Dr. Rinchen Barsbold (Mongolian: Ринченгийн Барсболд, Rinchyengiin Barsbold, born December 21, 1935 in Ulaanbaatar) is a Mongolian paleontologist and geologist. He works with the Institute of Geology, at Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. He is recognized around the world as a leader in vertebrate paleontology and Mesozoic stratigraphy.
Barsbold has been instrumental in the discovery and recovery of one of the largest dinosaur collections in the world. His work has projected Mongolian paleontology into world prominence and helped to form a more modern understanding of the later stages of dinosaur evolution in Eurasia.
Barsbold has had considerable influence on dinosaur paleontology in the Communist world. Barsbold's scientific work has made him a leading authority on theropods of the Gobi Desert, starting with his doctoral dissertation on these dinosaurs. As early as 1983, he noted that in different lineages of theropods, many features previously only known from birds had evolved in various combinations (Barsbold 1983). He postulated that as a result of this "ornithization", one or several lineages of theropods that happened to acquire the proper combination of such traits went on to evolve into actual birds.
Since the identification of a number of feathered dinosaurs beginning in the late 1990s, Barsbold's ideas are more fully appreciated. When he initially published his conclusions - a list of generally rather obscure anatomical features - in 1983, there was little exchange between the Mongolian scientific community and that of Western countries. Moreover, Barsbold's early papers were usually published in Russian, in which few Western scientists are fluent. In addition, Evgeny Kurochkin - probably the leading specialist on bird paleontology in the then-Communist world - was critical of the theropod-bird link, working with and teaching mostly Cenozoic bird paleontology. Therefore, Barsbold's theories initially had more impact among "dinosaur" paleontologists in Mongolia, the USSR, and allied countries.
Adasaurus ( AH-də-SAWR-əs; "Ada's lizard") is a dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of Central Asia. It was a small bipedal carnivore with a sickle-shaped claw on the second toe of each hind foot, and was perhaps 1.8 m (5.9 ft) long. The genus name Adasaurus is taken from Ada, an evil spirit in the mythology of Mongolia, and the Greek word sauros meaning 'lizard'. The species name, for the single species, (A. mongoliensis), refers to the country of origin. Adasaurus was named and described in 1983 by Mongolian paleontologist Rinchen Barsbold.
Adasaurus is a member of Dromaeosauridae, a group that is closely related to living birds. Other dromaeosaurids include Deinonychus, Velociraptor, Microraptor, and Buitreraptor. The relationships of Adasaurus are poorly understood. Traditionally, Adasaurus is assigned to the Dromaeosaurinae, which includes heavily built animals such as Dromaeosaurus and Utahraptor but several recent studies have suggested that it may be a member of the Velociraptorinae instead.Two specimens of Adasaurus have been found, both from the Nemegt Formation in the Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia. The holotype, IGM 100/20, is an incomplete skeleton with partial skull, including the vertebral column except the back of the tail, all three bones of the pelvis, the shoulder girdle and the hindlimbs. The second specimen, the paratype IGM 100/51 also described in the original paper, consists of the back end of another skeleton, including the hindlimbs. Both specimens are currently in the collection of the Mongolian Geological Institute in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
The age of the Nemegt is not known for certain, but it is commonly thought to belong to the Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period., and Adasaurus would therefore have lived between 72 and 66 million years ago. Other dinosaurs found in this formation include the tyrannosaur Tarbosaurus, the ornithomimid Anserimimus, the troodontid Zanabazar, and the hadrosaur Saurolophus.Anserimimus
Anserimimus( AN-sər-i-MY-məs; "goose mimic") is a genus of ornithomimid theropod dinosaur, from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now Mongolia. It was a lanky, fast-running animal, possibly an omnivore. From what fossils are known, it probably closely resembled other ornithomimids, except for its more powerful forelimbs.Ceratonykus
Ceratonykus (meaning 'horned claw') is a genus of alvarezsaurid theropod dinosaur that existed in the late Cretaceous period. The discovery of a fragmented skeleton in Mongolia in early 2009 has led scientists to question where alvarezsaurids fit taxonomically into Theropoda.Choyrodon
Choyrodon is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Albian-age Khuren Dukh Formation of Mongolia. The type and only species is Choyrodon barsboldi. The generic name is derived from the city of Choyr, and -odon, from Greek for tooth; the specific name barsboldi honours paleontologist Rinchen Barsbold. The material consists of a holotype partial skull and cervical ribs, with two other partial skulls both with associated postcranial material. It was found to be the sister taxon of Eolambia.Citipati
Citipati (pronounced [ˈtʃiːt̪ɪpət̪i] in Hindi, meaning 'funeral pyre lord') is a genus of oviraptorid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now Mongolia (specifically, the Djadokhta Formation of Ukhaa Tolgod, in the Gobi Desert). It is one of the best-known oviraptorids, thanks to a number of well-preserved skeletons, including several specimens found in brooding positions atop nests of eggs. These nesting specimens have helped to solidify the link between non-avian dinosaurs and birds.
The type species, Citipati osmolskae, was described in 2001. A second, as yet unnamed species may also exist. Citipati is often confused with the similar Oviraptor.Conchoraptor
Conchoraptor (meaning "conch plunderer") is a genus of oviraptorid dinosaur from the late Cretaceous Period of what is now Asia.Deinocheiridae
Deinocheiridae is a family of ornithomimosaurian dinosaurs, living in Asia from the Albian until the Maastrichtian. The family was originally named by Halszka Osmólska and Roniewicz in 1970, including only the type genus Deinocheirus. In a 2014 study by Yuong-Nam Lee and colleagues and published in the journal Nature, it was found that Deinocheiridae was a valid family. Lee et al. found that based on a new phylogenetic analysis including the recently discovered complete skeletons of Deinocheirus, the type genus, as well as Garudimimus and Beishanlong, could be placed as a successive group, with Beishanlong as the most primitive and Deinocheirus as most derived. The family Garudimimidae, named in 1981 by Rinchen Barsbold, is now a junior synonym of Deinocheiridae as the latter family includes the type genus of the former. The group existed from 115 to 69 million years ago, with Beishanlong living from 115 to 100 mya, Garudimimus living from 98 to 83 mya, and Deinocheirus living from 71 to 69 mya.Enigmosaurus
Enigmosaurus (meaning "Riddle Lizard") is a genus of therizinosauroid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, central Asia. It is a herbivorous bipedal dinosaur.
The holotype, IGM 100/84, was collected in the Bayan Shireh Formation (=Baynshirenskaya) in Khara Khutul, southeastern Mongolia, dating from the Cenomanian and the Turonian stages, around 98-89.8 million years ago. It was first reported in 1979. It consists of a partial skeleton, lacking the skull, which includes a nearly complete pelvis with part of the right ischium missing.The type species, Enigmosaurus mongoliensis, was named in 1983, by Rinchen Barsbold and Altangerel Perle. The generic name was stated to be derived from Greek αἴνιγμα, ainigma, "riddle", after the puzzling and unusual shape of its pelvis (hips); at the time little was known about therizinosauroids. The specific name refers to the provenance from Mongolia.Enigmosaurus reached a length of five to seven metres, and a weight of one tonne. It is a considerably larger dinosaur than the related Erlikosaurus. The obturator process on the front edge of the ischium is horizontally elongated and low.
Enigmosaurus was by the describers assigned to a separate Enigmosauridae but later considered a member of the Segnosauridae which are today called the Therizinosauridae. Lindsay Zanno in 2010 recovered a position more basal in the Therizinosauroidea.Erlikosaurus
Erlikosaurus is a genus of herbivorous theropod dinosaur from the late Cretaceous Period, belonging to the Therizinosauridae. Its fossils, a skull and some post-cranial fragments, were found in the Bayan Shireh Formation of Mongolia, dating to around 90 million years ago.Garudimimus
Garudimimus ("Garuda mimic") is a basal ornithomimosaurian theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia.Gobivenator
Gobivenator is an extinct genus of troodontid theropod dinosaur known from the late Campanian Djadokhta Formation of central Gobi Desert, Mongolia. It contains a single species, Gobivenator mongoliensis. G. mongoliensis is known from a single individual, which represents the most complete specimen of a Late Cretaceous troodontid currently known.Harpymimus
Harpymimus is a basal ornithomimosaurian theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Period of what is now Mongolia. Unlike later, more derived ornithomimosaurs, Harpymimus still possessed teeth, although they appear to have been restricted to the dentary of the lower jaw.Heyuannia
Heyuannia ("from Heyuan") is a genus of oviraptorid dinosaur that lived during the Late Cretaceous Period in China. It was the first oviraptorid found in that country; most others were found in neighbouring Mongolia. Two species are known: H. huangi, named by Lü Junchang in 2002; and H. yanshini, originally named as a separate genus Ingenia by Rinchen Barsbold in 1981 (and renamed to Ajancingenia in 2013 due to the preoccupation of Ingenia).Khaan
Khaan (; Mongol [χaːŋ] 'lord') was an oviraptorid dinosaur that was found in the Djadochta Formation of Mongolia and lived in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian), 75 million years ago.Nomingia
Nomingia is a genus of oviraptorid theropod dinosaur hailing from the Late Cretaceous Bugin Tsav Beds of Mongolia.Rinchen
Rinchen, Rinchin, Renchin, or Erinchin, is a frequent part of personal names in Tibet and Tibet-influenced areas, and can refer to:
Buton Rinchen Drub, a fourteenth-century religious leader in Tibet
Sonam Rinchen (disambiguation), several people
Rinchinbal, an emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
Byambyn Rinchen, a prominent intellectual in the Mongolian People's Republic
Erinchin Lobsang Tayiji, a Mongol noble in the 17th century
Rinchen Barsbold, a Mongolian paleontologist
Rinchenia, a genus of Dinosauria named after Rinchen Barsbold
Sengge Rinchen, a 19th-century general from Inner Mongolia
Renchinlkhümbe, Khövsgöl, a sum (district) in northern Mongolia
Chewang Rinchen, an officer in the Indian army (retired 1984)Rinchenia
Rinchenia is a genus of Mongolian oviraptorid dinosaur from the late Cretaceous Period. The type (and only known) species, Rinchenia mongoliensis, was originally classified as a species within the genus Oviraptor (named Oviraptor mongoliensis by Rinchen Barsbold in 1986), but a re-examination by Barsbold in 1997 found differences significant enough to warrant a separate genus. The name Rinchenia was coined for this new genus by Barsbold in 1997, though he did not describe it in detail, and the name remained a nomen nudum until used by Osmólska et al. in 2004.Rinchenia is known from a single specimen (GI 100/32A) consisting of a complete skull and lower jaw, partial vertebral column, partial forelimbs and shoulder girdle, partial hind limbs and pelvis, and a furcula ("wishbone"). While Rinchenia was about the same size as Oviraptor (about 1.5 meters, or 5 ft long), several features of its skeleton, especially in the skull, show it to be distinct. Its skeleton was more lightly built and less robust than that of Oviraptor, and while the crest of Oviraptor is indistinct because of poor fossil preservation, Rinchenia had a well-preserved, highly developed, dome-like casque which incorporated many bones in the skull that are free of the crest in Oviraptor.Tsaagan
Tsaagan (meaning "white") is a genus of carnivorous dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur from the Djadokhta Formation of the late Cretaceous of Mongolia.
The fossil of Tsagaan was discovered in 1996 and first identified as a specimen of Velociraptor. After a CAT-scan in May 1998 it was concluded that it represented a new genus. In December 2006 its type species was named and described by Mark Norell, James Clark, Alan Turner, Peter Makovicky, Rinchen Barsbold and Timothy Rowe. The species name, Tsaagan mangas, should be read as a whole with the generic name qualifying the specific epithet, and is derived from the Mongolian words for "white monster" (цагаан мангас), although with an accidental misspelling of the word Tsagaan.
The holotype specimen, IGM 100/1015, was found near Xanadu in Ömnögovi Province in layers of the Djadokhta Formation dating to the Campanian, about 75 million years ago. It consists of a well-preserved skull and series of ten neck vertebrae as well as a damaged left shoulder girdle. It is the only specimen found of Tsaagan and belonged to an adult individual.Tsaagan was a medium-sized dromaeosaurid. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated its length at 2 metres (6.6 ft), its weight at 15 kilograms (33 lb). The skull in general appearance resembles that of Velociraptor but differs from it in many details. It is more robust and smooth on top; unique derived traits, autapomorphies, include long paroccipital processes and basipterygoids at the back of the skull and a jugal touching the squamosal.Zanabazar junior
Zanabazar is an extinct genus of troodontid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. The genus was originally named by Rinchen Barsbold as a species of Saurornithoides, S. junior. In 2009 it was reclassified as its own genus, named after the first spiritual figurehead of Tibetan buddhism, Zanabazar. The holotype, GIN 100–1, includes a skull, vertebrae, and right hindlimb. Zanabazar was one of the most derived troodontids, and the second largest after Troodon.