Richmond K. Turner

Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner (May 27, 1885 – February 12, 1961), commonly known as Admiral Kelly Turner, served in the United States Navy during World War II, and is best known for commanding the Amphibious Force during the campaign across the Pacific.

Richmond K. Turner
Richmond Kelly Turner
Birth nameRichmond Kelly Turner
Nickname(s)Fighting Admiral
BornMay 27, 1885
Portland, Oregon
DiedFebruary 12, 1961 (aged 75)
Monterey, California
Buried
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service1904–1947
RankUS-O10 insignia.svg Admiral
Commands heldUSS Mervine (DD-322)
USS Jason (AC-12)
Commander Aircraft Squadrons, Asiatic Fleet
USS Saratoga (CV-3)
USS Astoria (CA-34)
Director of the War Plans Division
Assistant Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief
Commander, Fifth Amphibious Force
Commander Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet (ComPhibPac)
Battles/warsWorld War II
AwardsNavy Cross
Navy Distinguished Service Medal (4)
Army Distinguished Service Medal

Early life and career

Richmond Turner was born in Portland, Oregon on May 27, 1885, to Enoch and Laura Francis (née Kelly) Turner. His father alternated between being a rancher and farmer, and working as a printer in both Portland (for The Oregonian with his older brother Thomas) and Stockton, California (where he owned a small print shop). Young Richmond would spend most of his childhood in and around Stockton, with a brief stop in Santa Ana, and graduated from Stockton High School in 1904.[1]

He was appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy from California's sixth district, his name put forward by Congressman James C. Needham, in 1904. He graduated on June 5, 1908 and served in several ships over the next four years.

On August 3, 1910, he married Harriet "Hattie" Sterling in Stockton.[2]

In 1913, Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Turner briefly held command of the destroyer USS Stewart. After receiving instruction in ordnance engineering and service on board the gunboat Marietta, he was assigned to the battleships Pennsylvania, Michigan and Mississippi during 1916–19. From 1919 to 1922, Lieutenant Commander Turner was an ordnance officer at the Naval Gun Factory in Washington, D.C. He then was gunnery officer of the battleship California, fleet gunnery officer on the Staff of Commander Scouting Fleet and commanding officer of the destroyer Mervine.

Following promotion to the rank of commander in 1925, Turner served with the Bureau of Ordnance at the Navy Department. In 1927, he received flight training at Pensacola, Florida, was designated as a naval aviator, and a year later became commanding officer of the seaplane tender Jason and commander, Aircraft Squadrons, Asiatic Fleet. He had further aviation-related assignments into the 1930s and was executive officer of the aircraft carrier Saratoga in 1933–34. Captain Turner attended the Naval War College and served on that institution's staff in 1935–38 as head of the Strategy faculty.

Turner's last single ship command was the heavy cruiser Astoria, on a diplomatic mission to Japan in 1939.

Turner was Director of War Plans in Washington, D.C., in 1940–41 and was promoted to rear admiral January 1941.[2]

Responsibility for Pearl Harbor

As Director of War Plans in Naval Operations, Captain Turner became the Naval Member of the Joint Planning Committee of the Joint Board. Turner and Colonel Joseph T. McNarney, Air Corps, US Army wrote "Study of the Immediate Problems concerning Involvement in War" in late December 1940. This led to Plan D, a strong offensive war in the Atlantic and a defensive war in the Pacific. This evolved into US war plan "Rainbow Five".[2]

On 25 November 1941, Turner drafted a despatch to the Commander in Chief of the Asiatic Fleet for release by the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), which contained the words: "I consider it probable that this next Japanese aggression may cause an outbreak of hostilities between the U.S. and Japan." CNO Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark took this message to the President—who changed the releasor to himself—and softened the judgment words "probable" to "possible" and "may" to "might," and he added the bad guess: "Advance against Thailand seems the most probable."

The Commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, was highly aware of the threat of surprise Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor. The final and most important warning was sent from Washington and to other Pacific outposts on 27 November 1941. It was specifically designated as a "war warning."[3]

Turner made the decision not to send Kimmel details of the intercepted Japanese diplomatic communications which pointed strongly to an imminent air or sea attack on the Pacific Fleet's base at Pearl Harbor. Kimmel testified after the war that had he known of these communications, he would have maintained a much higher level of alert and that the fleet would not have been taken by surprise by the Japanese attack. A historian of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Professor Gordon Prange, wrote in Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History that, even allowing for Kimmel's desire to exculpate himself, this was correct. Prange wrote: "If Turner thought a Japanese raid on Hawaii... to be a 50-percent chance, it was his clear duty to say so plainly in his directive to Kimmel... He won the battle for dominance of War Plans over Intelligence, and had to abide by the consequences. If his estimates had enabled the U.S. to fend off... the Japanese threat at Pearl Harbor, Turner would deserve the appreciation of a grateful nation. By the same token, he could not justly avoid his share of the blame for failure."[4]

Vice Admiral Homer N. Wallin wrote a much more comprehensive analysis of the reasons for the U.S. defeat at Pearl Harbor.[5][6] See also Rear Admiral Edwin T. Layton, Kimmel's chief intelligence officer, and his book, And I Was There.[7]

Admiral Turner testified to the Roberts Commission on 19 January 1942, the Admiral Thomas C. Hart Inquiry on the 3rd and 4 April 1944, the Navy Court of Inquiry headed by Admiral Orin G. Murfin on 15 September 1944 and the Joint Congressional Committee Investigating Pearl Harbor in 1946.[8]

World War II

"Deliver for "D" Day" - NARA - 514108
Quote,"Deliver for D-Day!"

In December 1941, Turner was appointed assistant chief of staff to the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (a new position created after Pearl Harbor for Admiral Ernest King), serving until June 1942. He was then sent to the Pacific to take command of the Amphibious Force, South Pacific Force. Over the next three years, he held a variety of senior Amphibious Force commands as a rear admiral and vice admiral. He helped plan and execute amphibious operations against enemy positions in the south, central and western Pacific. He would have commanded the amphibious component of the invasion of Japan.

For the Guadalcanal Campaign, Rear Admiral Turner was Commander, Amphibious Force South Pacific, also known as Task Force 62 which included 9 Groups, including Landing Force, Major-General Alexander Vandegrift and Screening Group, Rear Admiral Victor Crutchley, Royal Navy. He successfully fought the five-month campaign to victory which included the galling defeat at Savo Island when Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher withdrew his aircraft carriers, exposing the landing force to a Japanese night attack.[9]

For the assault on the Russell Islands, Rear Admiral Turner, COMPHIBSOPAC, was named as the Commander of the Joint Force designated Task Force 61, with the Commanding General 43rd Infantry Division, Major General John H. Hester, U.S. Army, being the Commander Landing Force. For the assault on the New Georgia Groups of Islands, Rear Admiral Turner, COMPHIBSOPAC, was named as the Commander Task Force 31 which included New Georgia Occupation Force, Maj. Gen. Hester.[10]

For the assault on Tarawa and Makin, Rear Admiral Turner was named as the Commander, Assault Force Task Force 51, which included 10 Groups, including Northern Attack Force for Makin and Southern Attack Force for Tarawa, Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill.[11]

At Tarawa: "Rear Admiral Turner, the Task Force Commander and Immediate Senior in Command, was well over the horizon and busy with the problems of Makin. Vice Admiral Spruance, the Commander Central Pacific Force, was present at Tarawa in the Indianapolis (CA-35), but with that quality which endeared him to all his subordinates, did not undertake to kibitz on the minute-by-minute performance of the local Task Force or Task Group Commanders. To Rear Admiral Harry Hill belongs full credit for a great and hard-fought victory at Tarawa."[12]

For the assault on the Marshall Islands, Roi-Namur and Kwajalein, Rear Admiral Turner was the Commander, Joint Expeditionary Force, Task Force 51, which included 3 Task Forces and 9 Task Groups.[13]

As a result of his leadership in these many amphibious assaults, Turner was promoted to Vice Admiral on March 7, 1944.[14]

For the assaults on Tinian, Guam and Saipan, Vice Admiral Turner was the Commander, Joint Expeditionary Force, Task Force 51, which included the Northern and Southern Task Forces, Expeditionary Task Force, Lt Gen Holland Smith and 6 Task Groups.[15]

For the assault on Iwo Jima, Vice Admiral Turner was the Commander, Joint Expeditionary Force, Task Force 50, which included the Attack Force, Rear Admiral Hill, and Expeditionary Task Force, Lt Gen Smith.[16]

At the Battle of Okinawa Turner commanded Task Force 51 which included the Northern Attack Force, Rear Admiral Lawrence Fairfax Reifsnider, the Southern Attack Force, Rear Admiral Hill, Expeditionary Troops, Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., Western Island Attack Group, Rear Admiral Ingolf N. Kiland, Amphibious Support Force Rear Admiral William H. P. Blandy and Gunfire and Covering Force, Rear Admiral Morton Deyo. At the end of the Battle of Okinawa the Amphibious Forces under Admiral Turner's command were manned by 657,000 officers and men.[17]

On May 24, 1945 Richmond Kelly Turner was promoted to full Admiral.[18]

He would have commanded the amphibious component of the invasion of Japan. Amphibiously, under Admiral Turner's command, there were to be 2,700 ships and craft in the Kyushu operation. There had been 1,213 ships and craft under his command for the Okinawa operation, 435 for the Marianas operation and 51 at Guadalcanal.[19]

Postwar

Richmond K. Turner headstone
Turner's headstone at Golden Gate National Cemetery

After World War II, Admiral Turner served on the Navy Department's General Board and was U.S. Naval Representative on the United Nations Military Staff Committee. He retired from active duty in July 1947. Admiral Turner died in Monterey, California, on February 12, 1961. He is buried in Golden Gate National Cemetery in San Bruno, California, alongside his wife and Admirals Chester Nimitz, Raymond A. Spruance, and Charles A. Lockwood, an arrangement made by all of them while living.

Personality

Admiral Turner was known in his surrounding by his complicated personality and furious temper. Nicknamed "Terrible Turner", many of his subordinates and colleagues recognized his command abilities, but criticized his manners, heavy drinking and pedantry on the other hand.

When Admiral Chester Nimitz accepted Turner as commander of his assault force, Nimitz dryly said of the assignment that:

Turner was "brilliant, caustic, arrogant, and tactless — just the man for the job".[20][21]

Future Marine General, Robert E. Hogaboom, who served as his Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations describes him as:

The greatness of Admiral Kelly Turner was in that Kelly Turner worked his plans out in minute detail himself, right down to the last position of every amphibious vessel; where they would be, when they should be there, what they were to do. I knew him personally and I know that he was a fighting man. He was tough...he was not always fair, but he insisted on his people doing what they were supposed to do.[20][22]

General Nathan Twining, who served as Chief of staff of the Allied air forces in South Pacific during World War II, described Turner as:

A loud, strident, arrogant person who enjoyed settling all matters by simply raising his voice and roaring like a bull captain in the old navy.... [His] peers understood this and valued him for what he was, a good and determined leader with a fine mind — when he chose to use it.[23]

Honors and depictions

The Leahy-class destroyer leader (later classified guided missile cruiser) USS Richmond K. Turner (DLG-20/CG-20) was named in honor of Admiral Turner.

Turner played himself in To the Shores of Iwo Jima, a documentary short film depicting the American assault on the Japanese-held island of Iwo Jima and the massive battle that raged on that key island in the Allied advance on Japan.[24]

Turner was portrayed by actor Stuart Randall in the film The Gallant Hours.

Personal life

He was the brother of the socialist writer and pacifist John Kenneth Turner.[25]

Awards

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History & Heritage Command.
  • "Admiral Richmond K. Turner, USN (1885–1961)". Online Library of Selected Images: People — United States. Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy. Retrieved February 1, 2009.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (1972). The Amphibians Came to Conquer. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Navy; U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 3–9. OCLC 476880.
  2. ^ a b c Dyer. - p. 154
  3. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (1972). The Amphibians Came to Conquer. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Navy; U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 177. OCLC 476880.
  4. ^ Gordon W. Prange, Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon, Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History, McGraw-Hill, 1986, 292-295
  5. ^ Wallin, Homer N. "Pearl Harbor: Why, How, Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal". Hyperwar. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  6. ^ Wallin, Homer N. (1968). Pearl Harbor: Why, How, and Fleet Salvage, and Final Appraisal. Naval History Division. pp. 41–56. ASIN B001VT7GVU.
  7. ^ Layton, Edwin T. (1985). And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway Breaking the Secrets. with Roger Pineau & John Costello. William Morrow & Co. ISBN 0688048838.
  8. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 1117.
  9. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 281.
  10. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 460.
  11. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 524.
  12. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, Page 631.
  13. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 754.
  14. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 848.
  15. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 875.
  16. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 997.
  17. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 1072 and 1105.
  18. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 1107.
  19. ^ Dyer, George Carroll (May 28, 2017). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: THE STORY OF ADMIRAL RICHMOND KELLY TURNER". Hyperwar, page 1108.
  20. ^ a b "Fortitudine Volume 19, Part 2" (PDF). marines.mil. Marine Corps Websites. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
  21. ^ "America's Fighting Admirals". William Tuohy - America's Fighting Admirals. Zenith Press. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  22. ^ "Gen Hogaboom Dies; WWII Vet Was HQ Chief of Staff - Fortitudine No 23, Part 2" (PDF). marines.mil. Marines Websites. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  23. ^ "Black Shoe Carrier Admiral: Frank Jack Fletcher at Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal by John B. Lundstrom". Black Shoe Carrier Admiral. Naval Institute Press. Retrieved February 1, 2006.
  24. ^ U.S. Government Office of War Information (June 15, 2017). "IMDB To The Shore of Iwo Jima". IMDB.
  25. ^ "Author Dies". Daily Herald. newspapers.com. August 1, 1948. Retrieved March 25, 2019.(subscription required)

Further reading

External links

1998 Sokcho submarine incident

The 1998 Sokcho submarine incident occurred on 22 June 1998, offshore of the South Korean city of Sokcho.

Admiral Turner

Admiral Turner may refer to:

Arthur Francis Turner (1912–1991), British naval officer

Richmond K. Turner (1885–1961), served in the United States Navy during World War II

Stansfield Turner (1923–2018), Admiral and former Director of Central Intelligence

Battle of Makin

The Battle of Makin was an engagement of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought from 20 to 23 November 1943, on Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands.

Battle of Tinian

The Battle of Tinian was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Tinian in the Mariana Islands from 24 July until 1 August 1944. The 8,000-man Japanese garrison was eliminated, and the island joined Saipan and Guam as a base for the Twentieth Air Force.

Battle of Yeosu

The Battle of Yeosu, in December 1998, was a naval skirmish that began when the South Korean navy intercepted a North Korean semi-submersible vessel attempting to land commandos on the southern South Korean coast.

CG-20

CG-20 may refer to :

Chase XCG-20, the largest military glider ever built in the United States

USS Richmond K. Turner (CG-20), a Leahy-class guided missile cruiser of the United States Navy

Chilean destroyer Ministro Portales (DD-17)

Ministro Portales was a Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer purchased by Chile in 1974 from the United States that had been upgraded to FRAM II. Built and commissioned as USS Douglas H. Fox (DD-779) in 1944, the ship saw service during World War II and the Korean War. Between 1975 and 1976, the vessel was refitted with an extension on the flight deck for Alouette-III Helicopters.

Ministro Portales participated in the counteractive measures to the Operation Soberanía during the Beagle conflict in 1978. In this period, all the Chilean navy ships were camouflaged.

The vessel served the navy of Chile until it was taken off active duty and towed from Talcahuano to Puerto Williams, arriving at the wharf on 18 September 1991. There, it was a static support vessel for the local torpedo boat fleet until their replacement by missile boats.

On 11 November 1998, Ministro Portales was used as a target and sunk during a practice exercise.

Gerald W. Clusen

Gerald W. Clusen is a retired Rear Admiral in the United States Navy.

Henry D. Linscott

Henry Dallas Linscott (September 3, 1894 – October 17, 1973) was a decorated officer of the United States Marine Corps with the rank of lieutenant general. He is most noted for his service on the staff of Amphibious Force Commander, Admiral Richmond K. Turner during World War II and later as the commanding general of the Department of the Pacific and Camp Lejeune.

List of cruisers of the United States Navy

This list of cruisers of the United States Navy includes all ships that were ever called "cruiser". Since the nomenclature predates the hull numbering system, and there were several confusing renumberings and renamings, there are multiple entries referring to the same physical ship.

A "*" following the entry indicates a ship that was canceled before completion. Ships in bold saw combat service. A "†" indicates a ship lost to enemy action.

CA-1, CA-6 and CA-10 were never used, as ACR-1 Maine, ACR-6 California/San Diego and ACR-10 Tennessee/Memphis were sunk prior to the 1920 redesignation, and their sisters' original hull numbers were carried over. CA-20 through CA-23 were skipped with the merger of the CA and CL sequences, which allowed the reclassification of the Washington Treaty CL's as CA's without re-numbering.

Heavy cruisers CA-149 and CA-151 to CA-153, and light cruisers CL-154 to CL-159 were canceled before being named.

CG-15 was skipped so the Leahy-class guided missile frigates (CG-16 class) could be redesignated without renumbering. The other missing numbers in the guided-missile cruiser series, 43–46, were not used so that DDG-47 Ticonderoga and DDG-48 Yorktown could be similarly redesignated. (It has been argued in some sources that the DDG-993 Kidd-class guided missile destroyers, which were essentially identically armed to the Virginia-class cruisers, should have been redesignated CG-43 through −46.)

CG-1 through 8 and CG-10 through 12 were converted from World War II cruisers. CAG-1 USS Boston and CAG-2 USS Canberra retained most of their original gun armament and were later returned to their gun cruiser designations CA-69 and CA-70. Before 30 June 1975, CG-16 USS Leahy through CGN-38 USS Virginia were designated DLG or DLGN (Destroyer Leader, Guided Missile (Nuclear powered)). They were redesignated cruisers in the 1975 ship reclassification. CGN-39 USS Texas and CGN-40 USS Mississippi were laid down as DLGNs but redesignated CGN before commissioning. CG-47 Ticonderoga and CG-48 Yorktown were ordered as guided missile destroyers (DDG) but were redesignated to guided missile cruisers (CG) before any ship was laid down. CGN-9 Long Beach, CGN-41 Arkansas and CG-49 through 73 were ordered, laid down and delivered as guided missile cruisers. Long Beach was the only cruiser since World War II built on a true "cruiser hull", and for over ten years was the only new-build guided missile cruiser in the fleet.

The Navy has 22 Ticonderoga-class cruisers (CG-52 through CG-73) in active service, as of the end of 2015. With the cancellation of the CG(X) program in 2010, the Navy currently has no cruiser replacement program planned. The Navy is looking to the AEGIS-equipped Arleigh Burke-class destroyers to increasingly fill the role of the cruiser in the protection of the carrier strike group, as it could be well into the 2030s before any possible cruiser replacement program is up and running.See also List of light cruisers of the United States.

List of ship launches in 1963

The list of ship launches in 1963 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1963.

MV Demetrios II

The M/V Demetrios II was a cargo ship, built in 1964 by J. J. Sietas, at their shipbuilding yard in Hamburg-Neuenfelde, Germany.

South Pacific Area

The South Pacific Area (SOPAC) was a multinational U.S.-led military command active during World War II. It was a part of the U.S. Pacific Ocean Areas under Admiral Chester Nimitz.

The assignment orders for Major General Ernest Harmon as the Commanding General, Army Forces, South Pacific, dated 7 July 1942, said:"The establishment of the Pacific Ocean Area as an area of United States strategical responsibility under the command of the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet, became effective on May 8, 1942. The Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet, has been designated the "Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Ocean Area". Under the Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Ocean Area, a U.S. Naval officer has been designated as "Commander, South Pacific Area". The South Pacific Force under COMSOPAC include the following:

1. All base and local defense forces (ground, naval and air) now assigned or to be assigned to forces in the South Pacific Area. The New Zealand Chiefs of Staff are responsible for the land defense of New Zealand, subject to such strategic decisions affecting this responsibility as may be made by the Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet, for the conduct of naval operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas.

2. Assigned New Zealand, Free French, Dutch and other United Nations Naval forces.

3. Such fleet types and aircraft as may be assigned by the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet."In July 1942 the South Pacific Area, under Admiral Ghormley, superseded by Admiral William Halsey Jr. from 16 October, comprised four commands: Amphibious Forces, South Pacific (AmphibForSoPac), under Admiral Richmond K. Turner, South Pacific Naval Forces under Admiral Ghormley, U.S. Army Forces South Pacific under Major General Millard Harmon, and South Pacific Air Forces under Admiral John S. McCain, Sr.. At a later stage Transport Group, South Pacific (TransGrpSoPac) was added to the organisation.

The organisation's first major battle was the Battle of Guadalcanal. Admiral Ghormley's Operations Order 1-42 established two task forces, Task Force 61 and Task Force 63, to carry out the operation.

On September 20, 1942, six weeks after the first American amphibious operation of the war got underway at Guadalcanal, Vice Admiral Aubrey Fitch assumed command of Aircraft, South Pacific Force (AirSoPac). Not a desk-bound admiral, he carried out numerous, hazardous flights into the combat zones, inspecting air activities and bases for projected operations. For these, he received a Distinguished Flying Cross. Under Fitch's command, AirSoPac—ultimately encompassing not only Navy but Army, Marine Corps, and Royal New Zealand Air Force air units—achieved great success in aiding the Allied campaign in the South Pacific Area.

Commander, Aircraft, Solomons (ComAirSols), directed the combat operations of all land-based air in the Solomons during CARTWHEEL, under the direction of AirSoPac. Rear Admiral Charles P. Mason was the first officer to hold the title ComAirSols; he assumed command on 15 February 1943 at Guadalcanal. Actually, Mason took over a going concern, as he relieved Brigadier General Francis P. Mulcahy, who had controlled all aircraft stationed at the island during the final phase of its defense. Mulcahy, who became Mason's chief of staff, was also Commanding General, 2d Marine Aircraft Wing. The fact that a general headed the staff of an admiral is perhaps the best indication of the multiservice nature of AirSols operations.

Vice Admiral Finch retained two areas of flight operations under his direct control; sea search by long range Navy patrol planes and Army bombers, and transport operations by South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command (SCAT). Throughout its long and useful life (November 1942-February 1945), SCAT's complement of Marine and Army transports was headed by MAG-25's commanding officer. SCAT's operations area moved northward with the fighting during 1943, and by August's end, all regularly scheduled flights in SoPac's rear areas were being handled by the Naval Air Transport Service (NATS).

USS Richmond

Three ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Richmond for the capital of Virginia.

USS Richmond (1798) was a brig, launched and purchased for the Navy in 1798. She was sold in 1801.

USS Richmond (1860) was wooden steam sloop-of-war, launched in 1860. She served in the American Civil War and later as a receiving ship. She was finally stricken from the Naval Vessel Register in 1919.

USS Richmond (CL-9) was launched in 1921, saw service in World War II and decommissioned in 1945.See also

USS Richmond K. Turner (CG-20)

CSS Richmond, a Confederate ram.

USS Richmond K. Turner

USS Richmond K. Turner (DLG-20 / CG-20) was a Leahy-class cruiser destroyer leader in the United States Navy. The ship was named for Admiral Richmond K. Turner, who served during World War II.

The keel of Richmond K. Turner was laid on 9 January 1961 by New York Shipbuilding Corporation in Camden, New Jersey. She was one of nine Leahy-class "double-ended" guided missile destroyers. Launched 6 April 1963; sponsored by Mrs. Claude V. Ricketts; and commissioned 13 June 1964, Capt. Douglas C. Plate in command.

USS Rocky Mount

USS Rocky Mount (AGC-3) was an Appalachian-class command ship in the United States Navy. She was named for Rocky Mount NC.

USS Sanborn (APA-193)

USS Sanborn (APA-193) was a Haskell-class attack transport acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II for the task of transporting troops to and from combat areas.

USS Turner

USS Turner may refer to:

USS Turner (DD-259), a Clemson-class destroyer commissioned in 1919; converted to a water barge in 1936 as USS Moosehead (IX-98) in 1943; scrapped in 1947

USS Turner (DD-506), a planned destroyer; contract was cancelled, 1941

USS Turner (DD-648), a Gleaves-class destroyer commissioned in 1943 and destroyed by internal explosions in 1944

USS Turner (DD-834), a Gearing-class destroyer commissioned in 1945 and decommissioned in 1969

USS Turner Joy (DD-951)

USS Richmond K. Turner (CG-20)

Um El Faroud

Um El Faroud was a 10,000 ton Libyan owned single screw motor tanker. Following a gas explosion during maintenance work in 1995, she was scuttled off the coast of Malta as an artificial reef and diving attraction.

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