rize, 1910's, Ottoman era postcard

The city is built around a small bay on the Black Sea coast, on a narrow strip of flat land between the sea and the mountains behind. The coastal strip is being expanded with landfill and the city is growing up the steep hillsides away from the coast. Rize enjoys a mild, extremely wet climate, vulnerable to storms coming off the Black Sea and therefore the surrounding countryside is rich with vegetation and is attracting more and more visitors every year.

Rize is a center for processing and shipping Rize Tea, the tea grown in the surrounding area. Tea was introduced in the region in the 1940s and 1950s, changing the destiny of the region, which was desperately poor until then.[9] The city has a tea research institute founded in 1958 and tea gardens are the main sight in the town's panoramic view. Tea and kiwifruit plants are even planted in gardens around the town. The secondary activity is fishing. Rize is linked by road with Trabzon (41 miles [66 km] west), Hopa (55 miles [88 km] east on the Georgian border, and Erzurum (north). The nearest airport is in Trabzon.

Rize is a quiet town, a typical Turkish provincial capital with little in the way of night life or entertainment. However the border with Georgia has been open since the early 90's, the Black Sea coast road has been widened and Rize is now wealthier than in previous decades; there are more cars in the streets, higher buildings on the sea front, and some places for young people to go are opening up now. The visitors to the surrounding countryside also contribute to the economy of the town.

Climate

Rize has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa). Snowfall can be heavy once it snows. The climate turns continental (Dfb) on the hillsides and subarctic (Dfc) on mountain slopes and yaylas, a term used in Turkish for highlands and highland plateaus.

Rize and the eastern part of the Black Sea coast where it is situated has the highest precipitation in western Asia, with an annual precipitation averaging around 2,500 millimetres (100 in), with heavy rainfall year-round and a maximum in late autumn (October to December). The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation in Turkey and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The water temperature, as in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast, is always cool, fluctuating between 8 and 20 °C (46 and 68 °F) throughout the year.

Economy

Historically, Rize grew oranges. However, weather destroyed the crops in the early 20th century, and the industry declined.[11] The area also produced small amounts of manganese.[12]

The economic structure of Rize is based primarily around its geographic location. Rize is a very mountainous city, making industrial development difficult and impractical. Given the lack of air and rail transit, most goods have to travel by truck or ship, which makes exporting and importing difficult. Rize's primary trading partner is Trabzon, the most developed city of northeast Black Sea region. Rize's main exports are agriculturally based; tea and kiwifruit are among its most popular commodities.

Education

Rize University was founded in 2006, and its name was changed to Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University by the university senate's approval.

Culture

Entrance of the Castle of Rize, Rize, Turkey
Entrance to Rize Castle
  • Rize Castle, a partly-ruined medieval castle southwest of the city center.

Sports

Sports venues in Rize are Rize Atatürk Stadium, Yeni Rize Şehir Stadı and Rize Sports Complex consisting of Rize Sports Hall and Rize Indoor Swimming Pool.

The football team of Çaykur Rizespor play in the Süper Lig. Pazarspor football team compete in the TFF Third League.

Notable natives

Çaykur Rizespor, the local football team, play in the Turkish Super League and are local heroes, occasionally capable of defeating even the big Istanbul teams. They play in green and blue, reflecting the blue of the sea and the green of the tea growing on the hillsides.

Others who have never lived in Rize but come from Rize families include:

Population

Population of Rize
Year Population
1975
36,044
1980
43,407
1985
50,221
1990
52,031
1997
73,420
2000
78,144
2009
96,503

Notes

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Rize Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine article from Özhan Öztürk, Encyclopedia of Black Sea (Karadeniz Ansiklopedik Sözlük), 2005
  4. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 959
  5. ^ Öztürk claims that it amy be related with Laz irizeni means "flat places" Özhan Öztürk.Pontus: Antiçağ’dan Günümüze Karadeniz’in Etnik ve Siyasi Tarihi. Ankara, 2011 ISBN 978-605-54-1017-9 pp. 739–740
  6. ^ An Overview of Rize's History
  7. ^ Περίπλους τοῦ Εὐξείνου Πόντου
  8. ^ The Periplus of the Euxine Sea. Oxford: sold by J. Cooke; and by Messrs. Cadell and Davies Strand, London. 1805. Note: Arrian only mentions the River Rhizius, not any settlement by that name. It is quoted as being to the east of the river Ophis after the rivers Psychrus and Calus.
  9. ^ Rize Çayı ve Rize kenti (tr)
  10. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Genel İstatistik Verileri" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  11. ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 62.
  12. ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 73.

References

  • [Encyclopedic Dictionary of Black Sea]. 2 Cilt. Heyamola Yayıncılık. Istanbul. ISBN 978-975-6121-00-9

External links

2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup

The 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup was the nineteenth edition of the FIFA U-20 World Cup, since its inception in 1977 as the FIFA World Youth Championship. The 2013 series ran from 21 June 2013, through 13 July 2013. At the FIFA Executive Meeting in Zürich on 3 March 2011, Turkey beat other bids to host the series games, from host competition by the United Arab Emirates and Uzbekistan. In its bid, Turkey suggested the use of 13 stadiums in 10 of its cities, before deciding in February 2012, that seven cities would play host to games.This tournament marks the first time in its history that neither Argentina nor Brazil (the most successful teams in the competition) qualified. It is also the second time that Brazil has not taken part (the first time was the 1979 edition).

France won the tournament and their first U-20 World Cup, and thus became the first nation to win all five FIFA 11-a-side men's titles (FIFA World Cup, FIFA Confederations Cup, FIFA U-20 World Cup, FIFA U-17 World Cup, and Olympic gold medal).

Bryan Sutton

Bryan Sutton is an American musician. Primarily known as a flatpicked acoustic guitar player, Sutton also plays mandolin, banjo, ukulele, and electric guitar. He also sings and writes songs.

Governor of Rize

The Governor of Rize (Turkish: Rize Valiliği) is the bureaucratic state official responsible for both national government and state affairs in the Province of Rize. Similar to the Governors of the 80 other Provinces of Turkey, the Governor of Rize is appointed by the Government of Turkey and is responsible for the implementation of government legislation within Rize. The Governor is also the most senior commander of both the Rize provincial police force and the Rize Gendarmerie.

Koyun dog

The Koyun dog is a flock and herd guardian dog of Molosser type. Koyun dogs are present in Ordu Province to the west of Rize in Turkey. This breed is also called Bayburt Kelpi locally.

The dog appears in various colours but dark grey is the most common. Bi-coloured animals occur. Rize Koyun dogs have a solid body structure and strong legs which make for easy traveling of the hilly areas of the Canik Mountains where they are found. The tail is normally in a downward position but is raised when the dog is alert. Shoulder heights of males are about 70 centimetres (28 in) and those of females about 1–2 cm lower.

The Rize Koyun is not a pet. In addition to guardian duties, it assists its human owners in giving vociferous or physical warning of intruding people or animals.

List of populated places in Rize Province

Below is the list of populated places in Rize Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district.

Pazar, Rize

Pazar (Laz and Georgian: ათინა, Atina; Greek: Αθήνα, romanized: Athína) is a town and district of Rize Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 37 km east of the city of Rize. The town contains many inhabitants of Georgian and Laz ancestries as well as other peoples.

Pazarspor

Pazarspor is a sports club located in Rize, Turkey. The football club plays in the TFF Third League. It was founded in 1973 by the people of Rize, Pazar.

Pazarspor is a new team in TFF Second League. A long time TFF Third League side, they won the 2004–05 championship earning promotion to TFF Second League.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (Turkish: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Üniversitesi) is a state university founded on 17 March 2006 in Rize, Turkey.

Rize (electoral district)

Rize is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects three members of parliament (deputies) to represent the province of the same name for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system.

Rize (film)

Rize is an American documentary film starring Lil' C, Tommy Johnson, also known as Tommy the Clown, and Miss Prissy. The documentary exposes the new dance forms known as Clowning and Krumping, which started in Los Angeles around the time of the 1992 riots that followed the Rodney King verdict. The film was written and directed by David LaChapelle. Working alongside LaChapelle were executive producers, Ishbel Whitaker, Barry Peele, Ellen Jacobson-Clarke, Stavros Merjos, and Rebecca Skinner. Rize was produced by Lions Gate Entertainment with a production budget of $700 thousand. Rize was released domestically on June 24, 2005 grossing $3.3 million at the box office.

Rize Atatürk Museum

Rize Atatürk Museum (Turkish: Atatürk Evi Müzesi, also known as Mehmet Mataracı Konağı) is a museum in Rize, Turkey.

The museum is in the Müftü quarter of Rize, and is locally known as Mehmet Mataracı mansion. It is to the east of the city Stadium and to the south of the main road.

The museum building is a three-storey mansion that was built in 1921. In 1924, Mustafa Kemal Pasha (later Atatürk), the founder of Turkey, stayed in this house during his visit to Rize. In 1881, the 100th birth year of Atatürk, the owners of the house granted it to the governorship of Rize to be used as an Atatürk museum. The museum was opened on 27 December 1985.On the ground floor, inscriptions and tombstones are exhibited. On the first floor, there are traditional weaving instruments as well as other ethnographic items. On the second floor, memorial items of Atatürk, such as his personal belongings and photos about the Turkish War of Independence, are exhibited.

Rize Castle

Rize Castle (Turkish: Rize Kalesi) is a partly-ruined medieval castle located in Rize, northeastern Turkey.

Rize Castle is situated on a hill southwest of the city center, and offers a panoramic view of the city.The castle consists of a citadel and the lower castle. It is believed that the citadel was built during the reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565), and the lower castle dates back to the 13th century.It covers an area ıf 480 m2 (5,200 sq ft). The fortification's walls, built in ashlar and mortar, are 2–20 m (6.6–65.6 ft) high and 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) thick. Between the cylinder-formed bastions, there are overhung support towers in various forms such as square, rectangular and round.Today, some of the ruined castle walls are buried under reinforced concrete buildings and streets. The castle walls in the southern part were restored in 1989. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism launched a project for the restoration of Rize Castle in 2011.

Rize Province

Rize Province (Turkish: Rize ili) is a province of northeast Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south. It was formerly known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was officially banned in 1926, by Kemalists. Its capital is the city of Rize. The province is home to Laz, Hemshin, Turkish people and Georgian communities. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a member of the Turkish Coast Guard.

Rize of the Fenix

Rize of the Fenix is the third studio album by American rock band Tenacious D. Produced by John Kimbrough, it was released in North America on May 15, 2012 by Columbia Records. In addition to the band's core members Jack Black and Kyle Gass, the album also marks the return of John Konesky (electric guitar), John Spiker (bass), and Dave Grohl (drums), who have performed on previous Tenacious D albums. The album was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album at the 2013 ceremony.

Rize tea

Rize tea or Rize çayı is the black tea used for Turkish tea. Produced in Rize Province on the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil, when brewed it is mahogany in color. In addition to being consumed at home, it is served in Turkish cafés by a çaycı (tea-waiter), in small, narrow-waisted glasses. It can be taken strong ("demli" dark) or weak ("açık" light), and is traditionally served with beet sugar crystals (toz şeker) or a couple of sugar lumps (kesme şeker).

Rize–Artvin Airport

Rize–Artvin Airport (Turkish: Rize–Artvin Havalimanı) is an airport under construction on reclaimed land from the sea off the coast of in Rize Province, northeastern Turkey.

The airport is situated off the coast of Yeşilköy village in Pazar district of Rize Province. It is 34 km (21 mi) east of Rize and about 75 km (47 mi) west of Artvin. It is being constructed on ground obtained through filling a part of the Black Sea shore by rocks brought from nearby quarries in Merdivenli, Hisarlı, Kanlımezra and Kuzeyca. To fill the up to 30 m (98 ft)-deep sea, at least 85 million tons of rock is required. The airport building will cover an area of 4,500 m2 (48,000 sq ft), and the runway will 3,000 m (9,800 ft) long at 45 m (148 ft) width parallel to seashore. The construction works began with groundbreaking in 2017. It will be the country's second airport of its sort following Ordu–Giresun Airport. It is expected that the airport will go into service in 2021, and will serve about two million passengers annually. The construction cost is budgeted to 750 million (approx. US$206 million).

Tim O'Brien (musician)

Tim O'Brien (born March 16, 1954) is an American country and bluegrass musician. In addition to singing, he plays guitar, fiddle, mandolin, banjo, bouzouki and mandocello. He has released more than ten studio albums, in addition to charting a duet with Kathy Mattea entitled "The Battle Hymn of Love", a No. 9 hit on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks (now Hot Country Songs) charts in 1990. In November 2013 he was inducted into the West Virginia Music Hall of Fame.

Yeni Rize Şehir Stadium

Yeni Rize Şehir Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Rize, Turkey. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of Çaykur Rizespor. The stadium has a capacity of 15,197 spectators and it opened in 2009. It replaced Rize Atatürk Stadium as the home of Çaykur Rizespor.

Çaykur Rizespor

Çaykur Rizespor Kulübü is a professional football club based in Rize, Turkey. The club play in the Turkish Süper Lig, which is the top tier of football in the country. The club was founded on May 19, 1953 with green-yellow as club colours, but later changed to blue-green. Since 1990, the team has been sponsored by the Turkish tea company Çaykur, hence the name and the image of a tea leaf on the club's logo. The club plays its home games in Yeni Rize Şehir Stadium.

Climate data for Rize (1928–2017)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.3
(75.7)
28.1
(82.6)
32.6
(90.7)
35.8
(96.4)
38.2
(100.8)
36.1
(97.0)
35.4
(95.7)
35.6
(96.1)
34.6
(94.3)
33.8
(92.8)
30.4
(86.7)
26.7
(80.1)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
10.6
(51.1)
11.8
(53.2)
15.3
(59.5)
19.3
(66.7)
23.4
(74.1)
25.8
(78.4)
26.4
(79.5)
23.8
(74.8)
20.3
(68.5)
16.4
(61.5)
12.7
(54.9)
18.0
(64.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
6.6
(43.9)
8.0
(46.4)
11.6
(52.9)
16.0
(60.8)
20.2
(68.4)
22.7
(72.9)
23.0
(73.4)
20.0
(68.0)
16.1
(61.0)
12.0
(53.6)
8.7
(47.7)
14.3
(57.7)
Average low °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
3.5
(38.3)
4.8
(40.6)
8.3
(46.9)
12.5
(54.5)
16.5
(61.7)
19.5
(67.1)
19.9
(67.8)
16.8
(62.2)
13.0
(55.4)
9.0
(48.2)
5.6
(42.1)
11.1
(52.0)
Record low °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.6
(20.1)
−7
(19)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.0
(33.8)
7.8
(46.0)
10.0
(50.0)
9.8
(49.6)
4.6
(40.3)
2.5
(36.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
−4
(25)
−7.0
(19.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 233.3
(9.19)
186.6
(7.35)
161.0
(6.34)
96.5
(3.80)
95.7
(3.77)
133.8
(5.27)
152.4
(6.00)
195.4
(7.69)
253.9
(10.00)
295.3
(11.63)
257.3
(10.13)
237.6
(9.35)
2,298.8
(90.50)
Average precipitation days 14.6 14.3 15.6 14.8 14.2 13.8 13.7 14.2 14.5 14.8 13.5 14.2 172.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.2 87.6 111.6 135.0 173.6 198.0 167.4 161.2 150.0 130.2 90.0 65.1 1,537.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.2 3.1 3.6 4.5 5.6 6.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.2 3.0 2.1 4.2
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[10]
Districts

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.