These are small or medium-sized swallows, ranging from 11–17 cm in length. They are brown above and mainly white below, and all have a dark breast band.
These species are closely associated with water. They nest in tunnels usually excavated by the birds themselves in a natural sand bank or earth mound. They lay white eggs, which are incubated by both parents, in a nest of straw, grass, and feathers in a chamber at the end of the burrow. Some species breed colonially.
Riparia martins, like other swallows, take insects in flight over water, grassland, or other open country.
|Sand martin (Riparia riparia)|
T. Forster, 1817
There are six species. In taxonomic order, they are:
|Image||Scientific name||Common name||Distribution|
|R. paludicola (Vieillot, 1817)||brown-throated martin||Africa|
|R. chinensis (J.E. Gray, 1830)||grey-throated martin||Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent to southern China, Taiwan, and the northern Philippines|
|R. congica (Reichenow, 1887)||Congo martin||Congo River and its tributary, the Ubangi.|
|R. riparia (Linnaeus, 1758)||sand martin or bank swallow||Breeding season: practically the whole of Europe and the Mediterranean countries, part of northern Asia and also North America.
Non-breeding: eastern and southern Africa, South America and the Indian Subcontinent
|R. diluta (Sharpe & Wyatt, 1893)||pale martin or pale sand martin||central Asia to southeastern China|
|R. cincta (Boddaert, 1783||banded martin||Africa from Cameroon and Zaire to Ethiopia south to the Cape in South Africa|
Ageratina riparia, commonly known as mistflower or creeping croftonweed, is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, native to Mexico, Cuba and Jamaica.Alpignano
Alpignano (Italian: [alpiɲˈɲaːno]; Piedmontese: Alpignan [alpiˈɲɑŋ] (listen)) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 15 kilometres (9 mi) west of Turin on the Dora Riparia in the Val di Susa plain.Argiope aurantia
The spider species Argiope aurantia is commonly known as the yellow garden spider, black and yellow garden spider, golden garden spider, writing spider, zigzag spider, corn spider, or McKinley spider. It is common to the contiguous United States, Hawaii, southern Canada, Mexico, and Central America. It has distinctive yellow and black markings on the abdomen and a mostly white cephalothorax. Its scientific Latin name translates to "gilded silver-face" (the genus name Argiope meaning "silver-face", while the specific epithet aurantia means "gilded"). Males range from 5–9 mm (0.20–0.35 in); females range from 19–28 mm (0.75–1.10 in). These spiders may bite if disturbed or harassed, but the venom is harmless to non-allergic humans, roughly equivalent to a bumblebee sting in intensity.Baco noir
Baco noir (pronounced BA-koh NWAHR) is a hybrid red wine grape variety produced by Francois Baco from a cross of Vitis vinifera var. Folle blanche, a French wine grape, and an unknown variety of Vitis riparia indigenous to North America.Banded martin
The banded martin or banded sand martin (Riparia cincta) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It is an inhabitant of the African continent.Brown-throated martin
The brown-throated martin or brown-throated sand martin (Riparia paludicola) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It was first formally described as Hirundo paludicola by French ornithologist Louis Vieillot in 1817 in his Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle. It was formerly regarded as conspecific with the grey-throated martin (R. chinensis) under the name "plain martin".
It has a wide range in Africa. It is a partially migratory species, with some populations making seasonal movements. It is usually associated closely with water as its specific epithet paludicola suggest.
The brown-throated martin is colonial in its nesting habits, with many pairs breeding close together, according to available space. The nests are at the end of tunnels of 30 to 60 cm in length, bored in sandbanks. The actual nest is a litter of straw and feathers in a chamber at the end of the burrow. Two to four white eggs are the normal clutch, and are incubated by both parents.
Its brown back, small size and quicker, jerkier flight separate brown-throated martin at once from most other members of the swallow family. It is most similar to the sand martin, Riparia riparia , which is its northern counterpart.
The 12 cm long brown-throated martin is brown above and white or pale brown below. It lacks the narrow brown band on the breast shown by the sand martin; the bill is black and the legs are brown. Sexes are similar, but the young have pale tips to the feathers on the rump and wings.
The races differ in size and plumage tones of the upperparts or underparts.
R. p. paludicola, southern Africa. White underparts.
R. p. paludibula, western Africa. Smaller and darker above than the nominate form.
R. p. ducis, eastern Africa. Smaller and darker above and below than the nominate subspecies.
R. p. mauretanica, Morocco. Small and pale.
R. p. newtoni, mountains of Cameroon only. Darker above than the nominate form, brownish underparts.
R. p. cowani, Madagascar. Small, greyish underparts.The food of this species consists of small insects, mostly gnats and other flies whose early stages are aquatic.
The twittering song of brown-throated martin is continuous when the birds are on the wing, and becomes a conversational undertone after they have settled in the roost. There is also a harsh alarm call.Bruzolo
Bruzolo (pop. 1,525 as of 1-1-2017)) is a comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont. Located some 43 kilometres (27 mi) west of Turin, in the lower Susa Valley, it is a member of the Comunità Montana Bassa Valle di Susa e Val Cenischia. Bruzolo borders the following municipalities: Usseglio, Condove, Chianocco, San Didero, and San Giorio di Susa.The town of Bruzolo is the main population centre of the commune and is its capoluogo. It stands to the left of the river Dora Riparia on an alluvial fan formed over the millennia by debris deposited by the Pissaglio and other minor torrents. The municipal territory also includes farmland and factories on the flood-plain of the Dora Riparia, and extends over the forested southern slopes of Punta Lunella, elevation 2,772 metres (9,094 ft), where there is a scattering of hamlets: Campobenedetto, Meisonardi, Comba, Bigiardi, Lunera, Coletto, Chiotetti, Seinera and Combette.Carex riparia
Carex riparia, the greater pond sedge, is a species of sedge found across Europe and Asia. It grows in a variety of wet habitats, and can be a dominant species in some swamps. It is Britain's largest Carex, growing up to 130 cm (4 ft 3 in) tall, with glaucous leaves up to 160 cm (5 ft 3 in) long. It hybridises with a number of other Carex species, including the closely related Carex acutiformis – the lesser pond sedge. A variegated cultivar is grown as an ornamental grass.Congo martin
The Congo martin or Congo sand martin (Riparia congica) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family.
It occurs only along the Congo River and its tributary, the Ubangi. It is fairly abundant within its restricted range.
The habitat requirement of this non-migratory species is forested rivers with sandbanks for breeding.
The Congo martin nests in colonies in February and March, with each pair excavating a tunnel in a sandbank about 1 m above the river. The nest itself is at the end of the tunnel. Little is known of the breeding biology, although it is probably similar to that of the sand martin.Dora Riparia
The Dora Riparia (pronounced [ˈdɔːra riˈpaːrja]; Latin: Duria minor French: Doire Ripaire Piedmontese: Dòira Rivaira) is an alpine river, a left-hand tributary of the Po. It is 125 kilometres (78 mi) long, with a 1,231-square-kilometre (475 sq mi) drainage basin. It originates in the Cottian Alps, close to the Col de Montgenèvre in France, where it is called the Piccola Dora. Its name becomes the Dora Riparia after the confluence with the Ripa in the Argentera Valley and the Thuras de Bousson close to Cesana.
Further down the valley, in Oulx, the river grows thanks to its main upper tributary, the Dora di Bardonecchia, and before Susa is augmented by the Galambra and Cenischia. After Susa, it only receives minor tributaries: from the left, Gravio by Condove, Sessi by Caprie, and Messa by Almese, from the right Scaglione by Meana and Gravio by Villarfocchiardo. It runs through the Susa Valley, and after having crossed part of the plain of the Po and the territories of the comunes of Avigliana, Alpignano, Pianezza and Collegno, joins the Po at Turin. It is considered a "stream" (torrente) until Susa, and a river (fiume) to Turin.
It was at the confluence of the Dora Riparia and the Po that present-day Turin was founded in Roman times. Dora Riparia was there for a long time the main source of energy: already in medieval times its water was collected in canals (duriae) that drove mills, water wheels and other contraptions. In the area between the confluence of Dora Riparia and Stura in the Po, where before the destruction caused by the Battle of Turin in 1706 one could find the Regio park, lies today the Parco della Colletta. One of the bridges spanning the river at Turin is Ponte Mosca.
In the 20th century, industrial and urban development significantly degenerated environmental conditions in the river; renovation work did not start until the 1990s. In 1999, the environmental protection agency ARPA (the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection) conducted a study of the entire Dora Riparia and the river Sangone, revealing a condition of serious pollution. Then, in 2002, the agro-natural park of Dora Riparia was born, financed by the comune of Collegno and the region of Po, to preserve the natural habitat, but also to integrate agricultural and river area.Dusky-footed woodrat
The dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) is a species of nocturnal rodent in the family Cricetidae. They are commonly called "packrats" or "trade rats" and build large, domed dens that can reach several feet in height. Coyotes and other predators will attempt to prey on these rodents by laying waste to the dens, but the sheer volume of material is usually dissuasive. Occasionally, dusky-footed woodrats will build satellite dens in trees. Although these animals are religiously solitary, except in the mating season (when they are most vulnerable to predation), dens are frequently found in clusters of up to several dozen, forming rough "communities". The mating system in this species appears to be variable, with promiscuity most generally at high population densities and monogamy at lower densities.They are similar in appearance to the common rat species Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus, but with larger ears and eyes, softer coats, and furred tails. The California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, which has similar distribution, is sometimes found living in woodrat dens. Dens contain a nest and one or more "pantry" chambers which are used to store leaves and nuts for future consumption. The dental formula of Neotoma fuscipes is 184.108.40.206.0.0.3 × 2 = 16.Fort Funston
Fort Funston is a former harbor defense installation located in the southwestern corner of San Francisco. Formerly known as the Lake Merced Military Reservation, the fort is now a protected area within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA). It was named in honor of Frederick N. Funston (1865–1917), a Major General in the United States Army with strong connections to San Francisco, and included several artillery batteries. The fort is located on Skyline Boulevard at John Muir Drive, west of Lake Merced.
The Fort was constructed upon windswept headlands along the Pacific coast and Ocean Beach below, above steep sandstone cliffs that provide a nesting habitat for a colony of bank swallows (Riparia riparia). The last remnants of a sand dune ecosystem that once covered the western half of San Francisco grows along the top of the headlands, with trailheads forming part of the California Coastal Trail that runs through San Francisco County.Grey-throated martin
The grey-throated martin or Asian plain martin (Riparia chinensis) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family.
The grey-throated martin is found in open habitats such as farmland, grassland and savannah, usually near water. It is found from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent to southern China, Taiwan, and the northern Philippines. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the "plain martin", since renamed the brown-throated martin.Júcar
The Júcar (Spanish: [ˈxukaɾ]) or Xúquer (Valencian: [ˈʃukeɾ]) is a river on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain. The river runs for approximately 509 km from its source at Ojuelos de Valdeminguete, on the eastern flank of the Montes Universales, Sistema Ibérico. Its most important tributary is the Cabriel.
River Júcar flows first southward and then eastward through the towns of Cuenca, Alcalá del Júcar, Cofrentes, Alzira, Sueca and Cullera, a town located near its mouth into the Gulf of Valencia, Mediterranean Sea. It crosses the provinces of Cuenca, Albacete and Valencia
In 1982 the river Júcar broke the Tous's reservoir, causing the biggest flood in Spanish history with a flow speed of 16,000 cubic metres per second, killing more than 30 people. This flood was the most important one in the whole history of Spain in that times because the people thought that the Tous reservoir was indestructible. The flood was called La pantanada de Tous.Riparia, Washington
Riparia is an extinct town in Whitman County, in the U.S. state of Washington. The GNIS classifies it as a populated place.A post office called Riparia was in operation between 1882 and 1963. The community most likely took its name from a nearby riparian zone.Sand martin
The sand martin (Riparia riparia) or European sand martin, bank swallow in the Americas, and collared sand martin in the Indian Subcontinent, is a migratory passerine bird in the swallow family. It has a wide range in summer, embracing practically the whole of Europe and the Mediterranean countries, part of northern Asia and also North America. It winters in eastern and southern Africa, South America and the Indian Subcontinent.Schoenoplectus californicus
Schoeneoplectus californicus is a species of sedge known by the common names California bulrush, southern bulrush and giant bulrush. It is also sometimes called "tule", but the closely related Schoenoplectus acutus is the species most often referred to by that name.Trema micrantha
Trema micrantha, common name Jamaican nettletree or guacimilla, is a plant species native to warmer parts of the Western Hemisphere. It has been reported from Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Belize, Bolivia, Argentina, Nicaragua, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, the Virgin Islands, Guyana, Honduras, Panamá, Venezuela, Suriname, Perú, Paraguay, Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and southern Florida. Within the State of Florida, it has been collected in 10 counties: Monroe, Miami-Dade, Lee, Broward, Palm Beach, Collier, Hendry, Martin, Sarasota and Pinellas.Trema micrantha is a shrub or small tree up to 10 m tall. Leaves are egg-shaped, up to 9 cm long, green on top but covered with white, woolly pubescence underneath. Flowers are greenish-white. Fruits are yellow to bright reddish-range, up to 4 mm in diameter.Vitis riparia
Vitis riparia Michx, with common names riverbank grape or frost grape, is a native American climbing or trailing vine, widely distributed across central and eastern Canada and the central and northeastern parts of the United States, from Quebec to Texas, and eastern Montana to Nova Scotia. There are reports of isolated populations in the northwestern USA, but these are probably naturalized. It is long-lived and capable of reaching into the upper canopy of the tallest trees. It produces dark fruit that are appealing to both birds and people, and has been used extensively in commercial viticulture as grafted rootstock and in hybrid grape breeding programs.
Riverbank grape is a translation of the scientific name Vitis riparia; rīpārius means "of riverbanks" in Latin, deriving from rīpa "riverbank".