This small family consists of just over 30 genera and 175 species. Almost all species are neotropical. Generally, the biology of the richardiids is little known. Some of the larvae are plant feeders or saprophages in decaying plant material. One species, the pineapple fruit fly Melanoloma viatrix, has been reported as a pest of pineapples. Most adults have some general features, conspicuously pictured wings, often with metallic blue or greenish colors on the body and legs, and a typical tephritoid ovipositor.
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Richardiidae Hendel, 1916
The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.
The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.Asilomorpha
The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.Automola
Automola is a genus of flies in the family Richardiidae. There are at least three described species in Automola.Automola atomaria
Automola atomaria is a species of fly in the genus Automola of the family Richardiidae. A. atomaria is found in Central America.Autosticha
Autosticha is a genus of gelechioid moths. It belongs to the subfamily Autostichinae, which is either placed in the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae), or in an expanded Autostichidae. It is the type genus of its subfamily (and the Autostichidae). Originally, this genus was named Automola, but this name properly refers to a fly genus in family Richardiidae.Typically, these moths have the second and third forewing vein emerging from a common stalk. The labial palps are characteristically tapering from the second segment onwards and end in a pointed tip.Several originally independent genera are now included here, and while most of them are probably not even valid as subgenera, some species included in Autosticha have been historically assigned to entirely different Gelechioidea lineages, such as the long-horned moths (Lecithoceridae) or the Xyloryctidae.Chironomoidea
The Chironomoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Culicomorpha. This superfamily contains the families Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. One of the more important characteristics used to define them is the form of the larval mouthparts.Culicomorpha
The Culicomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, including mosquitoes, black flies, and several extant and extinct families of insects.Odontomera
Odontomera is a genus of flies in the family Richardiidae. There are about 19 described species in Odontomera.Odontomera ferruginea
Odontomera ferruginea is a species of fly in the family Richardiidae.Odontomera limbata
Odontomera limbata is a species of fly in the family Richardiidae.Oestroidea
Oestroidea is a superfamily of Calyptratae including the blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and their relatives.The superfamily includes the families:
Mesembrinellidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)
Rhiniidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)
Ortalis is an historic genus of Ulidiid or picture-winged flies, first described by Fallén in 1810. It served as the type genus for the family Ulidiidae, which was called Ortalidae at the time. In 1932, it was pointed out by Adlrich that the name Ortalis was preoccupied by a genus of birds (in family Cracidae) which had been named by Merrem in 1786. The name of the fly family was therefore revised, with some authors calling it Otitidae until Ulidiidae was settled on as standard. The genus itself was found to be paraphyletic, and all of its species have been reassigned to other genera, some in the Ulidiidae, and some in other Tephritoid families. In the following list, the species are organized according to the families and genera to which they have been reassigned.Richardia (fly)
Richardia is a genus of flies in the family Richardiidae.Sepsisoma
Sepsisoma is a genus of flies in the family Richardiidae. There are about 13 described species in Sepsisoma.Sepsisoma flavescens
Sepsisoma flavescens is a species of fly in the family Richardiidae.Stalk-eyed fly
Stalk-eyed flies are insects of the fly family Diopsidae. The family is distinguished from most other flies by the possession of "eyestalks": projections from the sides of the head with the eyes at the end. Some fly species from other families such as Drosophilidae, Platystomatidae, Richardiidae, and Tephritidae have similar heads, but the unique character of the Diopsidae is that their antennae are located on the stalk, rather than in the middle of the head as in all other flies.
The stalk-eyed flies are up to a centimeter long, and they feed on both decaying plants and animals. Their unique morphology has inspired research into how the attribute may have arisen through forces of sexual selection and natural selection. Studies of the behavior of the Diopsidae have yielded important insights into the development of sexual ornamentation, the genetic factors that maintain such a morphological feature, sexual selection, and the handicap principle.Tabanoidea
Superfamily Tabanoidea are insects in the order Diptera.Tephritoidea
The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:
Pallopteridae — flutter flies
Piophilidae — skippers
Platystomatidae — signal flies
Tephritidae — fruit flies
Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.Tipulomorpha
The Tipulomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, containing the crane flies, a very large group, and allied families.
One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into a series of extinct superfamilies (below), and includes members of other infraorders, but this has not gained wide acceptance.
Extant Diptera families