Ringball

Ringball is a traditional South African sport that stems from basketball and has been played since 1907.[1][2] The sport is now promoted in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, India, and Mauritius to establish Ringball [3] as an international sport. The sport is played by both men and women teams.[4]

Ringball
South African National Ringball Tournament, July 2016
Start of the 2016 South African National Tournament
Highest governing bodyRingball South Africa
NicknamesKorfbal
First played1907
Characteristics
ContactNo
Team members9 per side
Mixed genderYes, separate competitions
TypeTeam sport, ball sport
EquipmentRingball
VenueAll weather, grass, or in-door
Presence
OlympicNo

Gameplay

Ringball is a non-contact sport[5] played by both men and women teams in separate games. It is similar to the game of netball and can be played on an all weather, grass, or in-door court. The court is divided into three sections. A team consists of three goal scorers, three centre players, and three defending players. The objective of the game is to throw the ball from one player to another and finally through the ring or hoop of the goalpost. A goalpost is placed at both ends of the court.

Ringball starting positions
Starting positions of players on a Ringball court. The red player in the semicircle holds the ball.

The South African game of ringball is played by two opposing teams consisting of nine (9) players on a side. Three players of each team play in each of the three sections of the court (three (3) goal shooters, three (3) centre players and three (3) defenders). These players may at no time during play, touch ground in any adjacent section, step on or receive the ball over the lines separating the sections.

The ball is passed through the air from player to player and is caught with the hands, such that the ball does not touch any other part of the body. In passing the ball, a player may not move forward or backward, feint a pass, or be in possession of the ball for longer than two (2) seconds during the attempt to pass the ball.

To score, the ball must fall through the ring from above. A goal shooter may attempt to score a goal from any position in the goal section and outside the semicircle. Both hands (from below upwards) must be used when shooting a goal and must be attempted within five (5) seconds from the time the ball is received. When a penalty goal has been awarded, any of the three opposing goal shooters can attempt a goal from any position outside the goal circle. A penalty goal must be attempted within three (3) seconds. A goal shooter can also attempt a penalty from behind the penalty line within three (3) seconds.

Players may try to gain possession of the ball without hitting or snatching the ball from the opponent's hands. Players are not allowed to hold, push away or obstruct their opponents in any manner to prevent them from passing the ball. Two (2) players of the same team may not touch or hold the ball simultaneously. It is an infringement if the ball crosses the section without being touched by a player in that section.

When players of both teams commit a transgression simultaneously, it is called a double fault. The referee then tosses the ball into the air between two opposing players where the transgressions occurred. The two opposing players then attempt to gain possession of the ball by hitting or catching the ball on the descend.

A match consists of two-halves of 25 minutes each with an interval of three (3) minutes. After each successful goal, the players must take up position as shown on the image. The centre player stands in the half circle facing his own goalpost. At the blow of the whistle the ball must be passed to one of the wings within two (2) seconds. It is an infringement when the ball is passed to another section without passing to a wing first.

When the ball goes out of play crossing the outside lines, an opposing player from that section puts the ball into play on the spot where it has left the court.

The team with the highest score at the end of the match is the winning team.

Rules

The Court

1. The court[6][7] is 27 m x 18 m in size and is divided into three (3) equal sections (9 m x 18 m). The two goalposts are situated in the middle of each short side of the court against the outside line. Each goalpost has a steel ring of 450mm in diameter attached at the top, exactly 3 m from the ground. With the goalpost as pivot a half circle (the goal circle) with a radius of 4,5 m is drawn. The penalty line is short line in the goal section 1 m in length and 2 m from the middle inside line directly in line with the middle half circles. The two side sections are called the goal sections and the middle section is called the centre section. Exactly in the middle of the centre section, a circle of 1 m diameter and in the middle of the two inside lines, two half circles with a diameter of 1 m are drawn. On either side of the centre circle two "V”-lines with legs of 1 m long are drawn and this is referred to as the "V”. See the diagram below for the position of the goalposts.

Ringball court layout
The image indicates the markings on a ringball court for the purpose of discussing the gameplay.

2. All-weather, gravel or grass courts, or adapted netball courts may be used. The surface of the court must be even. Gravel courts must be free of grass and must be well compacted. Slip-free all-weather courts are recommended. Netball courts can be used with minor adjustments.

3. Within a distance of 1,5 m around the court there should be no obstacles such as trees, light poles, walls, fences, wires or steps (also see the spectators section).

4. All lines must be clearly marked in white or yellow. The width of these lines should be between 25 mm and 50 mm.

5. The goalposts must be of 3 m circular steel pipes with a diameter of 75 – 90 mm. The goalposts must be placed in a vertical position in the centre of the 18 m outside line. The inside edge of the goal post must form a tangent with the inside edge of the line.

6. The ring on the goalpost must be of a sturdy round metal bar with a maximum of 18 mm thickness and an inside diameter of 350 mm. Flat steel rings are not allowed. The ring must be horizontally fixed (level) to the top of the post and should not hop up when the ball bounces on the ring. The rings should be painted white or silver.

7. The nets must be large enough to allow a number 5 ball to pass through and must be correctly fixed to the goal ring. White or yellow nylon nets are recommended. Balls could be shot out when the nets are affixed too tightly.

The Ball

1. A ball made of leather or synthetic material should be used. Rubber balls are not permitted (Wet leather balls and balls inflated too hard stretch while underinflated leather balls stretch at the seams).

2. All teams play with a number 5 ball, with a circumference of between 69 and 71 cm and a mass of approximately 450 grams (Balls with loose laces or uneven surfaces are not allowed).

3. The u/9, u/11 and u/13 teams play with a number 4 ball, with a circumference of 64 cm.

The Players

1. A ringball team consists of nine (9) players, viz., three (3) goal shooters, three (3) centre players and three (3) defenders. Only three (3) players of a team are allowed in each section.

2. At least eight (8) players of a team must be present at the start of a game. A player who arrives late, is allowed to join the game only when the ball is out of play and with the permission of the referee. No team is allowed to play with seven (7) or less players after the game has started with eight (8) or nine (9) players; e.g. in the event of two (2) players of the same team being disqualified during the match. The team with the disqualified players forfeits the league points and the opposing team wins the match.

3. No player is allowed to leave the court without the permission of the referee.

4. A maximum of three (3) players of a team may be substituted at any time during the match. The substitution player may only join the team when the ball is out of play and with the permission of the referee.

5. In the event of a sick or injured player who is unable to continue play, a substitute may immediately take up his place. A disqualified player may not be substituted.

6. If the injured player only receives treatment and wants to return to continue play, no substitution player may take his position. Play continues with his team consisting of eight (8) players until he is ready to return to his position to continue play.

7. In the event of all three (3) substitutes already participating any of the original players may return to the game. An injured player, if sufficiently recovered, may return at own risk. No new substitutes may be used.

8. Injury time of two (2) minutes is allowed on court. In the event of a serious injury, time must be granted for the player to receive medical treatment on court or to be removed. Injury time shall be added to the half in question.

9. A player experiencing any type of a bleeding must leave the court immediately and can be substituted. As soon as the bleeding has stopped, the player may rejoin the game with the permission of the referee. In the event of the player not returning within five (5) minutes, the substitute will then complete the game.

The Referee

1. A qualified neutral person should officiate at matches as referee.

2. The referee shall enforce the rules and his decision is final. The referee's responsibility comprises, inter alia: a) enforcing the rules and regulate the game uniformly. b) ensuring that the match progresses orderly and obviating irregularities. c) promoting the fluency of the match. d) ensuring that the court and the ball are suitable for play.

3. The referee blows the whistle only: a) to start or end the match. b) after a goal was scored. c) when any infringement of a rule occurs. d) when the ball goes out of play.

4. The referee is ultimately responsible for the time and the score and, after consultation with the scorekeepers concerning the time and score, his decision is final.

5. The referee must verify the time with the linesman during the match.

6. The referee must verify the score during the interval. In the event where all three (referee and two (2) scorekeepers) differ, the referee’s score shall be accepted. When the scores of the two (2) scorekeepers are the same, their score shall be accepted after consultation.

7. An appeal against a referee can only be lodged on the grounds of incompetence and/or for any prejudice against and/or favouritism towards a particular team. Any appeal or objection must be lodged in accordance with the controlling body’s constitution as well as the prescribed instructions.

The Time

1. All matches consist of two periods of 25 minutes each with a half-time interval of three (3) minutes. The teams change ends at half-time.

2. Should there be a tie during semi-final and final games, play will continue – 10 minutes on a side without half-time. Should it happen that it is still a tie after this additional time, the ball will be thrown up by the referee at the centre circle and the team that then scores the first goal, is the winner.

3. Injury time should be added to the specific period of play. (In competitions where a siren is used to control the time for the matches, the competition rules should include rules concerning injury time.)

4. Any intentional time wasting is penalised with a penalty. The following is considered as time wasting: a) Taking time to get ready for the restart of the game b) Changing of players in the event of injury or voluntary substitution c) Putting in of the ball at the outside lines d) For the changing of shoes, clothes, etc. e) Tossing the ball away

5. When time of play has run out, the game can only be ended as soon as the ball goes out of play or when a goal was scored.

The Score

1. A successful goal counts two (2) points.

2. A successful penalty goal counts two (2) points. A goal shooter may attempt a penalty goal from any position outside the goal circle when it is awarded at the first deliberate offence.

3. At the second occurrence of inadmissible play, another penalty is awarded and the offending player is yellow carded.

4. When the same player continuous with inadmissible play, another penalty is awarded. The offending player is red carded and disqualified for five (5) minutes.

5. If the goal shooter attempts the penalty from behind the penalty line and is successful, three (3) points are awarded. It is the goal shooter’s own choice to attempt the penalty from behind the penalty line.

6. A warning, yellow or red card can be awarded by the referee even after a goal has been scored.

Officials at a Match

1. The referee

2. Two (2) responsible scorekeepers – one (1) from each team who must present themselves to the referee just before the start of play. Team scorecards are not exchanged and the scorekeepers keep score independently.

3. A linesman. The referee shall be assisted by a linesman with a flag. He assists the referee on the opposite side of the court by indicating when the ball is out of play. He shall thus indicate where and which team has to put the ball into play.

4. The linesman must also assist the referee with time keeping.

Spectators

1. Spectators must remain one (1) metre from the outside lines of the court.

2. Team managers must take up position on the opposite side from where the referee moves and one (1) metre from the outside lines of the court.

3. Spectators are not allowed to interfere or hinder a goal shooter in his attempt to score a goal.

4. The referee is entitled to request any member of the controlling body to remove from the court any spectator or official who misbehaves during the match. The referee can stop the game until such time that the person in question has been removed.

References

  1. ^ Suid-Afrikaanse Korfbalraad Gedenkalbum 75 jaar. Health Wealth Publication (Edms.) Bpk. 1982
  2. ^ http://www.topendsports.com/sport/more/ringball.htm
  3. ^ http://www.ringballsa.co.za
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ http://www.topendsports.com/sport/more/ringball.htm
  6. ^ Ringball South Africa – Rules of the game, updated April 2016. Approved AGM 2015
  7. ^ http://www.ringballsa.co.za/attachments/Rules-of-the-game.pdf
Basketball

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball (approximately 9.4 inches (24 cm) in diameter) through the defender's hoop (a basket 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter mounted 10 feet (3.048 m) high to a backboard at each end of the court) while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.

Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots—the lay-up, the jump shot, or a dunk; on defense, they may steal the ball from a dribbler, intercept passes, or block shots; either offense or defense may collect a rebound, that is, a missed shot that bounces from rim or backboard. It is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling.

The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is usually the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a slightly shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, and the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays (player positioning). Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, and one-on-one.

Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports. The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League. The FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like EuroBasket and FIBA AmeriCup.

The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA (NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship is also popular), whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women.

Kī-o-rahi

Kī-o-rahi is a ball sport played in New Zealand with a small round ball called a 'kī'. It is a fast-paced game incorporating skills similar to rugby union, netball and touch. Two teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. The game is played with varying rules (e.g. number of people, size of field, tag ripping rules etc.) depending on the geographic area it is played in. A process called Tatu, before the game, determines which rules the two teams will use.

In 2005 kī-o-rahi was chosen to represent New Zealand by global fast-food chain McDonald's as part of its 'Passport to Play' programme to teach physical play activities in 31,000 American schools.

The programme will give instruction in 15 ethnic games to seven million primary school children.The New Zealand kī-o-rahi representative organisation, Kī-o-Rahi Akotanga Iho, formed with men's and women's national teams, completed a 14 match tour of Europe in September and October 2010. The men's team included 22-test All Black veteran Wayne Shelford who led the team to a 57–10 test win against Kī-o-Rahi Dieppe Organisation, the French Kī-o-Rahi federation.

Shelford's kī-o-rahi test jersey made him the first kī-o-rahi/rugby double international for NZ. The women's team coached by Andrea Cameron (Head of PE at Tikipunga High School) also won by 33–0. These were the first historic test matches between NZ and France.

List of ball games

This is a list of ball games which are popular games or sports involving some type of ball or similar object. Ball sports are not sports in the true sense, but are instead considered to be games. These ball games can be grouped by the general objective of the game, sometimes indicating a common origin either of a game itself or of its basic idea:

Bat-and-ball games, such as cricket and baseball.

Racquet and ball games, such as tennis, squash, racquetball and ball badminton.

Hand and ball-striking games, such as various handball codes, rebound handball and 4 square.

Goal games, such as forms of hockey (except ice hockey which uses a hockey puck), basketball and all forms of football or lacrosse.

Net games, such as volleyball and sepak.

List of sports

The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.

According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.

Quidditch (sport)

Quidditch is a sport of two teams of seven players each mounted on broomsticks played on a hockey rink-sized pitch. It is based on a fictional game of the same name invented by author J. K. Rowling, which is featured in the Harry Potter series of novels and related media.[3] The game is also sometimes referred to as muggle quidditch to distinguish it from the fictional game, which involves magical elements such as flying broomsticks and enchanted balls. In the Harry Potter universe, a "muggle" is a person without the power to use magic.

The pitch is rectangular with rounded corners 55 meters (60 yards) by 33 meters (36 yards) with three hoops of varying heights at either end.[4] The sport was created in 2005 and is therefore still quite young. However, quidditch is played around the world and actively growing.[5] The ultimate goal is to have more points than the other team by the time the snitch, a tennis ball inside a long sock hanging from the shorts of an impartial official dressed in yellow, is caught. Rules of the sport are governed by the International Quidditch Association, or the IQA, and events are sanctioned by either the IQA or that nation's governing body.

To score points, chasers or keepers must get the quaffle, a slightly deflated volleyball, into one of three of the opposing hoops which scores the team 10 points.[6] To impede the quaffle from advancing down the pitch, chasers and keepers are able to tackle opposing chasers and keepers at the same time as beaters using their bludgers—dodgeballs—to take out opposing players. Once a player is hit by an opposing bludger, that player must dismount their broom, drop any ball being held, and return to and touch their hoops before being allowed back into play.[7] The game is ended once the snitch is caught by one of the seekers, awarding that team 30 points.[8]A team consists of minimum seven (maximum 21) players, of which six are always on the pitch, those being the three chasers, one keeper, and two beaters. Besides the seeker who is off-pitch, the six players are required to abide by the gender rule, which states that a team may have a maximum of four players who identify as the same gender, making quidditch one of the few sports that not only offers a co-ed environment but an open community to those who do not identify with the gender binary.[10] Matches or games often run about 30 to 40 minutes but tend to be subject to varying lengths of time due to the unpredictable nature of the snitch catch. If the score at the end of the match including the 30 point snitch catch is tied (such that the team that caught the snitch was 30 points behind the other), the game moves to overtime where the snitch is constrained to the pitch's dimensions and the game ends after five minutes or when the snitch is legally caught.

South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.

South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, which is the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans; English reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life, though it is fourth-ranked as a spoken first language. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, and regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to claim more rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress (ANC) and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in the mid-1980s.

Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity, especially in the wake of apartheid. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, and a newly industrialised country. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. Nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence.

Time Warp Trio

Time Warp Trio is an American-Canadian 22-minute animated television series based on the children's book series of the same name. Created by Jon Scieszka, the series was produced by Soup2Nuts in association with WGBH Boston and was aired on Discovery Kids and The Hub in the United States and on CBBC in the United Kingdom. It also aired as part of a two-hour Discovery Kids block on NBC until September 2, 2006.

The last episode of Time Warp Trio aired on July 15, 2006 (during a marathon featuring six other new episodes) and on NBC on September 2 (also marking the end of the "Discovery Kids on NBC" block).

Variations of basketball

Variations of basketball are games or activities based on, or similar in origin, to the game of basketball, in which the player utilizes common basketball skills. Some are essentially identical to basketball, with only minor rules changes, while others are more distant and arguably not simple variations but distinct games. Other variations include children's games, contests or activities intended to help the player practice or reinforce skills, which may or may not have a competitive aspect. Most of the variations are played in informal settings, without the presence of referees or other officials and sometimes without strict adherence to official game rules.

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