A ring galaxy is a galaxy with a circle-like appearance. Hoag's Object, discovered by Art Hoag in 1950, is an example of a ring galaxy. The ring contains many massive, relatively young blue stars, which are extremely bright. The central region contains relatively little luminous matter. Some astronomers believe that ring galaxies are formed when a smaller galaxy passes through the center of a larger galaxy. Because most of a galaxy consists of empty space, this "collision" rarely results in any actual collisions between stars. However, the gravitational disruptions caused by such an event could cause a wave of star formation to move through the larger galaxy. Other astronomers think that rings are formed around some galaxies when external accretion takes place. Star formation would then take place in the accreted material because of the shocks and compressions of the accreted material.
AM 0644-741, also known as the Lindsay-Shapley Ring, is an unbarred lenticular galaxy, and a ring galaxy, which is 300 million light-years away in the southern constellation Volans. The yellowish nucleus was once the center of a normal spiral galaxy, and the ring which currently surrounds the center is 150,000 light years in diameter. The ring is theorized to have formed by a collision with another galaxy, which triggered a gravitational disruption that caused dust in the galaxy to condense and form stars, which forced it to then expand away from the galaxy and create a ring. The ring is a region of rampant star formation dominated by young, massive, hot blue stars. The pink regions along the ring are rarefied clouds of glowing hydrogen gas that is fluorescing as it is bombarded with strong ultraviolet light from the blue stars. Galactic simulation models suggest that the ring of AM 0644-741 will continue to expand for about another 300 million years, after which it will begin to disintegrate.Arthur Hoag
Arthur Allen Hoag (January 28, 1921 - July 17, 1999) was an American astronomer most famous for his discovery of Hoag's Object, a type of ring galaxy in 1950.Cartwheel Galaxy
The Cartwheel Galaxy (also known as ESO 350-40 or PGC 2248) is a lenticular galaxy and ring galaxy about 500 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. It is an estimated 150,000 light-years diameter, and has a mass of about 2.9–4.8 × 109 solar masses; its outer ring has a circular velocity of 217 km/s.It was discovered by Fritz Zwicky in 1941. Zwicky considered his discovery to be "one of the most complicated structures awaiting its explanation on the basis of stellar dynamics."An estimation of the galaxy's span resulted in a conclusion of 150,000 light years, which is slightly larger than the Milky Way.ESO 198-13
ESO 198-13 is a ring galaxy with multiple ring-like structures located about 240 million light-years away in the constellation Eridanus.ESO 603-G21
ESO 603-G21 is a possible polar-ring galaxy.Hoag's Object
Hoag's Object is a non-typical galaxy of the type known as a ring galaxy. The galaxy is named after Arthur Hoag who discovered it in 1950 and identified it as either a planetary nebula or a peculiar galaxy with eight billion stars.II Zwicky 73
II Zwicky 73 (also known as Zw II 73) is a lenticular and polar-ring galaxy in the constellation Boötes, and about 250 million light years distant from Earth. It is an object of great scientific interest as there have been very few polar ring galaxies discovered. II Zw 73 is a very gas-rich environment. DSS and SDSS images show that it is very similar to polar ring galaxy NGC 660, the best-known of all the polar ring galaxies.
This object is also known as PGC 54461, UGC 9796, MCG+07-31-48, and PRC A-06LEDA 1000714
LEDA 1000714 is a ring galaxy in the constellation Crater. LEDA 1000714 is one of a very rare group of galaxies called Hoag-type galaxies, named after the prototype, Hoag's Object – it is estimated that roughly 0.1% of all galaxies are this type.LEDA 1000714 is unusual because it is a Hoag-type galaxy with two nearly round rings, but with different characteristics. It has been nicknamed Burçin's Galaxy, after Burçin Mutlu-Pakdil, the leader of the photometric study of this galaxy.List of ring galaxies
This is a list of ring galaxies. A ring galaxy is a galaxy with a circle-like appearance. Hoag's Object, discovered by Art Hoag in 1950, is the prototypical example of a ring galaxy.NGC 1291
NGC 1291, also known as NGC 1269, is a ring galaxy with an unusual inner bar and outer ring structure located about 33 million light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. It was discovered by James Dunlop in 1826 and subsequently entered into the New General Catalogue as NGC 1291 by Johan Ludvig Emil Dreyer. John Herschel then observed the same object in 1836 and entered it into the catalog as NGC 1269 without realizing that it was a duplicate. This galaxy was cited as an example of a "transitional galaxy" by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer team in 2007.NGC 2685
NGC 2685 (also known as the Helix Galaxy) is a lenticular and polar ring Seyfert Type 2 galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major. It is about 50,000 light-years across and about 42 million light-years away from Earth. It is receding from Earth at 883 kilometers per second. It is an object of great scientific interest, because polar-ring galaxies are very rare galaxies. They are thought to form when two galaxies gravitationally interact with each other. "The bizarre configuration could be caused by the chance capture of material from another galaxy by a disk galaxy, with the captured debris strung out in a rotating ring. Still, observed properties of NGC 2685 suggest that the rotating ring structure is remarkably old and stable."Allan Sandage referred to NGC 2685 as "perhaps the most peculiar galaxy in the Shapley-Ames Catalog".NGC 3081
NGC 3081 is a barred lenticular ring galaxy in the constellation of Hydra.
NGC 3081 is located about 85 million light-years away from Earth, which means, given its apparent dimensions, that NGC 3081 is approximately 60,000 light years across. It is a type II Seyfert galaxy, characterised by its bright nucleus. It was discovered by William Herschel on 21 December 1786.
NGC 3081 is seen nearly face-on. The galaxy's barred spiral centre is surrounded by a bright loop known as a resonance ring. This ring is full of bright clusters and bursts of new star formation, and frames the supermassive black hole thought to be lurking within NGC 3081 — which glows brightly as it gobbles up infalling material.NGC 3821
NGC 3821 is a low surface brightness spiral galaxy and a ring galaxy about 270 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. The galaxy was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on April 26, 1785 and is a member of the Leo Cluster.NGC 4777
NGC 4777 is an intermediate spiral ring galaxy.NGC 6028
NGC 6028 is a barred lenticular galaxy and a ring galaxy located about 200 million light-years away in the constellation Hercules. Ring galaxies such as NGC 6028 are also known Hoag-type galaxies as they may have a resemblance to the prototype, Hoag's Object. NGC 6028 was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on March 14, 1784. It was then rediscovered by astronomer Guillaume Bigourdan on May 4, 1886.NGC 660
NGC 660 is a peculiar and unique polar-ring galaxy located approximately 45 million light years from Earth in the Pisces constellation. It is the only such galaxy having, as its host, a "late-type lenticular galaxy". It was probably formed when two galaxies collided a billion years ago. However, it may have first started as a disk galaxy that captured matter from a passing galaxy. This material could have, over time, become "strung out" to form a rotating ring.
The ring is not actually polar, but rather has an inclination from the plane of the host disk of approximately 45 degrees. The extreme number of pinkish star-forming areas that occurs along the galaxy's ring could be the result of the gravitation interaction caused by this collision. The ring is 50,000 light-years across - much broader than the disk itself - and has a greater amount of gas and star formation than the host ring. This likely indicates a very violent formation. The polar ring contains objects numbering in the hundreds. Many of these are red and blue supergiant stars. The most recently created stars in the ring were just formed approximately 7 million years ago. This indicates that the formation of these stars has been a long process and is still occurring.
Data about the dark matter halo of NGC 660 can be extracted by observing the gravitational effects of the dark matter on the disk and ring's rotation. From the core of the disk, radio waves are being emitted. The source of these waves is an area only 21 light years across. This may indicate the presence of a super-cluster of stars located within an area of cloud of gas.
The region in the centre has a vast amount of star formation, so luminous that it is considered to be a starburst galaxy.Late in 2012, this polar-ring galaxy produced an enormous outburst having a magnitude of approximately ten times brighter than a supernova explosion. The cause is not certain, but this event may have resulted from a tremendous jet being emenating from galaxy's central black hole.NGC 660 is a member of the M74 Group.NGC 985
NGC 985 is a ring galaxy in the constellation of Cetus. It is located about 550 million light years away from Earth, which means, given its apparent dimensions, that NGC 985 is approximately 160,000 light years across. It was discovered by Francis Leavenworth in 1886. It is a type 1 Seyfert galaxy.NGC 985 is characterised by its ring shape. It is believed it was formed as a result of a galaxy merger. Further evidence supporting this theory is the observation of a second nucleus in NGC 985. When observed in infrared light, a second nucleus was found 3.8 arcseconds northwest of the active nucleus. It is much redder than the rest of the galaxy, indicating the presence of old stars. It has been suggested that the collision between a disk galaxy with another galaxy caused the formation of the ring and displaced the nucleus of the galaxy, creating an empty ring. Based on the kinematics of the galaxy, the secondary nucleus belonged to the intruder galaxy, while the active nucleus is associated with the main stellar component.As is common with merger remnants, NGC 985 has increased star formation rate, and as a result shines bright in the infrared. The total infrared luminosity of NGC 985 is 1.8×1011 L☉ and it is characterised as a luminous infrared galaxy. The total molecular gas mass of the galaxy is estimated to be 2×1010 M☉. Very large molecular clouds exist near the nuclei. They may be clouds gathering around the nucleus in the process of forming a disk around the two nuclei or molecular clouds disrupted by an outflow from the nucleus of the galaxy.NGC 985 is a powerful X-ray source, detected by ROSAT. It is a complex X-ray source, whose spectrum cannot be accounted for by a simple power law at 0.6 keV and suggests the presence of a warm absorber. The hard X-ray emission on the other hand is characterised by a simple power law. The X-ray flux, especially soft X-rays, diminished in NGC 985 in 2013. The variability of the X-ray and ultraviolet emission from the nucleus was observed using the XMM-Newton and Hubble Space Telescope respectively. These observations revealed the presence of outflowing wind from an accretion disk formed around a supermassive black hole that obstructed the nucleus in soft X-rays and UV. The nucleus is otherwise seen unobstructed.Polar-ring galaxy
A polar-ring galaxy is a type of galaxy in which an outer ring of gas and stars rotates over the poles of the galaxy. These polar rings are thought to form when two galaxies gravitationally interact with each other. One possibility is that a material is tidally stripped from a passing galaxy to produce the polar ring seen in the polar-ring galaxy. The other possibility is that a smaller galaxy collides orthogonally with the plane of rotation of the larger galaxy, with the smaller galaxy effectively forming the polar-ring structure.The best-known polar-ring galaxies are S0s (lenticular galaxies), but from the physical point of view they are part of a wider category of galaxies, including several ellipticals.
The first four S0 galaxies that were identified as polar-ring galaxies were NGC 2685, NGC 4650A, A 0136 -0801, and ESO 415 -G26. While these galaxies have been extensively studied, many other polar-ring galaxies have since been identified. Polar-ring S0 galaxies may be found around 0.5% of all nearby lenticular galaxies, and it is possible that 5% of lenticular galaxies may have had polar rings at some point during their lifetimes.The first polar-ring elliptical galaxies were identified in 1978. They were NGC 5128, NGC 5363, NGC 1947 and Cygnus A, while the polar-ring S0 galaxies NGC 2685 and NGC 4650A were at that time indicated as resulting from similar formation processes. Only some years later, when the first observations of the stellar and gas motion of polar-ring elliptical and S0 galaxies were possible with a better spectroscopic technology, the external origin of the gaseous rings was clarified. In addition to the best-known example, NGC 5128 (Cen A), a very regular polar ring elliptical, is NGC 5266