Rimini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈriːmini] (listen); Romagnol: Rémin; Latin: Ariminum) is a city of 150.590 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia (the ancient Ariminus) and Ausa (ancient Aprusa). It is one of the most famous seaside resorts in Europe, thanks to its 15-kilometre-long (9 mi) sandy beach, over 1,000 hotels, and thousands of bars, restaurants and discos. The first bathing establishment opened in 1843. An art city with ancient Roman and Renaissance monuments, Rimini is the hometown of the famous film director Federico Fellini as well.
The city was founded by the Romans in 268 BC. Throughout their period of rule, Rimini was a key communications link between the north and south of the peninsula. On its soil, Roman emperors erected monuments like the Arch of Augustus and the Tiberius Bridge to mark the beginning and the end of the Decumanus of Rimini. During the Renaissance, the city benefited from the court of the House of Malatesta, which hosted artists like Leonardo da Vinci and produced works such as the Tempio Malatestiano. The main monuments in Rimini are: the Tiberius Bridge and the Arch of Augustus.
In the 19th century, Rimini was one of the most active cities in the revolutionary front, hosting many of the movements aimed at Italian unification. In the course of World War II, the city was the scene of clashes and bombings, but also of a fierce partisan resistance that earned it the honour of a gold medal for civic valor. In recent years it has become one of the most important sites for trade fairs and conferences in Italy.
The total approximate population of the Rimini urban area is 225,000 and the provincial population is 330,000. Rimini is the most populous centre of the Romagna Riviera, and is the second largest city by the number of inhabitants in the entire region, and the twenty-eighth largest city in Italy.
|Comune di Rimini|
Top left: View of Adriatic Sea and backyard in Rimini, top right: View of Rimini Beach in Lungomare area, bottom left: Malatesta Temple, Bottom middle:Arch of Augustus, Bottom upper right:Rimini theatre and Pope Paul V in Cavour Square, Bottom lower right:Tiberius Bridge, main monuments: Tiberius Bridge and Arch of Augustus
Location of Rimini
Location of Rimini in Italy
|Frazioni||Bellariva, Corpolò, Marebello, Miramare di Rimini, Rivabella, Rivazzurra, San Fortunato, San Giuliano a Mare, San Vito, Santa Aquilina, Santa Giustina, Torre Pedrera, Viserba, Viserbella|
|• Mayor||Andrea Gnassi (PD)|
|• Total||135.71 km2 (52.40 sq mi)|
|Elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
47921, 47922, 47923, 47924
|Patron saint||Gaudentius of Rimini|
|Saint day||14 October|
The area was part of the Etruscan civilization until the arrival of the Celts, who held it from the 6th century BC until their defeat by the Umbri in 283 BC. In 268 BC at the mouth of the Ariminus (now called the Marecchia), the Roman Republic founded the colonia of Ariminum.
The city was involved in the civil wars but remained faithful to the popular party and to its leaders, firstly Gaius Marius, and then Julius Caesar. After crossing the Rubicon, the latter made his legendary appeal to the legions in the Forum of Rimini.
Ariminum was seen as a bastion against invaders from Celts and also as a springboard for conquering the Padana plain. As the terminus of the Via Flaminia, which ended here in the surviving prestigious Arch of Augustus (erected 27 BC), Rimini was a road junction connecting central and northern Italy by the Via Aemilia that led to Piacenza and the Via Popilia that extended northwards; it also opened up trade by sea and river. Remains of the amphitheater that could seat 12000 people, and a five-arched bridge of Istrian stone completed by Tiberius (21 AD) are also still visible. Later Galla Placidia built the church of Santo Stefano. It's understood that Rimini is of roman origins also from the fact that is divided by two main streets, the Cardo and the Decumanus.
Crisis in the Roman world was marked by destruction caused by invasions and wars, but also by the testimony of the palaces of the Imperial officers and the first churches, the symbol of the spread of Christianity that held an important Council of Ariminum in 359.
When the Ostrogoths conquered Rimini in 493, Odoacer, besieged in Ravenna, had to capitulate. During the Gothic War (535–554), Rimini was taken and retaken many times. In its vicinity the Byzantine general Narses overthrew (553) the Alamanni. Under the Byzantine rule, it belonged to the Pentapolis, part of the Exarchate of Ravenna.
In 728, it was taken with many other cities by Liutprand, King of the Lombards but returned to the Byzantines about 735. Pepin the Short gave it to the Holy See, but during the wars of the popes and the Italian cities against the emperors, Rimini sided with the latter.
In the 13th century, it suffered from the discords of the Gambacari and Ansidei families. The city became a municipality in the 14th century, and with the arrival of the religious orders, numerous convents and churches were built, providing work for many illustrious artists. In fact, Giotto inspired the 14th-century School of Rimini, which was the expression of original cultural ferment.
The House of Malatesta emerged from the struggles between municipal factions with Malatesta da Verucchio, who in 1239 was named podestà (chief magistrate) of the city. Despite interruptions, his family held authority until 1528. In 1312 he was succeeded by Malatestino Malatesta, first signore (lord) of the city and Pandolfo I Malatesta, the latter's brother, named by Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, as imperial vicar of Romagna. Ferrantino, son of Malatesta II (1335), was opposed by his cousin Ramberto and by Cardinal Bertrand du Pouget (1331), legate of Pope John XXII. Malatesta II was also lord of Pesaro. He was succeeded by Malatesta Ungaro (1373) and Galeotto I Malatesta, uncle of the former (1385), lord also of Fano (from 1340), Pesaro, and Cesena (1378).
His son Carlo I Malatesta, one of the most respected condottieri of the time, enlarged the Riminese possessions and restored the port. Carlo died childless in 1429, and the lordship was divided into three parts, Rimini going to Galeotto Roberto Malatesta, a Catholic zealot who turned out to be totally inadequate for the role. The Pesarese line of the Malatestas tried, in fact, to take advantage of his weakness and to capture the city, but Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Carlo's nephew, who was only 14 at the time, intervened to save it. Galeotto retired to a convent, and Sigismondo obtained the rule of Rimini.
Sigismondo Pandolfo was the most famous lord of Rimini. In 1433, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, sojourned in the city and for a while he was the commander-in-chief of the Papal armies. A skilled general, Sigismondo often acted as condottiero for other states to gain money to embellish it (he was also a dilettante poet). He had the famous Tempio Malatestiano rebuilt by Leon Battista Alberti. However, after the rise of Pope Pius II, he had to fight constantly for the independence of the city. In 1463 he was forced to submit to Pius II, who left him only Rimini and little more; Roberto Malatesta, his son (1482), under Pope Paul II, nearly lost his state, but under Pope Sixtus IV, became the commanding officer of the pontifical army against Ferdinand of Naples. Sigismondo was, however, defeated by Neapolitan forces in the battle of Campomorto (1482). Pandolfo IV, his son (1500), lost Rimini to Cesare Borgia, after whose overthrow it fell to Venice (1503–1509), but it was later retaken by pope Julius II and incorporated into the Papal States. After the death of pope Leo X, Pandolfo returned for several months, and with his son Sigismondo Malatesta held a rule which looked tyrannous even for the time. Pope Adrian VI expelled him again and gave Rimini to the Duke of Urbino, the pope's vicar in Romagna. In 1527 Sigismondo managed to regain the city, but in the following year the Malatesta dominion died forever.
At the beginning of the 16th century, Rimini, now a secondary town of the Papal States, was ruled by an Apostolic Legate. Towards the end of the 16th century, the municipal square (now Piazza Cavour), which had been closed off on a site where the Poletti Theatre was subsequently built, was redesigned. The statue of Pope Paul V has stood in the centre of the square next to the fountain since 1614.
In the 16th century, the 'grand square' (now the Piazza Tre Martiri in honor of three civilians hanged by the retreating Nazis at the end of World War II), which was where markets and tournaments were held, underwent various changes. A small temple dedicated to Saint Anthony of Padua and a clock tower were built there, giving the square its present shape and size.
Until the 18th century raiding armies, earthquakes, famines, floods and pirate attacks ravaged the city. In this gloomy situation and due to a weakened local economy, fishing took on great importance, a fact testified by the construction of structures such as the fish market and the lighthouse.
In 1797 Rimini, along with the rest of Romagna, was affected by the passage of the Napoleonic army and became part of the Cisalpine Republic. Napoleonic policy suppressed the monastic orders, confiscating their property and thus dispersing a substantial heritage, and demolished many churches including the ancient cathedral of Santa Colomba.
On 30 March 1815, Joachim Murat launched his Rimini Proclamation to the Italian people from here, hoping to incite them to unity and independence. In 1845 a band of adventurers commanded by Ribbotti entered the city and proclaimed a constitution which was soon abolished. In 1860 Rimini and Romagna were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy.
The city was transformed after the 1843 founding of the first bathing establishment and the Kursaal, a building constructed to host sumptuous social events, became the symbol of Rimini's status as a tourist resort. In just a few years the seafront underwent considerable development work making Rimini 'the city of small villas'. At the beginning of the 20th century, The Grand Hotel, the city's first major accommodation facility, was built near the beach.
During the first World War Rimini and its surrounding infrastructure was one of the primary targets of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. After Italy's declaration of war on 15 May 1915 the Austro-Hungarian fleet left its harbours the same day and started its assault on the Adriatic coast between Venice and Barletta.
During World War II the city was torn apart by heavy bombardments and by the passage of the front over the Gothic Line during the Battle of Rimini and was eventually captured by Greek and Canadian forces. Following its liberation on September 21, 1944, reconstruction work began, culminating in huge development of the tourist industry in the city.
Rimini is situated at 44°03'00'' of latitude North and 12°34'00'' of longitude East, along the coast of the Adriatic sea, at the south-eastern edge of Emilia-Romagna, at a short distance from Montefeltro and Marche. Rimini extends for 135.71 square km and borders the municipalities of Bellaria-Igea Marina, San Mauro Pascoli and Santarcangelo di Romagna towards NW, Verucchio and Serravalle towards SW, Coriano towards S and Riccione towards SE. The city is also crossed by three roman important roads: Emilia, Popilia, and Flaminia. Viserba is the most important of Rimini's northern districts, with 8556 inhabitants.
Rimini is located in a historically strategic position, at the extreme southern edge of the Po Valley, at the junction point of Northern and Central Italy. It is surrounded towards southwest by the gently rolling hills of Covignano (153 metres high), Vergiano (81 m), San Martino Monte l'Abbate (57 m) and San Lorenzo in Correggiano (60 m), widely cultivated, with vineyards, olive groves and orchards, and dominated by ancient mansions. These hills, mostly made of clay and sand, connect the plains, created by Marecchia and Ausa, the two most important rivers of Rimini territory, to the higher hills of the Apennines.
The Marecchia river runs through its valley and the plain in a very large riverbed and, after receiving the waters of Ausa, it flows into the Adriatic sea through a deviator between San Giuliano Mare and Rivabella, while the ancient riverbed is used in its last section as the city's harbour. The Marecchia, usually with little water flow, was subjected to periodic, destructive floods near its mouth, where the riverbed became narrow after various bends: for this reason it was deviated towards North. Ausa creek, which was the eastern limit of Rimini for many centuries, was deviated as well after World War II, and its original riverbed was filled and turned into an urban park.
The coastal strip, made of recent marine deposits, is edged by a fine sandy beach, 15 km long and up to 200 metres wide, interrupted only by the mouth of the rivers and gently shelving towards the sea. Along the coastline there is a low sandy cliff, created by sea rise around 4000 B.C., partly conserved north of Rimini, between Rivabella and Bellaria-Igea Marina, at a distance of about 1,300 metres from the sea.
Rimini's territory, for its geographical position and its climatic features, is situated on the edge between the mediterranean and the central European phytoclimatic zones, and thus it represents an environment of notable naturalistic value.
Rimini is the main centre of a 50 kilometres (31 miles) long coastal conurbation, which extends from Cervia to Gabicce Mare, including the seaside resorts of Cesenatico, Gatteo a Mare, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Riccione, Misano Adriatico and Cattolica. The conurbation has about 300,000 inhabitants and originated around the mid-20th century due to urban sprawl following intensive tourism development.
The city of Rimini includes the seaside localities and districts of Torre Pedrera, Viserbella, Viserba, Rivabella, San Giuliano Mare towards north and Bellariva, Marebello, Rivazzurra, Miramare towards south. These districts are important to tourism in Rimini.
The city proper includes the historic centre, the four ancient boroughs of S. Giuliano, S. Giovanni, S. Andrea and Marina, the seaside district of Marina Centro and various modern districts - Celle, Marecchiese, INA Casa, V PEEP, Colonnella, Lagomaggio - and outer suburbs such as Padulli, Spadarolo, Covignano, Grottarossa and Villaggio 1° Maggio, located outside of the Adriatic Highway beltline. More outer suburbs are S. Giustina, S. Vito, Spadarolo, Vergiano, Corpolò and Gaiofana.
The historic centre of Rimini, surrounded by the city walls built by Malatesta, and formerly bounded by Marecchia and Ausa, has a distinctive, regular urban structure of Roman origins. It was divided since Middle Ages in four districts (Rioni): Cittadella, Clodio, Pomposo and Montecavallo. The boundaries of these districts are not known, but it is assumed that they followed the current Corso d'Augusto, Via Garibaldi and Via Gambalunga.
Rione Cittadella, in the western area of the centre, was the most important district of the city and included the Municipal palaces, Castel Sismondo and the Cathedral of Santa Colomba. Rione Clodio, towards the north, was popular and a peculiar urban structure tied with the near Marecchia river and the ancient coastline, situated much farther inland than today's one. Rione Pomposo, the widest district of the city, included large orchards and convents. Rione Montecavallo, on the southern part of the historical centre, is characterized by bowed, irregular streets of medieval origins, by the Fossa Patara creek and a small hill called "Montirone".
Outside of the city walls, there are four boroughs (Borghi), which were entirely incorporated to the city by the urban sprawl in early 20th century.
Borgo S. Giuliano, along Via Emilia, dates back to the 11th century and was originally a fishermen's settlement. Dominated by the Church of San Giuliano, it is one of the most picturesque spots of the city, with narrow streets and squares, colourful small houses and many frescoes representing characters and places of Federico Fellini's films.
Borgo S. Giovanni, on both sides of Via Flaminia, was populated by artisans and middle-class; Borgo S. Andrea, located outside of Porta Montanara, along Via Covignano, Via Montefeltro and Via Monte Titano, was strictly tied with agriculture and commerce of cows. Both these two boroughs were developed in 15th century; then they burned in a fire in 1469 and were rebuilt in 19th century, relocating small industries and manufactures, including a brick factory and a phosphorus matches factory.
Borgo Marina, situated on the right bank of Marecchia, was a portual borough, heavily transformed by Fascist demolitions and World War II bombings, which hit this area due to the proximity to the bridges of the city and the railway station.
Rimini has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) moderated by the influence of the Adriatic sea, featuring the highest autumn and winter mean temperatures and the highest annual low temperatures in Emilia-Romagna.
Precipitations are equally distributed during the year, with a peak in October (75 mm) and two slight minimums, in January (42 mm) and July (43 mm). In spring, autumn and winter precipitations mainly come from oceanic fronts, while in summer they are brought by thunderstorms, coming from the Apennines or the Po Valley.
Humidity is high all year round, with a minimum of 72% in June and July and a maximum of 84% in November and December. Prevailing winds blow from W, S, E and NE. Southwesterly winds, known as libeccio or garbino, are foehn winds, which may bring warm temperatures in each season. On average, there are over 2,040 sunshine hours per year.
As of 2014, Rimini has 147,537 inhabitants, with a density of over 1,080 inhabitants per square kilometre within the city limits.
In 1861, by the time of the first Italian census, the population was around 28,000; in 1931 it was more than double, 57,000.
With the increasing tourism development, population rapidly grew between 1951 and 1981, the fastest growing period for Rimini in the 20th century, when the city's population grew from 77,000 to over 128,000.
Foreign population is 18,396, (12.5% of the total), mainly from Eastern Europe, East Asia and North Africa. Between 1992 and 2014, foreign population grew from around 1,800 to over 18,000 units. The most important foreign communities are Albanians (3,479), Romanians (2,904), Ukrainians (2,409), Chinese (1,197) and Moldovans (1,023). Other notable foreign groups in the city are Senegalese, Moroccans, Macedonians, Tunisians, Russians, Bangladeshis and Peruvians.
The first cathedral of the diocese was the former Cathedral of Santa Colomba until 1798, when the title was transferred to the church of Sant'Agostino. Since 1809, Rimini's cathedral is the Tempio Malatestiano.
Besides Roman Catholic churches, there are also Orthodox, Evangelical and Adventist churches. Between the 13th and 14th century, Rimini had a flourishing Jewish community, which built three distinct synagogues, all destroyed, formerly located around the area of Piazza Cavour, Via Cairoli and Santa Colomba.
Rimini is a major international tourist destination and seaside resort, among the most famous ones in Europe and the Mediterranean basin, thanks to a long sandy beach, well-equipped bathing establishments, theme parks and a number of opportunities for leisure and spare time. The economy of the city is entirely based on tourism, whose development started in the first half of the 19th century and increased after World War II.
Rimini's origins as a seaside resort date back to 1843, when the first "Bathing Establishment" was founded, the oldest one of the Adriatic Sea. The width of the beach, the gentle gradient of the sea bed, the equipment of bathing establishments, the luxurious hotels, the mildness of the climate, the richness of curative waters, the prestigious social events, made Rimini a renowned tourist destination among the Italian and European aristocracy.
Tourism in Rimini started as therapeutic stay (thalassotherapy, hydrotherapy and heliotherapy), evolving into élite vacation in the late 19th century, into middle-class tourism during the fascist era and finally into mass tourism in the postwar period.
In the summer nights there's a festival called "La Notte Rosa"
Rimini concentrates a quarter of Emilia-Romagna's hotels, with over 1,000 hotels, 300 of which are open all year round, and hundreds of apartment hotels, apartments, holiday homes, bed & breakfast and campings. Tourism is mainly based on seaside holidays, but also includes trade fairs and conventions, events, nightlife, culture, wellness, food and wine. Rimini is a leading trade fair and convention site in Italy, with an important Trade Fair (Rimini Fiera) and a Convention centre (Palacongressi di Rimini).
The city's other economic sectors, such as services, commerce, construction industry, have been influenced by the development of tourism. Commerce is one of the main economic sectors, thanks to the presence of a large wholesale center, two hypermarkets, department stores, supermarkets and hundreds of shops and boutiques. Industry, less developed than tourism and services, includes various companies active in food industry, woodworking machineries, building constructions, furnishing, clothing and publishing. Notable companies are Bimota (motorcycles), SCM (woodworking machines), Trevi S.p.A. (electronic goods). Rimini is also seat of an historic railway works plant.
Agriculture and fishing were the city's main economic sources until the early 20th century. Rimini boasts an important tradition in wine production (Sangiovese, Trebbiano, Rebola, Pagadebit, Albana wines) and an historic extra virgin olive oil production. The most common crops of the area, besides vineyards and olive groves, are orchards (peaches, nectarines, apricots, persimmons, apples, pears, cherries, kiwifruits and plums), vegetables and legumes (lettuce, zucchini, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, green beans, cauliflowers, fennels, strawberries), seminatives (wheat, barley, grain sorghum, corn, oat), sunflowers and canola. Fishing industry can count on a fleet of about 100 fishing boats, the most consistent of Rimini's fishing department, which includes the coast between Cattolica and Cesenatico.
The City Museum (Museo della Città), main museal institution of Rimini, was inaugurated as "Archaeology Gallery", at the ground floor of Palazzo Gambalunga in 1872, thanks to riminese historian Luigi Tonini, active in researching and studying the local archaeological heritage. The Archaeology Gallery was the first museum of the city and was conceived as a collection of Etruscan civilization and Roman antiquities, found in Rimini and in the surrounding countryside.
The civic museum was arranged in San Francesco monastery in 1923 and in 1938 was enlarged with a section of Medieval Art. The objects avoided the destructions of World War II, being moved between 1940 and 1943 to two different shelters in Spadarolo and Novafeltria. In 1964, the collections were moved to Palazzo Visconti and finally, from 1990, to the Collegio dei Gesuiti, a large Jesuit convent designed by bolognese architect Alfonso Torreggiani, built in 1749.
In the Archaeological department are exhibited grave goods from Villanovian tombs of Verucchio and Covignano, architectural pieces, sculptures, mosaics, ceramics, coins of Republican and Imperial eras, and the exceptional medical kit from the Domus del Chirurgo. The collection of the Roman Lapidary, exhibited in the inner courtyard of the convent, has funerary monuments, epigraphies and milestones.
The Medieval and Modern Art departments include collections of paintings, sculptures and art objects by artists from Romagna (Giovanni da Rimini, Giuliano da Rimini, Guido Cagnacci), Emilia (Guercino, Vittorio Maria Bigari), Tuscany (Domenico Ghirlandaio, Agostino di Duccio) and Veneto (Giovanni Bellini), from 14th to 19th century. The City Museum arranges temporary exhibitions and promotes researches, study and restoration activities of the city's historical and artistic heritage.
The Fellini Museum (Museo Fellini), dedicated to Federico Fellini, houses temporary exhibitions of documents, drawings, scenographies and costumes related to the movie production of the famous film director.
The Museum of Glances (Museo degli Sguardi), housed in Villa Alvarado, on Covignano hill, was instituted in 2005 acquiring the objects of the former Museum of Extra European Cultures "Dinz Rialto", founded in Rimini in 1972 by explorer Delfino Dinz Rialto, the art pieces of the former Missionary Museum of the Grazie and other private collections. The museum has over 3,000 objects coming from China, Oceania, Africa and pre-Columbian America, with paintings, sculptures, everyday objects, totems, masks, musical instruments and clothes illustrating how the Western world has looked at these territories' cultures through history.
The Museum of Small Fishing and Marine (Museo della Piccola Pesca e della Marineria), in Viserbella, shows the history of Rimini's Marine through a collection of boats, fishing tools, photographs and a large seashells collection, with pieces from all over the Mediterranean Sea.
In the municipality of Rimini there are also two private museums: the Aviation Museum (Museo dell'Aviazione) in Sant'Aquilina, close to the boundary of the Republic of San Marino, and the National Museum of Motorcycle (Museo Nazionale del Motociclo) in Casalecchio.
The Gambalunghiana Library, historic institution founded in 1617 by jurist Alessandro Gambalunga, plays a leading role in the city's cultural life. The library has over 280,000 books, including 60,000 ancient books, 1,350 manuscripts, 6,000 prints and 80,000 photographs. Among the incunables, dated back from the 15th century, stand out De Claris mulieribus (1497) by Giacomo Filippo Foresti and De re militari by Roberto Valturio. The collection of illuminated manuscripts, coming from different cultural and linguistic European boundaries, includes the Regalis Historia by Frate Leonardo and De Civitate Dei by Saint Augustine.
The first stable theatre in Rimini is documented since 1681, when the city council decided on the transformation of the Arengo's main hall into a large theatre hall, hosting shows of amateur dramatics companies and the young Carlo Goldoni, who was studying philosophy in the city at that time. Between 1842 and 1857 the great Municipal Theatre Vittorio Emanuele II was built, designed in Neoclassical style by the architect Luigi Poletti, according to the traditional canons of the 19th-century Italian theatre. The theatre was inaugurated by Giuseppe Verdi, who directed "L'Aroldo", and hosted prestigious opera seasons until its destruction in 1943 due to aerial bombings. Since 1947, it has been called Teatro Amintore Galli. Since its closure, theatre shows has been hosted in the modern Teatro Ermete Novelli in Marina Centro.
Rimini appeared on the movie screen for the first time in some early footages, such as the documentary "Rimini l'Ostenda d'Italia" (1912), and in various Istituto Luce's newsreels in the Thirties. The film director Federico Fellini, was born and raised in Rimini, portrayed characters, places and atmospheres of his hometown through his movies, which however were almost entirely shot in Cinecittà's studios in Rome: I Vitelloni, 8 e ½ (Oscar award in 1964), I clowns, Amarcord (Oscar award in 1975). Other italian movies filmed in Rimini includes "La prima notte di quiete" by Valerio Zurlini, "Rimini Rimini" by Sergio Corbucci, "Abbronzatissimi" by Bruno Gaburro, "Sole negli occhi" by Andrea Porporati, "Da zero a dieci" by Luciano Ligabue and "Non pensarci" by Gianni Zanasi.
The earliest musician from Rimini was Saint Arduino (10th century); a musical tradition of some distinction was witnessed in the following century by the presence of a music school, named "Scuola cantorum", at the Cathedral of Santa Colomba. French composer Guillaume Dufay stayed in Rimini, at Malatesta's court until 1427. In 1518 Pietro Aaron became the first choirmaster of the Cathedral's chapel. In 1690 Carlo Tessarini, violinist and composer, was born in Rimini. The city also gave birth to the musician Benedetto Neri, professor at the Academy of Music in Milan.
Amintore Galli, illustrious musicologist and composer born in Talamello in 1845, attended the city's Classical Lyceum before moving to Milan, where he studied at the Academy of Music; in 1945 the Municipal Theatre of Rimini was dedicated to him.
Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many social events and dance parties took place at the Bathing Establishment, hosting celebrities such as soprano Elena Bianchini-Cappelli and tenor Enrico Caruso.
In recent years, the city inspired the homonymous music album by Fabrizio De André, released in 1978, and it is cited in various popular Italian and foreign songs by Fabrizio De André, Francesco Guccini, Nino Rota, Elvis Costello, Fred Buscaglione. Also born in Rimini were the songwriter Samuele Bersani and the composer and music producer Carlo Alberto Rossi, author of some of Mina's songs.
Rimini's cuisine is simple and characterized by intense flavours, and it is indissolubly related to the traditions of rural culture, with peculiar influences due to the city's position between the sea and the hills, near the edge between Romagna and Marche.
The traditional first course is pasta, which includes regular pasta, pasta in broth and baked pasta, prepared in many different shapes. Almost all pasta dishes require a base of "sfoglia", a dough of eggs and flour, handmade with a rolling pin. First courses include cappelletti, passatelli in broth, lasagne, cannelloni, nidi di rondine, ravioli, tagliatelle, garganelli, maltagliati, gnocchi and strozzapreti, seasoned with bolognese sauce or a dressing of butter and sage.
Second courses include meat dishes, such as pollo alla cacciatora, rabbit in porchetta, meat-filled zucchini, sausages and mixed grilled meats, and fish dishes, like barbecues of atlantic mackerels, sardines, rotisseries of oily fishes, sepias with peas, fried squids and gianchetti (known here as "omini nudi").
Piada is a flatbread of ancient traditions, thin and crumbly, obtained from a dough of flour, water, lard and salt, and baked on a scorching "testo" of terracotta or cast iron. It is often accompanied by grilled meats or fishes, sausages, gratinée vegetables, salami, prosciutto, fresh cheeses and country herbs. Cassoni, are stuffed flatbreads similar to piada, with various fillings: country herbs, potatoes and sausages, tomato and mozzarella. Side dishes include mixed salads, gratinée vegetables, roasted potatoes, sautée bladder campion leaves, marinated olives with dill, garlic and orange zest.
Traditional desserts are ciambella, Carnevale's fried fiocchetti and castagnole, piada dei morti (a doughnut with walnuts, raisins, pinenuts and almonds, prepared in November), zuppa inglese (a rich dessert with custard, savoiardi and liqueurs), caramelized figs, peaches in white wine and strawberries in red wine.
Typical local products are squacquerone (a fresh cheese) and saba, a grape syrup used to prepare desserts. Quality extra virgin olive oil is traditionally produced in Rimini area since ancient times. The most famous wines include Sangiovese, Trebbiano, Pagadebit, Rebola, Cabernet Sauvignon and Albana, a dessert wine of Roman origins.
Rimini has a rich historical and artistic heritage, which includes churches and monasteries, villas and palaces, fortifications, archaeological sites, streets and squares. This richness is the result of the succession of various civilizations, dominations and historical events through 22 centuries of history: the Romans, the Byzantines, the role of medieval comune and capital of the Malatesta seignory, the Venetian Republic and the Papal States dominations.
The city has always been a key gate to the Orient and the southern areas of the Mediterranean, thanks to its geographical position and the importance of its harbour, and a meeting point between cultures of Northern and Central Italy.
Rimini has monuments of all epochs, with important examples of architecture from the Roman age, such as the Arch of Augustus, the Tiberius Bridge, the Amphiteatre and the Domus del Chirurgo; from the Middle Ages, such as the Palazzo dell'Arengo, the church of Sant'Agostino and Castel Sismondo; from the Renaissance, with the Tempio Malatestiano, masterpiece of Leon Battista Alberti.
Rimini's archaeological heritage includes various domus of Republican and Imperial age, characterized by polychrome or black and white mosaics, necropolis and sections of the pavement of the ancient Roman streets. The city, along with its boroughs and the seaside district of Marina Centro, also preserves a wide architectural heritage from the Baroque, the Neoclassical and Art Nouveau periods, with churches, palaces, hotels and mansions, which reveal its role of cultural, political, trading centre and famous seaside resort.
The city has a Roman structure, partly modified by following medieval transformations. A continuous evolution, through the urban renovation of the Malatesta, earthquakes, the suppressions of monasteries, has led to a peculiar stratification of historic sites and buildings. The bombings of World War II destroyed the city almost completely, compromising the monumental heritage and the integrity of the city centre, which has been reconstructed and restored in order to valorize its historic places and its numerous fine buildings.
Rimini has a wide parks system, with 1.3 million square metres of parks and gardens inside the urban area and a total of 2.8 million square metres of green areas inside the city limits, including river parks, sport facilities and natural areas.
The main parks of the city are XXV Aprile Park, Giovanni Paolo II Park, Alcide Cervi Park, Fabbri Park, Ghirlandetta Park, Federico Fellini Park, Pertini Park in Marebello and Briolini Park in San Giuliano Mare.
In Rimini there are about 42,000 public trees, belonging to 190 different species, predominantly linden, planes, maples, poplars, pines and oaks. 23 of these are old trees, protected as "monumental trees" for their age and their naturalistic value, such as the plane of piazza Malatesta, the downy oak of Giovanni Paolo II Park, the cypresses of Sant'Agostino, the elm of Viale Vespucci and the linden trees of San Fortunato.
The city's cycling network is articulated inside the main parks and boulevards, linking the most important monuments, tourist attractions, beaches, meeting places, offering various opportunities to different use categories, including urban travels, mountain bike and cyclotourism.
The urban cycling network is connected, through XXV Aprile Park, to the cycle route which links Rimini and Saiano, along the river Marecchia.
Rimini is the seat of a Campus of University of Bologna, attended by 5,800 students, which include bachelors and masters belonging to eight Faculties: Economics, Statistical Sciences, Pharmacy, Literature and Philosophy, Industrial Chemistry, Sport Sciences, Medicine and Surgery. The city has public schools of all levels, including 13 nurseries, 12 kindergartens, 39 primary schools, 5 secondary schools and 11 high schools (4 Lyceums, 3 Technical Institutes, 3 Professional Institutes and an Institute of Musical Studies). The most ancient city's Lyceum, the Classical Lyceum "Giulio Cesare", founded in 1800, was attended by Giovanni Pascoli and Federico Fellini.
Rimini is an important road and railway junction, thanks to its position at the intersection between the Adriatic coastal routes and the Po Valley ones and its proximity to the Republic of San Marino.
The Adriatic motorway (A14) connects Rimini to Bologna towards north and Taranto towards south, through the tolls of Rimini Nord and Rimini Sud. Rimini is a junction of three highways of Roman origins: the Via Emilia (SS 9) to Milan, the Via Flaminia (SS 16) to Rome and the Via Popilia (SS 16) to Padova.
The Rimini-San Marino Highway (SS 72) connects the Adriatic Riviera to the capital of the Republic of San Marino, entering the Sammarinese territory after the State limit at Dogana.
Via Marecchiese (SP 258), leading to Sansepolcro, passes through the Apennines at Viamaggio Pass and links Rimini to its hinterland, Tuscany and the Tiber Valley. Roads of local importance are the provincial roads to Coriano (SP 31), Montescudo (SP 41) and Santa Cristina (SP 69).
Rimini is a major junction of the regional railway network and it is one of the main stations of the Adriatic railway. Rimini Station is a junction of the railroad lines Bologna-Ancona and Ferrara-Ravenna-Rimini, and trains of all categories stop there, including Frecciarossa and Frecciabianca. It is also the ending point of long-distance railway services to Rome and of regional services to Bologna, Castelbolognese, Ancona and Ravenna.
Rimini also has four minor railway stations: Miramare, Viserba, Torre Pedrera, served by regional services, and Rimini Fiera, periodically served by regional and intercity services in conjunction with the main trade fairs.
The city is served by the Federico Fellini International Airport, at Miramare, the second airport in Emilia-Romagna by passenger traffic. It has regular links to national and international hubs, low cost, charter and seasonal flights.
The network of urban transport, provided by START Romagna, includes 13 urban bus lines, 9 suburban bus lines and a trolleybus line which connects Rimini's city centre to the nearby seaside resort of Riccione.
The main football team of the city is Rimini Calcio. It played for 9 years (between 1976 and 2009) in Serie B, the second-highest division in the Italian football league system. Its better positioning was the 5th place of the 2006–07 season (when Rimini was also undefeated in both games against Juventus).
Rimini has also a notable basketball team, the Basket Rimini Crabs, which played for several years in Serie A and two times in the European Korać Cup. About baseball, Rimini Baseball Club won 12 national championships and it was also European champion three times.
Rimini is twinned with:
The 2010 Riviera di Rimini Challenger was a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It was the seventh edition of the tournament which was part of the 2010 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in Rimini, Italy between 12 July and 18 July 2010.Andrea Gnassi
Andrea Gnassi (born 27 March 1969 in Rimini) is an Italian politician.He is a member of the Democratic Party and he has served as Mayor of Rimini since 2011.Andrea Gnassi was investigated in 2015 due to many accounting issues while he was mayor.Basket Rimini Crabs
Basket Rimini Crabs is an Italian basketball team based in Rimini, Emilia-Romagna.Battle of Rimini (1944)
The Battle of Rimini took place between 13 and 21 September 1944 during Operation Olive, the main Allied offensive on the Gothic Line in August and September 1944, part of the Italian Campaign in the Second World War. Rimini, a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy, anchored the Rimini Line, a German defensive line which was the third such line forming the Gothic Line defences.
Rimini, which had been hit previously by air raids, had 1,470,000 rounds fired against it by allied land forces.
The battle of Rimini was one of the hardest battles of Eighth Army. The fighting was comparable to El Alamein, Mareth and the Gustav Line (Monte-Cassino).European Cup (baseball)
The European Cup is an annual baseball tournament, sanctioned and created by the Confederation of European Baseball (CEB). The tournament features the top teams of the professional baseball leagues in Europe.Starting in 2008, the tournament is now held in two locations. The best two teams from each tournament then compete in the European Champion Cup "Final Four", with the winner receiving the European Champion Cup.
Between 2013 and 2015, the "Final Four" format was replaced with a best-of-three series between the winners of each tournament. In the 2015 tournament, six teams competed in the Paris group, while six other teams competed in Rotterdam. The best two teams then competed in the "Final Four" in Italy, in a best-of-three series, for the championship.
From 2016, a new format has been introduced with an 8-team knockout tournament and two new tournaments for lower-level teams, the CEB Cup and the Federations Cup.
The first season of the tournament was held in 1963 and was won by the Picadero Jockey Club Barcelona.Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini, (Italian: [fedeˈriːko felˈliːni]; 20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time. His films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time.
In a career spanning almost fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, and won four in the category of Best Foreign Language Film, the most for any director in the history of the Academy. At the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles, he received an honorary award for Lifetime Achievement. Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon, Amarcord and Fellini's Casanova.Federico Fellini International Airport
Federico Fellini International Airport (Italian: Aeroporto Internazionale Federico Fellini; IATA: RMI, ICAO: LIPR), formerly Rimini Miramare Airport, is an international airport located at Miramare, 2.7 NM (5.0 km; 3.1 mi) southeast of Rimini, Italy. The airport is named after Italian filmmaker Federico Fellini.
Since 2015, Rimini Airport is managed by AIRiminum 2014 S.p.A.
The airport provides scheduled flights to Moscow and Tirana all year round and a great number of seasonal or charter flights to a lot of destinations outside Italy.
From March 2018 Ryanair resumed operations at Rimini airport, after six years of absence, providing connections to London, Warsaw and Kaunas.Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini or Francesca da Polenta (1255 – ca. 1285) was the daughter of Guido da Polenta, lord of Ravenna. She was a historical contemporary of Dante Alighieri, who portrayed her as a character in the Divine Comedy.Francesca da Rimini (Rachmaninoff)
Francesca da Rimini (Russian: Франческа да Римини), Op. 25, is an opera in a prologue, two tableaux and an epilogue by Sergei Rachmaninoff to a Russian libretto by Modest Ilyich Tchaikovsky. It is based on the story of Francesca da Rimini in the fifth canto of Dante's epic poem The Inferno (the first part of the Divine Comedy). The fifth canto is the part about the Second Circle of Hell (Lust). Rachmaninoff had composed the love duet for Francesca and Paolo in 1900, but did not resume work on the opera until 1904. The first performance was on 24 January (O.S. 11 January) 1906 at the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow, with the composer himself conducting, in a double-bill performance with another Rachmaninoff opera written contemporaneously, The Miserly Knight.Francesca da Rimini (Tchaikovsky)
Francesca da Rimini: Symphonic Fantasy after Dante, Op. 32, is a symphonic poem by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Following his visit to Bayreuth in the summer of 1876, he composed it in Moscow in fewer than three weeks. It is dedicated to his friend and former pupil Sergei Taneyev. It was first performed early in 1877 in Moscow in a concert by the Russian Musical Society, conducted by Nikolai Rubinstein.
In this fantasia, Tchaikovsky presents a symphonic interpretation of the tragic tale of Francesca da Rimini, a beauty who was immortalized in Dante's Divine Comedy. In the fifth canto of Inferno, Dante the narrator meets the shade of Francesca da Rimini, a noblewoman who fell in love with the brother of her cruel husband. After the lovers were discovered and killed in revenge by the husband, they were condemned to Hell for their adulterous passions. In their damnation, the lovers are trapped together in a violent storm, whirled through the air around the second circle of Hell, never to touch the ground again. They are tormented most of all by the ineradicable memory of the joys and pleasures of the embraces they shared in life.
In writing Francesca da Rimini, Tchaikovsky expressed a poignant identification with the heroine and her tragic fate, a sympathy which was also dramatically evoked in his ballet Swan Lake and the Romeo and Juliet Fantasy-Overture.
This symphonic poem, perhaps more than any other of Tchaikovsky's works, shows the possible influence of Franz Liszt, both musically and in terms of subject matter, and Richard Wagner, whose music dramas Tchaikovsky had traveled to Bayreuth to review. Liszt frequently chose subjects of a Gothic, diabolical nature: the Totentanz (1849), Sonata Après une lecture de Dante (1856), and Dante Symphony (1857) are cases in point. Tchaikovsky's use of swirling chromaticism in the depiction of the winds of the second circle of Hell also resembles Liszt, as well as Edvard Grieg's depiction of a stormy evening in his incidental music to act 5 of the play Peer Gynt. As for Wagner, while Tchaikovsky generally did not care for his work, he freely acknowledged its influence on Francesca to Taneyev.
The piece has a duration of around 25 minutes.Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appraised by Dante and Virgil
Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta appraised by Dante and Virgil (and several variant titles) is a composition painted in at least three very similar versions by Ary Scheffer; all are in oils on canvas. They show a scene from Dante's Inferno of Dante and Virgil viewing Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta in Hell. It "could be described as Scheffer's best work".In the first volume, Inferno, of The Divine Comedy, Dante and Virgil meet Francesca and her lover Paolo in the second circle of hell, reserved for the lustful. Here, the couple are trapped in an eternal whirlwind, doomed to be forever swept through the air just as they allowed themselves to be swept away by their passions. Dante calls out to the lovers, who are compelled to briefly pause before him, and he speaks with Francesca. She obliquely states a few of the details of her life and her death, and Dante, apparently familiar with her story, correctly identifies her by name. He asks her what led to her and Paolo's damnation, and Francesca's story strikes such a chord within Dante that he faints out of pity. The pair, depicted either during their life or following Dante, became a very popular subject in 19th-century art.
Like some other artists, for example William Powell Frith, Scheffer got in the habit of repeating his most successful paintings in smaller versions later in life, as his more recent works became less successful, and his role as a court painter was lost after the French Revolution of 1848. The first or prime version was painted in 1835 and measures 166.5 by 234 centimetres (65.6 by 92.1 in); it is now in the Wallace Collection in London. The second version (1854), measuring 51.7 by 81.3 centimetres (20.4 by 32.0 in), is in the Hamburger Kunsthalle. The third version (1855) is now in the Louvre in Paris, with Louvre Classification: R.F. 1217. Another version from 1851 measuring 24.7 by 33.2 centimetres (9.7 by 13.1 in) hangs at the Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio. The Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh has another version.Various titles are used:
Just Francesca da Rimini today at the Wallace Collection
The Ghosts/Shades/Shadows of Francesca de Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appear to Dante and Virgil by various sources, especially of the Hamburg and Paris versions.
Dante and Virgil Encountering the Shades of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta in the Underworld in Pittsburgh
Dante and Virgil Meeting the Shades of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo in Cleveland
Les ombres de Francesca da Rimini et de Paolo Malatesta apparaissent à Dante et à Virgile by the Louvre.Gothic Line
The Gothic Line (German: Gotenstellung; Italian: Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II. It formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence along the summits of the northern part of the Apennine Mountains during the fighting retreat of the German forces in Italy against the Allied Armies in Italy, commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander.
Adolf Hitler had concerns about the state of preparation of the Gothic Line: he feared the Allies would use amphibious landings to outflank its defences. To downgrade its importance in the eyes of both friend and foe, he ordered the name, with its historic connotations, changed, reasoning that if the Allies managed to break through they would not be able to use the more impressive name to magnify their victory claims. In response to this order, Kesselring renamed it the "Green Line" (Grüne Linie) in June 1944.
Using more than 15,000 slave-labourers, the Germans created more than 2,000 well-fortified machine gun nests, casemates, bunkers, observation posts and artillery-fighting positions to repel any attempt to breach the Gothic Line. Initially this line was breached during Operation Olive (also sometimes known as the Battle of Rimini), but Kesselring's forces were consistently able to retire in good order. This continued to be the case up to March 1945, with the Gothic Line being breached but with no decisive breakthrough; this would not take place until April 1945 during the final Allied offensive of the Italian Campaign.Operation Olive has been described as the biggest battle of materials ever fought in Italy. Over 1,200,000 men participated in the battle. The battle took the form of a pincer manoeuvre, carried out by the British Eighth Army and the U.S. Fifth Army against the German 10th Army (10. Armee) and German 14th Army (14. Armee). Rimini, a city which had been hit by previous air raids, had 1,470,000 rounds fired against it by allied land forces. According to Lieutenant-General Oliver Leese, commander of the British Eighth Army:
The battle of Rimini was one of the hardest battles of Eighth Army. The fighting was comparable to El Alamein, Mareth and the Gustav Line (Monte-Cassino).House of Malatesta
The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as (in different periods) other lands and towns in Romagna.Italian Baseball League
The Italian Baseball League (IBL; Italian: Campionato italiano di baseball) is a professional baseball league that is governed by FIBS (Italian Baseball & Softball Federation), which has its headquarters in Rome. The IBL is a wood bat league in which both composite and aluminum bats are prohibited; the official ball of the IBL is the Wilson 1010 Italy. The overall level of the competition is considered the highest in Europe.
Until 2010, the IBL featured a league format that demoted the last place finisher to the minor leagues (Series A2), while the Series A2 champion would be promoted into the IBL. However, in late 2009 FIBS approved the decision to eliminate the promotion and relegation system starting with the 2010 season and thus now applies a fixed-team franchise format similar to that found in Major League Baseball.
The current IBL consists of eight teams, each contesting 42 games; a team plays two 3-game series against every other team. The four teams that finish with the best regular season record qualify for a round-robin playoff. The first and second-place finishers of the round-robin are cast into the best-of-7-games Italian Baseball Series and compete for the championship, referred to as the Scudetto.List of railway stations in Emilia-Romagna
This is the list of the railway stations in Emilia-Romagna, owned by:
Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (RFI), a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato;
Ferrovie Emilia Romagna (FER).Paolo and Francesca da Rimini
Paolo and Francesca da Rimini is a watercolour by English artist and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti, painted in 1855 and now in Tate Britain.Province of Rimini
The province of Rimini (Italian: provincia di Rimini) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. The provincial capital is the city Rimini. The province borders the independent Republic of San Marino. As of 2015, the province has a population of 335,199 inhabitants over an area of 864.88 square kilometres (333.93 sq mi), giving it a population density of 387.57 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city Rimini has a population of 147,578 inhabitants, and the provincial president is Andrea Gnassi. There are 26 comuni (singular: comune) in the province, see comuni of the Province of Rimini.Rimini F.C. 1912
Rimini Football Club 1912 is an Italian association football club based in Rimini, Emilia-Romagna.
The club was founded in 1912 and in the 2018–19 season will play in Serie C.
Their home ground is the 9786-seat Stadio Romeo Neri.Riviera di Rimini Challenger
The Riviera di Rimini Challenger is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually at the Circolo Tennis Rimini in Rimini, Italy, since 2004.
|Climate data for Rimini-Miramare 1971–2000, extremes 1973-present|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.4
|Average high °C (°F)||7.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.0
|Average low °C (°F)||0.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||41.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6||6||6||7||7||6||4||6||7||8||7||7||77|
|Average relative humidity (%)||83||79||76||75||75||72||72||74||76||81||84||84||78|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||65.1||92.4||148.8||162.0||220.1||258.0||297.6||257.3||204.0||164.3||96.0||74.4||2,040|
|Source: MeteoAM (sunshine hours 1961–1990)|
Cities in Italy by population