The River Torne is a river in the north of England, which flows through the counties of South Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire. It rises at the Upper Lake at Sandbeck Hall, in Maltby in South Yorkshire, and empties into the River Trent at Keadby pumping station. Much of the channel is engineered, as it plays a significant role in the drainage of Hatfield Chase, which it crosses.
The first major change occurred around 1628, when the drainage engineer Cornelius Vermuyden cut a new channel for the river across the Isle of Axholme, and built a sluice at Althorpe where it entered the River Trent. Nearly 90 years of civil unrest followed, before the issues of flooding were finally resolved. Drainage of the land bordering the river was carried out in the 1760s and 1770s. A new sluice was built at Keadby, lower downstream on the Trent in the 1780s, but the Torne was not re-routed to it until much later. The sluice at Keadby became a pumping station in 1940, and the option to pump water into the Trent at all states of the tide led to the abandonment of the Althorpe outfall, and the routing of the Torne to Keadby.
There are a number of pumping stations along the course of the river. Tickhill pumping station was built in the 1970s, to handle water from the Middle Drain, which crosses an area affected by mining subsidence. It was managed on behalf of the Coal Board by Tickhill Internal Drainage Board (IDB), not part of Doncaster East IDB. There are Environment Agency pumping stations at Candy Farm and Tunnel Pits.
The outfall from Candy Farm North pumping station into the Torne
|Counties||South Yorkshire, North Lincolnshire|
|⁃ location||Sandbeck Hall, Maltby, South Yorkshire|
|Keadby, North Lincolnshire|
Before 1628, much of the area through which the River Torne now passes was waterlogged, and the river system was quite different. The River Don flowed across Hatfield Chase from Stainforth to Adlingfleet. The River Idle flowed northwards from the point later called Idle Stop, and joined the Don near to Sandtoft, while the Torne formed two channels to the west of Wroot, both of which joined the Idle.
In 1626, Cornelius Vermuyden was given the task of draining Hatfield Chase, and he radically altered the rivers. The Don was routed northwards from Stainforth, to join the River Aire near Turnbridge, while the Idle was dammed at Idle Stop, and routed eastwards to join the Trent at West Stockwith. This left the Torne with no outfall, and a completely new channel was constructed for it, which was embanked on both sides. It ran in a north-easterly direction from Wroot for 6 miles (9.7 km), crossing the Isle of Axholme, and then turned to the east for 3 miles (4.8 km), where it entered the Trent at a sluice near Althorpe. At the same time, a drain was constructed which ran northwards from Idle Stop in a straight line for 8 miles (13 km) to Dirtness. It passed under the new channel of the Torne at Tunnel Pits. At Dirtness it was joined by another new drain, some 3 miles (4.8 km) long, flowing in from the west, and the combined flow was carried to the east for a further 5 miles (8 km), to enter the Trent at another sluice at Althorpe. The Torne sluice was 11 feet (3.4 m) wide, and the sluice on the drain was 14 feet (4.3 m) wide.
The new route of the Torne was not entirely successful. It crossed fertile parture land to the north-west of the Isle of Axholme, but the banks were not sufficiently large to hold the maximum volume of water which the river could deliver, and the agricultural land was subject to flooding. There was dissatisfaction among the inhabitants of the Hatfield Chase area with the effects of the drainage scheme, which resulted in riots and damage to the work. A series of lawsuits followed, and the situation was not finally resolved until 1719.
In the 1760s, there were plans to drain Potteric Carr, an area of wetland to the south of Doncaster covering 4,250 acres (1,720 ha). The engineers John Smeaton and James Brindley were responsible for the plans, but Thomas Tofield, a botanist and civil engineer who lived nearby at Balby, directed the project when work began in 1765 or 1766. The first stages involved a new channel for the Torne, and the construction of the Mother Drain, the main drainage channel for the area, together with two branch drains. These were completed by 1768. Doncaster Corporation then divided up the Carr and enclosed it, and when this was completed in 1771, Trustees took over the management of the scheme. Further work was done between 1772 and 1777, again with Tofield directing, and Mathias Scott acting as resident engineer and surveyor. By the time the scheme was completed, 4.6 miles (7.4 km) of the river channel had been rerouted, the Mother Drain had been extended to 4.5 miles (7.2 km), and 3 miles (4.8 km) of catchwater drains had been built.
The fall on the Mother Drain was very low, but Smeaton had designed it with a channel, the bottom of which was below the level of the outfall. In a separate dispute over the design of drains for Deeping Fen, he explained how he had used the extra depth at Potteric Carr, since the flow increases depending on the ratio of the cross-sectional area to the wetted perimeter, when the gradient of the channel is less than 4 inches per mile (6 cm per km). The sluice which connected the Mother Drain to the Torne was designed by Scott in 1772. Scott resigned his post in April 1774, to move to Thorne and to work for the Trustees of Hatfield Chase. One of his first suggestions was to divert the Torne out of the Chase altogether, by making a new cut for it to the River Don at Thorne. Thomas Yeoman proposed an alternative scheme, which involved routing the drains away from Althorpe to a new outfall some 4 miles (6.4 km) downstream on the Trent.
Scott produced a report on both schemes in October 1775, but the cost of acquiring the land outside of the Chase was a major disadvantage. Exactly a year later, Smeaton produced a detailed report on the Torne, and work began, but some alterations were made as the scheme progressed. Scott suggested that the northern drain should be re-routed to Keadby, and then steered the bill through Parliament. The Act of Parliament was obtained in March 1783, before he retired in June. Samuel Foster replaced him, built the new drain and outfall at Keadby, and built separate outfalls at Althorpe for the Torne and the southern drain. The reconstruction was completed by 1789.
In 1813, the South Engine Drain was routed under the Torne through a syphon, and became the third of the Three Rivers. The 1887 Ordnance Survey map shows only the Torne flowing eastwards from Pilfrey Bridge. As it approaches Althorpe, it splits into two, and uses both of the sluices into the Trent. The Folly Drain turns to the south and joins the Trent at Derrythorpe. By 1946/51, maps show a connection between the Torne and the middle of the Three Rivers, with a connection between the middle channel and the east channel downstream of Pilfrey Bridge. By 1966, the channels are inter-connected much as they are today, with a sluice between the Folly Drain and the South Engine Drain, and the sluices at Althorpe and Derrythorpe no longer used.
The outlet into the River Trent at Keadby was by gravity until 1940, when the pumping station was built to assist when water levels in the Trent are too high to allow for gravity discharge. Six 60-inch (150 cm) Gwynnes pumps were powered by 420 hp (310 kW) Crossley diesel engines, but one of them was replaced by an electric motor in 1994, when the engines were refurbished by the National Rivers Authority. It was the availability of power, which enabled water to be discharged to the Trent at all states of the tide that led to the routing of the Torne and the Folly Drain to Keadby, and the abandonment of the Althorpe and Derrythorpe outfalls.
Following the passing of the Land Drainage Act 1930, Internal Drainage Boards were set up to manage low-lying areas prone to flooding. The area to the east of Tickhill, surrounding the Torne from where it crosses the A60 road to a little below the junction with the Middle Drain, has been managed by the Tickhill Internal Drainage Board since 1931. They are responsible for an area of 10 square miles (26 km2), which includes 9 miles (14.5 km) of watercourses. Most of these flow into the Torne by gravity, but the Middle Drain has suffered from subsidence, and a pumping station was installed in the 1970s to overcome this. The IDB operates the station on behalf of the National Coal Board, who own it. In April 2012, Tickhill IDB became part of the much larger Doncaster East Internal Drainage Board.
The River Torne rises in the grounds of Sandbeck Hall, the home of the Earl of Scarborough. The house is a grade I listed structure, and was originally built in 1626 for Sir Nicholas Saunderson. James Paine extended it in the 1760s for the fourth Earl, and the interior was remodelled for the ninth Earl by William Burn in 1857. The grounds were landscaped by Capability Brown, and he created the Upper Lake and the Lower Lake, from which the river flows. The Upper Lake is close to the 130-foot (40 m) contour, but the outlet to the river is at the 98-foot (30 m) contour.
The river flows to the east, and within a short distance it has dropped below the 49-foot (15 m) before it is crossed by the A60 Oldcotes to Tickhill road at the foot of Malpas Hill. It turns to the north to pass under the embankment of the dismantled railway which used to serve Firbeck Colliery at Langold, and the industrial railway which serves Harworth Colliery. The river is joined by a number of drainage dikes and ditches as it crosses Tickhill Low Common, to the south of Tickhill. The common and the river are crossed by the Doncaster Bypass section of the A1(M) motorway, which is built on an embankment here and was one of the earliest motorways built in Britain, opening in July 1961.
Next it passes under the A631 Tickhill to Bawtry road at Goole Bridge. The river carries the alternative name of Goole Dike at this point. The Middle Drain joins the river just before it crosses the 16-foot (4.9 m) contour, and the western bank is embanked as it passes Reedy Holmes Plantation. Already the meandering course of the river has been replaced by straight sections with tight bends. The Little Mother Drain, which drains Stancil Carr and Wellingley Low Grounds, joins before the river passes around the western edge of the huge spoil heap of Rossington Main Colliery, and St Catherine's Well Stream, which flows eastwards from a well between Loversall and Balby joins at the northern edge of the spoil heap. The channel is embanked at a number of locations from here onwards. To the north of Rossington it turns to the east to pass under the East Coast Main Line railway, and then the A638 Great North Road at Rossington Bridge, which it shares with the Mother Drain. This drains the area around Doncaster International Railport and the Potteric Carr Nature Reserve, and the flows combine after the bridge, near the site of some Roman pottery kilns and Wheatcroft fishing lakes.
Next to cross are the Doncaster to Gainsborough railway line and the B1396 road at Auckley Bridge. The Aldam Drain drains Cantley Low Common, and beyond the junction, the river becomes a high level carrier, with permanent embanking of both banks, and catchwater drains running along the foot of both banks. At Candy Farm there are two pumping stations, the southern one pumping the Black Bank Drain into the river, and the northern one pumping the East Ring Drain. At Tunnel Pits, there are two more pumping stations, and Tunnel Pits Bridge carries the road which follows Vermuyden's North Idle Drain over the channel. Soon, the South Engine Drain is running parallel to the river, as it crosses under Sandtoft Road and the M180 motorway. As it turns to the east again, the Folly Drain also runs parallel, but a little beyond the A161 bridge, the two drains continue to the east, while the river diverts to the north, to run parallel to the North Engine Drain. The Hatfield Waste Drain runs parallel to the North Engine Drain on its south bank, but after the approach on the Torne, there was nowhere for it to go, and so it passes under the North Engine Drain to its north bank through a grade II listed syphon, which was probably built by Samual Foster in 1795 or by Thackray in 1813 as part of a series of improvements recommended by the engineer John Rennie.
The three parallel channels, with the A18 running to the south of the Hatfield Waste Drain, arrive at Pilfrey Bridge, where they are joined by the South Engine Drain and the Folly Drain. The River Torne used to continue eastwards to a sluice at Althorpe, but the sluice is no more and the channel drains in the reverse direction. The South Engine Drain, which was built as part of improvements made in 1795, used to pass under the Torne and the road through another grade II listed syphon, which dates from 1813. The syphon is now redundant, since the channels have been connected together. Three parallel channels, known as the Three Rivers, flow to the north east, passing under the Doncaster to Scunthorpe railway, to arrive at Keadby pumping station.
The Environment Agency assesses the water quality of the river systems in England. Each is given an overall ecological status, which may be one of five levels: high, good, moderate, poor and bad. There are several components that are used to determine this, including biological status, which looks at the quantity and varieties of invertebrates, angiosperms and fish, and chemical status, which compares the concentrations of various chemicals against known safe concentrations. Chemical status is rated good or fail.
The water quality of the Torne was as follows in 2016.
|Section||Ecological Status||Chemical Status||Overall Status||Length||Catchment|
|Torne from Source to Ruddle (Paper Mill Dyke)||Moderate||Fail||Moderate||4.1 miles (6.6 km)||3.90 square miles (10.1 km2)|
|Torne from Ruddle to St Catherine's Well Stream||Poor||Fail||Poor||5.1 miles (8.2 km)||11.31 square miles (29.3 km2)|
|Torne from St Catherine's Well Stream to Mother Drain||Poor||Good||Poor||2.8 miles (4.5 km)||6.81 square miles (17.6 km2)|
|Torne/Three Rivers from Mother Drain to Trent||Moderate||Good||Moderate||31.4 miles (50.5 km)||32.93 square miles (85.3 km2)|
Media related to River Torne at Wikimedia CommonsA614 road
The A614 is a main road in England running through the counties of Nottinghamshire, South Yorkshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire.A631 road
The A631 is a road running from Sheffield, South Yorkshire to Louth, Lincolnshire in England. It passes through the counties of South Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. The road has many towns on its route including Rotherham, Maltby, Gainsborough and Market Rasen. It is mostly single road throughout its length but has some stretches of dual carriageway as well. The road is approximately 65 miles (105 km) long.Althorpe
Althorpe is a small village in North Lincolnshire, England, four miles (6 km) west of Scunthorpe and the same distance south-east of Crowle, on the A18 road. The population details are included in the civil parish of Keadby with Althorpe.Axholme Joint Railway
The Axholme Joint Railway was a committee created as a joint enterprise between the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&Y) and the North Eastern Railway (NER) and was established by the North Eastern Railway Act of 31 July 1902. It took over the Goole and Marshland Railway, running from Marshland Junction near Goole to Reedness Junction and Fockerby, and the Isle of Axholme Light Railway, running from Reedness Junction to Haxey Junction. Construction of the Goole and Marshland Railway had begun in 1898, and by the time of the takeover in early 1903, was virtually complete. The Isle of Axholme Light Railway was started in 1899, but only the section from Reedness Junction to Crowle was complete at the takeover. The northern section opened in November 1903, and the line from Crowle to Haxey Junction opened for passengers on 2 January 1905.
A branch to Hatfield Moor was opened in 1909, but traffic from the peat works at Hatfield did not start to use the railway until 1913, when the company extended their line into the works. Traffic was mainly agricultural produce, together with peat from Hatfield Moor and from Swinefleet Peat Works which processed peat from Thorne Moors. Passenger services ceased in 1933, although occasional excursion trains continued to be run. The Haxey Junction to Epworth section closed in 1956, the Hatfield Moor Branch closed in 1964, and the remainder closed in 1965. However, most of the tracks were retained and operated as a long siding, to allow it to be used to carry heavy parts from Keadby Power Station across the Stainforth and Keadby Canal, as the bridge on the A161 road could not support the weight. The road bridge was replaced in 1970, and the rails were finally removed in 1972.Gulf of Bothnia
The Gulf of Bothnia (Finnish: Pohjanlahti; Swedish: Bottniska viken, i.e. Bottenviken + Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It is situated between Finland's west coast and Sweden's east coast. In the south of the gulf lie the Åland Islands, between the Sea of Åland and the Archipelago Sea.Hatfield Chase
Hatfield Chase is a low-lying area in South Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire, England, which was often flooded. It was a royal hunting ground until Charles I appointed the Dutch engineer Cornelius Vermuyden to drain it in 1626. The work involved the re-routing of the Rivers Don, Idle and Torne, and the construction of drainage channels. It was not wholly successful, but changed the whole nature of a wide swathe of land including the Isle of Axholme and caused legal disputes for the rest of the century. The civil engineer John Smeaton looked at the problem of wintertime flooding in the 1760s, and some remedial work was carried out.
Under an Act of Parliament of 1813, Commissioners were appointed, and improvements to the drainage included the first steam pumping engine. The Corporation of the Level of Hatfield Chase was established in 1862, and another pumping engine was installed. The drains ran to the north-eastern corner of the Chase, and continued to sluices at Althorpe on the River Trent. Discharge to the Trent was subsequently moved to Keadby, and the gravity drainage was supplemented by pumps when a pumping station was built in 1940. Steam engines were gradually replaced by diesel engines, and later by electric pumps. The Environment Agency maintain eight pumping stations on the Chase, in addition to Keadby, and there are a number of smaller installations managed by the Corporation of the Level of Hatfield Chase Internal Drainage Board. Some of the pumping stations are reversible, allowing water to be extracted from the drains into the main rivers in winter, and pumped from the rivers into the drains for irrigation in summer.History of rail transport in Finland
This article is part of the history of rail transport by country seriesThe history of rail transport in Finland began on January 31, 1862, with the opening of the railway line between Helsinki and Hämeenlinna. By 1900 most of the future main lines had been constructed, including the line to St. Petersburg. By the time of the birth of the new Finnish Republic in 1917 lines connected all major cities, major ports, and reached as far as the Swedish border, and inner Finland as far north as Kontiomäki in Paltamo region, as well as eastwards into Karelia.History of rail transport in Sweden
The history of Sweden's railways has included both state-owned and private railways.Kiruna Municipality
Kiruna Municipality (Swedish: Kiruna kommun; Finnish: Kiirunan kunta; Norwegian: Kiruna kommune; Northern Sami: Girona gielda) is a municipality in Norrbotten County in northernmost Sweden. Its seat is located in Kiruna. It is the northernmost municipality in Sweden, and at 20,715 square kilometres (7,998 sq mi) is Sweden's geographically largest covering roughly 4.604% of its total area.
Finnish, Meänkieli and Sami have the official status of being minority languages in the municipality.
During the 20th century the mining settlement Kiruna was built in the parish of Jukkasjärvi, at that time a rural municipality in very remote territory. A so-called municipalsamhälle (which was a kind of borough established within a rural municipality to take care of some matters of urban character) was instituted in 1908. The settlement grew (it even had a tramway system) and it was decided to make it a city. On 1 January 1948 the whole parish of Jukkasjärvi was transformed into the City of Kiruna. As the vast wilderness around the town itself was included, Kiruna was at that time regarded as the largest city municipality in the world. Only a few more cities were instituted in Sweden, the last one in 1951. Instead the differences between the three types of municipalities were diminished and finally abolished altogether. In 1971 Kiruna, as all others, became a unitary municipality and at the same time merged with Karesuando.Meänmaa
Meänmaa, or sometimes Torne Valley or Torne River Valley (Finnish: Tornionlaakso, Swedish: Tornedalen Meänkieli: Meänmaa) lies at the border of Sweden and Finland. It is named after the Torne River flowing through the valley and into the Gulf of Bothnia. Geographically the townships and municipalities that make up the area are Haparanda, Övertorneå, Pajala and Kiruna in Sweden, and Tornio, Ylitornio, Pello, Kolari, Muonio and Enontekiö in Finland. Culturally the Swedish municipality Gällivare is also considered part of Meänmaa due to the large share of Meänkieli-speaking population in it. Torne Valley should not be confused with Torne Valley Sub-region.Pite River
The Pite River (Piteälven, Pite älv or Piteå älv in Swedish) is a river in northern Sweden, flowing through the Norrbotten County. It is one of the four major rivers in Norrland that have been left mostly untouched by water power plants, the river has a single dam at Sikfors approximately 15 km upstream from the sea.It starts in the large lakes in eastern Sweden, such as Tjeggelvas, Vuolvojaure and Labbas, in Jokkmokk Municipality, and flows to the east coast, discharging in the Gulf of Bothnia, in the Piteå Municipality.
It has a length of 400 kilometers, covering an area of 11,200 km².
Its largest waterfall is Storforsen, which has also become the most popular place to visit in Norrbotten. It is located in Älvsbyn Municipality.Rossington
Rossington is a civil parish and former mining village in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster in South Yorkshire, England and is surrounded by countryside and the market towns of Bawtry and Tickhill.Skellefte River
The Skellefte River (Swedish: Skellefteälven or Skellefte älv) is a river in northern Sweden; one of the major Norrland rivers..
Geographically, it starts in the Norrbotten County, also known as the Swedish Lappland province where it drains the lakes Hornavan, Uddjaur and Storavan near Arjeplog; then goes south-east into Västerbotten County, passing through the town Skellefteå (which has given it its name), and finally discharging in the Gulf of Bothnia, in the Västerbotten province.
It is one of the major northern Swedish rivers, with a length of 410 kilometers. Like many large northern rivers, it has been cultivated for water power.
There are several tributaries to the river, with the largest ones named: Malån, Petikån, Finnforsån, Bjurån and Klintforsån.
Salmons and trouts are being put out to compensate for the water power plants, and the river and its tributary are all popular destinations for fishers. Especially popular is the town Skellefteå, known as "Fishing in City".Suensaari
Suensaari is a Finnish peninsula in the river Torne. Although the 6 km² peninsula is linked to Sweden, it was decided in 1809 that it would become Finnish. It has 2227 inhabitants as of 2012.Thorne and Hatfield Moors Peat Canals
Thorne and Hatfield Moors Peat Canals were a series of canals in South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, England, which were used to carry cut peat from Thorne and Hatfield Moors to points where it could be processed or exported. There were two phases to the canals, the first of which lasted from the 1630s until the 1830s, when coal imported on the Stainforth and Keadby Canal reduced the demand for peat as a fuel. The second started in the 1890s, when peat found a new use as bedding for working horses, and lasted until 1922, when Moorends Mill which processed the peat was destroyed by fire.Tickhill
Tickhill is a town and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster in South Yorkshire, England, on the border with Nottinghamshire. It has a population of 5,301, reducing to 5,228 at the 2011 Census.Tornedalians
The Tornedalians are descendants of Finns who, at some point, settled to the areas of today's Northern Sweden near the Torne Valley district and west from there.Ume River
The Ume River (Swedish: Ume älv or Umeälven) is one of the main rivers in northern Sweden. It is around 460 km (290 mi) long, and flows in a south-eastern direction from its source, the lake Överuman by the Norwegian border within the Scandinavian mountain range. For large parts, the European route E12, also known as Blå Vägen (Blue Route), follows its path.
It passes through Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve and Lake Storuman and drains into the Gulf of Bothnia on Sweden's east coast at the small town of Holmsund, and adjacent to the city of Umeå. Its chief tributary is the Vindel River.
In the 1950s, hydroelectricity developments were building reservoirs and dams throughout the country (see also: energy in Sweden), but concerns were being raised against the environmental impact of these power plants. In particular, there were heated discussions about the developments on the Ume River and Vindel River. This led in 1961 an agreement called the "Peace of Sarek" (Swedish: "Freden i Sarek") that prevented development on some rivers of the Vindel River and in exchange gave freedom to develop the other rivers, including the Ume River. The Ume River has since been extensively cultivated for hydroelectric power.Wroot
Wroot (pronounced ROOT) is a linear village and civil parish in North Lincolnshire, England, south of the River Torne on the Isle of Axholme, close to the boundary with South Yorkshire. The population at the 2011 census was 455.
(Links to map resources)
|OS Grid Ref||Notes|
|Keadby pumping station||SE834112||mouth|
|Pilfrey Bridge||SE808099||start of three rivers|
|Tunnel Pits||SE735039||pumping stations|
|Candy Farm||SE697030||pumping stations|
|Junction with Aldam Drain||SE670027|
|Junction with Mother Drain||SE638003|
|Junction with Little Mother Drain||SK597974|
|Sandbeck Hall Upper Lake||SK571905||source|
Rivers of Yorkshire
|East Riding of Yorkshire|