Richard Ravitch

Richard Ravitch (born July 7, 1933) is an American politician and businessman who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 2009 to 2010. He was appointed to the position in July 2009 by New York Governor David Paterson. A native of New York City, he earned a law degree from Yale Law School and has worked in his family's real estate development business, a number of government and government-appointed positions, including with the New York State Urban Development Corporation and Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and in private industry, including tenures as chairman of the Bowery Savings Bank and as the chief owner representative in labor negotiations for Major League Baseball.

Richard Ravitch
Ravitch crop.jpeg
Lieutenant Governor of New York
In office
July 8, 2009 – December 31, 2010
GovernorDavid Paterson
Preceded byPedro Espada (acting)
Succeeded byRobert J. Duffy
Chairman of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority
In office
Appointed byHugh Carey
Preceded byHarold L. Fisher
Succeeded byBob Kiley
Personal details
BornJuly 7, 1933 (age 85)
New York City, New York U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Diane Ravitch (1960-1986; divorced; 2 children)
Betsy F. Perry (1994-?; divorced)
Kathleen M. Doyle (m. 2005)
ResidenceNew York City, New York
Alma materColumbia University
Yale Law School
ProfessionLawyer, Real Estate Developer, Government Official

Early life

Richard Ravitch (no middle name)[1] was born July 7, 1933 to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York City,[2] the son of Saul (d. 1952)[3] and Sylvia (née Lerner, d. 1974)[4][5] Ravitch.[6][7] His father was a co-founder of HRH Construction Corporation, which eventually grew to have offices in New York, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico. The firm had begun building in Manhattan in the late nineteenth century, and by 1965 had built more than $1 billion worth of projects, including Columbia University Law School and New York University Hospital.[8] Ravitch is a member of the third generation of the family to run the company.[8][9][10]

Ravitch was educated at Columbia College, earning an undergraduate degree in American History with Phi Beta Kappa honors in 1955,[11][12] and Yale Law School, earning a JD in 1958.[2] He served in the army for a short time after graduation from Yale and his 1960 marriage to Diane Silvers.[10][12]

Early career

After earning his law degree, Ravitch worked for the House Government Operations Committee in Washington, D.C. and the New York State Commission on Governmental Operations for the City of New York.[12] He joined his family's business, HRH Construction, in 1960.[10] His focus was low- and middle-income housing projects, and some notable developments he was responsible for were Waterside Plaza, Riverbend, and Manhattan Plaza, all in Manhattan.[10] Some of the projects he worked on were built under the Mitchell-Lama Housing Program. He also built the first integrated housing projects in Washington, D.C., with James H. Scheuer.[10]

President Lyndon Johnson appointed Ravitch to the United States Commission on Urban Problems in 1966, and he was elected president of the Citizens Housing and Planning Council (CHPC) in 1968.[13] In 1975 Ravitch was appointed by New York State governor Hugh Carey as chairman of the New York State Urban Development Corporation.[6][10] Ravitch was responsible for salvaging the finances of the organization, which Carey had found was nearly insolvent. After succeeding at the reorganization, Ravitch brought in another president, while retaining the position of unpaid chairman himself.[10] Ravitch sold HRH Construction, his family's business, in 1977.[10]

Carey again chose Ravitch for a major appointment in 1979, as head of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Carey had expressed the desire to keep the annual salary at $15,000, effectively requiring whoever took the job to be "independently wealthy or have a business that did not require his full attention".[14] Ravitch was approved for the job, and did not accept a salary for his work.[10][15] He was described as throwing himself "into the job unsparingly", recapitalizing the system, building the Metro-North Railroad from other existing lines, and improving labor relations.[10] He was the chairman of the M.T.A. during the 11-day 1980 New York City transit strike, receiving death threats; in April 1981, a guard was injured in a shooting outside Ravitch's office by an armed intruder.[1][10] Ravitch was assigned a bodyguard and he began wearing a bulletproof vest at some public events, and security was provided for his family.[1][16][1][17] He led the M.T.A. until 1983.[10]

Later career

After almost a year of effort, Ravitch became chairman of the Bowery Savings Bank of New York in 1985. The bank had been losing money for several years, and Ravitch formed an investment group that included Laurence Tisch, Lionel Pincus, and Warren Buffett to take over the bank as an alternative to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation liquidating it.[16][18] After the bank returned to profitability, it was sold to H. F. Ahmanson & Co. in 1987; the investment group doubled its $100 million purchase price, and Ravitch earned $5 million on the deal.[10][19] While chairman of Bowery, Ravitch was named to the board of governors of the American Stock Exchange.[20]

Ravitch briefly considered a run for mayor of New York City in 1977[1] that met with a "lukewarm response"; he later made a serious run for the Democratic nomination in 1989. He ran as an "outsider" against incumbent mayor Ed Koch, Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins, and city comptroller Harrison J. Goldin.[10][21] He was endorsed by one of the city's major newspapers, the Daily News, just before the primary,[22] but placed third in that primary, which Dinkins won. Ravitch's candidacy was described after the primary as being run in the face of "predictable defeat".[23] Dinkins went on to win the general election against Rudy Giuliani.[21]

Moving back to private industry, Ravitch was hired in November 1991 by the Major League Baseball owners as head of their Player Relations Committee, the chief labor negotiator for the owners, at an annual salary of $750,000.[24][25][26] Although some critics claimed he was hired as a "union buster" against the Major League Baseball Players Association, he rejected that characterization. Koch, who had been mayor of New York while Ravitch ran the M.T.A., called that description "foolish" and described Ravitch as a "Renaissance man".[27] During 1994 negotiations between the owners and the players, a primary negotiating point was the owners' desire for a salary cap, which the union resisted. The negotiations were not successful in avoiding the 1994 Major League Baseball strike, which ended the 1994 baseball season and resulted in cancellation of the 1994 World Series.[25] The players' union held Ravitch partly responsible for causing the strike, which others thought was an unfair accusation.[28] After the strike started, owners began relying less on Ravitch as a negotiator, and he resigned from the position in December 1994.[28] He was replaced by Randy Levine as the owners' representative in 1995.[29]

In 1995, New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani picked Ravitch to become the new chancellor of the city's school system, but Ravitch withdrew his name from consideration because he said he believed the school system needed major structural reform.[25]

Recent activity

Star Jones Fundraiser for Governor Paterson
Ravitch with US Senator Kirsten Gillibrand and Cy Vance at a 2009 fundraiser

Ravitch and Susan Molinari were appointed co-chairs of the 22-member Millennial Housing Commission, when it was established by the United States Congress in 2000. The commission was charged with making recommendations to Congress regarding ways to increase affordable housing.[30] In 2003, he and Molinari were awarded with the "Housing Person of the Year" award by the National Housing Conference.[31]

In 2004, Ravitch became a partner in Ravitch, Rice & Company, and was the chairman of both the AFL-CIO Housing Investment Trust's Board of Trustees, and the AFL-CIO Building Investment Trust's Advisory Board.[32] He was appointed by Paterson in 2008 to assist in fixing the finances of the MTA,[21] and was a delegate for Barack Obama in the 2008 election.[21][32]

In 2012 Ravitch co-chaired (with Paul Volcker) the "State Budget Crisis Task Force." The Ravitch Volcker report, which reviewed the fiscal strength of six US states, said more transparent accounting of government liabilities was needed and warned that the capacity of state governments to meet various needs would be increasingly crowded out by the growth in Medicaid spending and retirement promises to state employees unless budget plans were reformed.[33]

2014 saw the release of Ravitch's autobiography, So Much to Do: A Full Life of Business, Politics, and Confronting Fiscal Crises (Public Affairs, 2014). The publisher's summary describes the book as "Making [the] case" that "deceptive budgeting and borrowing practices are crippling our states’ ability to do what only they can do—invest in the physical and human infrastructure the country needs to thrive".[34] According to Kirkus Reviews, "Ravitch draws some lessons about our need to understand the true costs of public benefits," and "underlines the importance of our often messy political process".[35] Casey Seiler, writing in Albany's Times Union praises its " engaging and lucid prose — especially beneficial considering the subject at hand"[36] and Paul Volcker has called it "a call for action to a nation consumed by discord".[37]

Lieutenant Governor

Following a scandal in early 2008, New York Governor Eliot Spitzer resigned the governorship effective March 17, 2008, and the lieutenant governor, David Paterson, became the governor of New York. Since there is no provision for filling the office of the lieutenant governor in case of vacancy,[38] it was filled on an acting basis by leaders of the state Senate. During the 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis, in an attempt to break a legislative stalemate, Paterson appointed Ravitch to the position of Lieutenant Governor of New York.[39][40] Ravitch was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor at 8 pm on July 8, 2009, while eating dinner at Peter Luger Steak House in Brooklyn.

Several months of legal challenges followed the appointment. New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo had previously stated that the governor does not have the authority to appoint a lieutenant governor,[38] and State Senator Pedro Espada, Jr. announced he would sue to prevent the appointment.[41] Supporters claimed Paterson had the right to appoint statewide officials, and opponents agreed with Cuomo's interpretation that the right to appoint officials did not include the office of lieutenant governor.[41][42] There were several rulings on the matter. On July 21, 2009, New York Supreme Court Justice William R. LaMarca issued a preliminary injunction against Ravitch performing any duties of the office. That injunction was stayed by Appellate Division Justice L. Priscilla Hall. On August 20, the Appellate Division's Second Dept. ruled unanimously that "the Governor’s purported appointment of Mr. Ravitch was unlawful because no provision of the Constitution or of any statute provides for the filling of a vacancy in the office of lieutenant governor other than by election."[43] On September 22, 2009, New York State's highest Court, the New York Court of Appeals, ruled that the governor may appoint a lieutenant governor in the event of a vacancy.[44][45]

As Lieutenant Governor, Ravitch took just $1.00 per year as salary.

Ravitch's main job as Lieutenant Governor was to attempt to improve the state budgeting process. Working with the Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, he presented a series of recommendations on the subject, but his plan was not accepted by Paterson or the state legislature. In looking back on his tenure in office, Ravitch was quoted as saying "The truth of the matter is, I don't feel I accomplished anything very substantive."[46] Ravitch did, however, influence the public discussion of the severe budget problems facing New York and other states. The papers he and Rockefeller Institute scholars produced during his tenure as Lieutenant Governor included analysis of New York's budget process, its Medicaid system, the budgetary powers of the Governor, transportation infrastructure, and the structural budgetary imbalance facing the state.


He married Diane Ravitch (née Silvers) in 1960;[12] they have two sons, Joseph and Michael. They divorced in 1986.[2] He later married Betsy F. Perry, in 1994.[2][47] The marriage ended in divorce. On August 27, 2005, he married Kathleen M. Doyle, the Chairman and CEO of Doyle New York, an auction and appraisal company.[48]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Goldman, Ari L. (March 6, 1982). "Once Again, Chief Transit Negotiators Man Ramparts". The New York Times. pp. 26–27. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d Who's Who In The East – 1993–1994 (24 ed.). Marquis Who's Who. 1992. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. ^ "Obituary 1". The New York Times. March 5, 1952. p. 29.
  4. ^ "Obituary 2". The New York Times. July 29, 1973. p. 45.
  5. ^ "Sylvia L. Ravitch". The New York Times. October 16, 1974. p. 46. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  6. ^ a b "Weddings". The New York Times. May 8, 1994. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  7. ^ Tablet Magazine: "Run, Steve Levy, Run! - The last best hope for a Jewish N.Y. governor" by Marc Tracy March 17, 2010
  8. ^ a b "Top Posts Are Filled by HRH Construction Corp". The New York Times. May 6, 1965. p. 64. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
  9. ^ "Sketches of Some of the Prominent People Killed in Kennedy Air Crash". The New York Times. June 26, 1975. p. 29.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Farber, M. A. (August 1, 1989). "'Outsider' Ravitch Runs as Exactly That". The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  11. ^ "Richard Ravitch". The New York Times. July 9, 2009. p. 27.
  12. ^ a b c d "Diane R. Silvers Engaged to Wed Richard Ravitch". The New York Times. January 13, 1960. p. 44.
  13. ^ "Citizens Housing Group Elects a New President". The New York Times. February 4, 1968. p. 83.
  14. ^ Maitland, Leslie (October 12, 1979). "Carey Asks Richard Ravitch to Be Head of the M.T.A.". The New York Times. p. B3.
  15. ^ "Ravitch Tells Senators He'll Forgo M.T.A. Pay". The New York Times. November 1, 1979. p. B10.
  16. ^ a b Salmans, Sandra (October 8, 1985). "Bowery's Chief Thrives on Crises". The New York Times. p. D1.
  17. ^ Shenon, Philip (September 19, 1983). "Volunteer Executives Find Jobs Make Tough Demands". The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
  18. ^ "Bowery Sale Completed". The New York Times. October 3, 1985. p. D8. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  19. ^ Hilder, David B. (October 6, 1987). "H.F. Ahmanson To Buy Bowery For $200 Million". The Wall Street Journal. p. 3.
  20. ^ "Amex Appoints Eight To Board of Governors". The Wall Street Journal. April 14, 1987. p. 38.
  21. ^ a b c d Halbfinger, David M. (July 8, 2009). "Times Topics: Richard Ravitch". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  22. ^ Jones, Alex S. (September 7, 1989). "Mayoral Pick Creates Fight Within Paper". The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  23. ^ "David Dinkins, With a Roar". The New York Times. September 13, 1989. p. A30. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  24. ^ Smith, Claire (August 14, 1994). "How Did Dick Ravitch Get Into This Mess?". The New York Times. p. S5. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  25. ^ a b c Peters, Jeremy W. (July 8, 2009). "Baseball War Was Practice for Albany". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  26. ^ Chass, Murray (February 15, 1994). "A Title Is Diminished But the Salary Soars". The New York Times. p. B7. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  27. ^ Smith, Claire (December 20, 1992). "Hardball Isn't New To Top Negotiator". The New York Times. p. S4. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  28. ^ a b Steinberg, Jacques (September 17, 1985). "Ravitch, Mayor's Choice to Run Schools, Has Extensive Public Record". The New York Times. p. 48. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  29. ^ Firestone, David (September 19, 1995). "Labor Chief for Giuliani To Leave for Baseball Job". The New York Times. p. B3. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  30. ^ Pianin, Eric (September 25, 2000). "In Session: Congress – Commission Formed to Study Housing Issue". The Washington Post. p. A19.
  31. ^ "NHC Housing Person of the Year Award Dinner". Affordable Housing Finance. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  32. ^ a b Elzweig, Matt (March 10, 2008). "Where are they now: Richard Ravitch". City Hall News. Archived from the original on April 19, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  33. ^ Nicole Bullock and James Politi, US states warned to tackle ‘fiscal threats’ Financial Times July 17, 2012
  34. ^
  35. ^ Kirkus Reviews, April 1, 2014.
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ a b Jeremy Peters and Danny Hakim (July 8, 2009). "Paterson to Name Ex-M.T.A. Chief as Lieutenant Governor". New York Times.
  39. ^ Glenn Blain and Kenneth Lovett (July 8, 2009). "Can he do that? Gov. Paterson names Richard Ravitch as lieutenant governor". New York Daily News. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  40. ^ Peters, Jeremy W. (July 8, 2009). "Paterson Names Ex-M.T.A. Chief as Lieutenant Governor". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  41. ^ a b Benjamin, Elizabeth (July 8, 2009). "Espada: Gov's LG Appointment Would Be 'Totally Illegal'". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on August 2, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  42. ^ Peters, Jeremy W. (July 21, 2009). "Judge Blocks Paterson's Lt. Gov. Pick". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  43. ^ Court Rejects Governor's Appointment in NYT on August 20, 2009
  44. ^ Peters, Jeremy W. (September 22, 2009). "New York Court Backs Governor on Deputy Pick". The New York Times.
  45. ^ Skelos v Paterson, 13 NY3d 141 (September 22, 2009).
  46. ^
  47. ^ New York Times: "WEDDINGS: Betsy F. Perry, a consultant on television programming, was married yesterday to Richard Ravitch, the former chairman of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority" May 8, 1994
  48. ^ New York Magazine: "65 Minutes With Richard Ravitch - When David Paterson asked him to step in as lieutenant governor, he couldn’t say no—the state he loves needed his help. But he feels a bit like Pooh-Bah in The Mikado" By Jacob Gershman Aug 2, 2009

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Pedro Espada
Acting Lieutenant Governor
Lieutenant Governor of New York
July 8, 2009 – December 31, 2010
Succeeded by
Robert J. Duffy
1989 New York City mayoral election

The New York City mayoral election of 1989 occurred on Tuesday, November 7, 1989, with Democratic candidate, Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins, narrowly defeating U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Rudy Giuliani, the Republican nominee. They also faced several third party candidates. Dinkins replaced outgoing Democratic incumbent mayor Ed Koch; Dinkins had defeated Koch in the Democratic primary.

Dinkins won with 50.42% of the vote to Giuliani's 47.84%.Whereas the two preceding mayoral elections of the 1980s had been Democratic landslide victories, with all five boroughs voting to re-elect incumbent Ed Koch, the 1989 election was a closely contested race that finished with a narrow 2.58% margin of victory for David Dinkins. Dinkins won majorities in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Brooklyn, while Giuliani carried Queens and Staten Island, the latter by a landslide margin. Four years later, in the 1993 election, Dinkins and Giuliani would face each other again in a re-match and Dinkins would narrowly lose to Giuliani in his bid for re-election.

198th New York State Legislature

The 198th New York State Legislature, consisting of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly, met from January 7, 2009, to December 31, 2010, during the later part of David Paterson's governorship, in Albany.

On June 8, 2009, began the 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis.

1994–95 Major League Baseball strike

The 1994–95 Major League Baseball strike was the eighth work stoppage in baseball history, as well as the fourth in-season work stoppage in 22 years. The strike began on Friday, August 12, 1994, and resulted in the remainder of that season being cancelled, including the postseason and, for the first time since 1904, the World Series. The strike was suspended on April 2, 1995, after 232 days, making it the longest such stoppage in MLB history and the longest work stoppage in major league professional sports at the time (breaking the record set by the 1981 strike); its length would be surpassed by the 2004–05 NHL lockout, which ran for 310 days and caused the cancellation of that league's entire 2004–05 season. 948 games were cancelled in all, and MLB became the first major professional sports league to lose an entire postseason due to labor struggles. Due to the strike, both the 1994 and 1995 seasons were not played to a complete 162 games; the strike was called after most teams had played at least 113 games in 1994. Each team played 144 games in 1995.

2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis

The 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis was a political dispute that began on June 8, 2009. The State Senate was controlled by Democrats with a narrow 32–30 majority when a coalition of all 30 Senate Republicans and two Democrats, Sens. Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada Jr., voted to replace Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith with then-Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos. The other 30 Senate Democrats attempted to block the change, but it was uncertain whether they were successful or whether the Republicans had legally changed the Senate leadership.

The coalition appeared to have gained control of the Senate in a move that was described as a political coup. However, on June 15, Monserrate left the coalition and returned to the Democrats' side. The result was a 31–31 tie in the Senate. Upon the March 17, 2008 resignation of Gov. Eliot Spitzer following a sex scandal, then-Lieutenant Governor David Paterson had been sworn in as Governor of New York; this left the position of Lieutenant Governor vacant. The absence of a Lieutenant Governor (whose duties include serving as President of the Senate) left no apparent way to break the 31–31 deadlock; therefore, the Senate was unable to conduct business. Governor Paterson attempted to pressure the Senate into action by withholding their salaries and convening mandatory special Senate sessions, but his efforts did not meet with success.

On July 8, Governor Paterson appointed Richard Ravitch as Lieutenant Governor in an effort to break the Senate deadlock. However, Attorney General Andrew Cuomo argued that the appointment was illegal. The next day, Sen. Espada announced that he was returning to the Democrats, giving them a 32–30 majority once more and effectively ending the crisis; following his return, Sen. Espada was given the title of Senate Majority Leader, while Smith remained Temporary President of the Senate. The appointment of Ravitch as Lieutenant Governor was eventually upheld by the New York Court of Appeals.

Bowery Savings Bank

The Bowery Savings Bank of New York City was chartered in May 1834 and is now part of Capital One Bank.

David Paterson

David Alexander Paterson (born May 20, 1954) is an American politician who served as the 55th Governor of New York, succeeding Eliot Spitzer and serving out the final three years of Spitzer's term from March 2008 to the end of 2010. He is the first African American to hold that position and the second legally blind Governor of any state after Bob C. Riley, who was Acting Governor of Arkansas for 11 days in January 1975.After graduating from Hofstra Law School, Paterson worked in the district attorney's office of Queens County, New York, and on the staff of Manhattan borough president David Dinkins. In 1985, he was elected to the New York state senate to a seat that was once held by his father, former New York secretary of state Basil Paterson. In 2003, he rose to the position of Senate minority leader. Paterson was selected as running mate by then-New York attorney general and Democratic Party gubernatorial nominee Eliot Spitzer in the 2006 New York gubernatorial election. Spitzer and Paterson were elected in November 2006 with 69 percent of the vote, and Paterson took office as lieutenant governor on January 1, 2007.When Spitzer resigned in the wake of a prostitution scandal, Paterson was sworn in as Governor of New York on March 17, 2008. Paterson launched a brief campaign for a full term as governor in the 2010 gubernatorial election, but announced on February 26, 2010 that he would not be a candidate in the Democratic primary. Since leaving office, Paterson has been a radio talk show host on station WOR in New York City, and was in 2014 appointed chairman of the New York Democratic Party by his successor as governor, Andrew Cuomo.

Diane Ravitch

Diane Silvers Ravitch (born July 1, 1938) is a historian of education, an educational policy analyst, and a research professor at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. Previously, she was a U.S. Assistant Secretary of Education. Ravitch writes for the New York Review of Books.

Doyle New York

Doyle New York is one of the world's largest auctioneers and appraisers of fine art, jewelry, furniture, decorations and other specialty categories. Located on Manhattan’s Upper East Side, Doyle offers approximately forty auctions each year. Doyle maintains a network of regional representatives throughout the United States and connections with other companies overseas.

The firm was founded in 1962 by the late William Doyle as William Doyle Antiques. In 1973, it was incorporated as William Doyle Galleries, Inc. Since 2001, it has been doing business as Doyle New York.Through the years, Doyle New York has auctioned the estates of such Hollywood legends as James Cagney, Gloria Swanson, Bette Davis, Rock Hudson, Rex Harrison, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. and Ruth Gordon. Doyle also auctioned the estates of musicians Louis Armstrong and Count Basie, as well as the stage gowns of opera diva Marian Anderson. More recently, Doyle auctioned the estate of Fashion Editor Carrie Donovan, spokeswoman for Old Navy; and the estate of Lady Sarah Consuelo Spencer-Churchill, sister of the Duke of Marlborough and granddaughter of American Heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt. Doyle's auctioned in 2011 the contents (art, furniture, books, memorabilia) of the Upper East Side New York City bar and restaurant, located between 3 rd n Lexington avenues on 87th street.

Decorators and designers whose collections and estates were auctioned at Doyle New York include David Easton, Keith Irvine, Ronald Grimaldi, and Robert Denning. From the fashion world were the estates of Bonnie Cashin, Joe Eula and Geraldine Stutz; gowns from the collection of Marisa Berenson; and costume jewelry collections of Ann Getty and Brigid Berlin.

Doyle is also well known for its on-site auctions, including the sale of treasures from two legendary New York restaurants, Maxwell's Plum and the celebrated Russian Tea Room, as well as the on-site auction of the estate of noted American painter Ogden Pleissner.

In October 2009, Doyle New York auctioned the Estate of Beverly Sills, the American soprano. The company is also responsible for auctioning the furniture and art collection of former New York City Mayor, Edward Koch. Items included letters from Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, Margaret Thatcher and Yitzhak Rabin.Doyle New York is a privately held company. The Chairman and CEO is Kathleen M. Doyle (wife of former New York Lieutenant Governor Richard Ravitch).

Ethical Culture Fieldston School

Ethical Culture Fieldston School (ECFS), known as just Fieldston, is a private independent school in New York City. The school is a member of the Ivy Preparatory School League. The school serves approximately 1700 students with 325 faculty and staff. Jessica L. Bagby has been the Head of School since June 2016. Kyle Wilkie-Glass is the Chief Operating Officer and Chief Administrative Officer. The school consists of four divisions: Ethical Culture, Fieldston Lower, Fieldston Middle, and Fieldston Upper. Ethical Culture, located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, and Fieldston Lower, located on the Fieldston campus in the Riverdale section of the Bronx, serve Pre-K through 5th Grade. The two lower schools feed into Fieldston Middle (grades 6–8) and Fieldston Upper (grades 9–12)—also located on the Fieldston campus in Riverdale. Ethical Culture is headed by Rob Cousins, Fieldston Lower is headed by Joe McAuley, Fieldston Middle is headed by Principal Chia-Chee Chiu, and Fieldston Upper is headed by Nigel Furlonge. Tuition and fees for ECFS were $48,645 for the 2017-18 school year.

Jeffrey Pearlman

Jeffrey Hayes Pearlman (born 1966) is an American attorney and politician who has been appointed Director of the Authorities Budget Office by Governor Andrew M. Cuomo. His appointment was confirmed by the State Senate on June 21, 2017. He previously served as Chief of Staff and Counsel to Lieutenant Governor Kathy C. Hochul. Prior to this, Jeff served as Chief of Staff to the New York State Senate Democratic Conference. Also, Jeff was formerly Of Counsel to the law firm Greenberg Traurig, where his field of practice included Government Affairs and litigation, specializing in Ethics, Freedom of Information Law, Election Law and other client related matters. Pearlman also was an Assistant Counsel to Governor David Paterson of New York. He resides in Albany, New York.

Lieutenant Governor of New York

The Lieutenant Governor of New York is a constitutional office in the executive branch of the Government of the State of New York. It is the second highest-ranking official in state government. The lieutenant governor is elected on a ticket with the governor for a four-year term. Official duties dictated to the lieutenant governor under the present New York Constitution are to serve as president of the state senate, serve as acting governor in the absence of the governor from the state or the disability of the governor, or to become governor in the event of the governor's death, resignation or removal from office via impeachment. Additional statutory duties of the lieutenant governor are to serve on the New York Court for the Trial of Impeachments, the State Defense Council, and on the board of trustees of the College of Environmental Science and Forestry.

The office is currently held by Kathy Hochul.

Most lieutenant governors take on other duties as assigned to them by the governor. For example, Mary Donohue took on duties in the areas of small business, school violence, and land-use planning, along with serving as a surrogate speaker for the governor in upstate New York. Donohue's predecessor, Betsy McCaughey Ross, worked on Medicare and education policy, prior to her falling out with Governor George Pataki. Democrat Stan Lundine, who served under Governor Mario Cuomo, was active on technology and housing issues during his two terms in office.

While governor and lieutenant governor are elected by a single joint vote in the general election, they run separately in the primaries. In 1982, Mario Cuomo won the Democratic nomination for governor, but his running mate H. Carl McCall lost the lieutenant governor nomination to Alfred DelBello. DelBello was elected with Cuomo, but resigned in 1985, complaining that Cuomo did not give him anything to do.

McCaughey Ross had been elected on a ticket with Pataki in 1994 but soon broke with him on state policy. He dropped her from his 1998 re-election ticket, and she became a Democrat and ran for governor on the Liberal ticket.

Prior to Paterson succeeding Eliot Spitzer on March 17, 2008, the last lieutenant governor to succeed to the governorship was Malcolm Wilson following the 1973 resignation of Nelson Rockefeller when he became Vice President of the United States. Mario Cuomo was the last lieutenant governor to be elected governor.

List of governors of New York

The governor of New York is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, to convene the New York legislature, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.Fifty-six people have served as governor, four of whom served non-consecutive terms; the official numbering only lists each governor once, so there have officially been fifty-six governors. All of them have been men. New York has never had a female governor. This numbering includes one acting governor: the lieutenant governor who filled the vacancy after the resignation of the governor, under the 1777 Constitution. The list does not include people who have acted as governor when the governor was out of state, such as Lieutenant Governor Timothy L. Woodruff during Theodore Roosevelt's vice presidential campaign in 1900, or Acting Speaker of the New York State Assembly Moses M. Weinstein, who acted as governor for ten days in 1968 while the governor, the lieutenant governor and the senate majority leader were out of the state, attending the Republican National Convention in Miami.Four men have become President of the United States after serving as Governor of New York: Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, and six were Vice President of the United States. Van Buren and Theodore Roosevelt held both offices. Two governors have been Chief Justice of the United States: John Jay held that position when he was elected governor in 1795, and Charles Evans Hughes became chief justice in 1930, two decades after leaving the governorship.

The longest-serving governor was the first, George Clinton, who first took office on July 30, 1777, and served seven terms in two different periods, totaling just under 21 years in office. As 18 of those years were consecutive, Clinton also served the longest consecutive period in office for a New York governor. Charles Poletti had the shortest term, serving 29 days following the resignation of the previous governor, Herbert H. Lehman in 1942. The current governor is Democrat Andrew Cuomo, who took office on January 1, 2011.

Millennial Housing Commission

The Millennial Housing Commission was created by Congress in 2000 as part of the FY 2000 Appropriations legislation. The Commission was directed by Congress to conduct a study that examines the importance of housing, particularly affordable housing, to the infrastructure of the United States and explore the possible methods for increasing the role of the private sector in providing affordable housing. The 22 commissioners appointed to this task were drawn from across the country and from across the spectrum of housing ideologies and experience. Susan Molinari and Richard Ravitch served as co-chairs of the Commission. Conrad Egan, president and CEO of the National Housing Conference, served as executive director of the Commission.

Peter Luger Steak House

Peter Luger Steak House is a steakhouse located in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, New York City, with a second location in Great Neck, New York, on Long Island.

Peter Luger Steak House has been named the best steakhouse in New York City by Zagat Survey for 30 years in a row. The Brooklyn location is known for its long wooden bar, and the "dining rooms have a Teutonic air, with exposed wooden beams, burnished oak wainscoting, brass chandeliers and weathered beer-hall tables".In 2002, it was named to the James Beard Foundation's list of "America's Classics". Peter Luger Steak House is the third oldest operating steakhouse in New York City after Keens and Old Homestead Steakhouse.


Ravitch is a surname:

Diane Ravitch (born 1938), a historian of education, educational policy analyst, and professor

Richard Ravitch (born 1933), an American politician, businessman, and former Lieutenant Governor of New York

Norman Ravitch, a professor emeritus of history at University of California, Riverside

Robert Duffy (politician)

For other people named Robert Duffy, see Robert Duffy.Robert John Duffy (born August 21, 1954) is an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 2011 to 2014. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 65th Mayor of Rochester, New York from 2006 to 2010.

Earlier in his career, Duffy worked as a police officer in Rochester, rising to the positions of Deputy Chief (1992–1998) and Chief (1998–2005). He was elected mayor of the city in November 2005, took office on January 1, 2006 and was reelected in 2009 (unopposed) for a term scheduled to end in 2013.

In May 2010, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo selected Duffy as his running mate in the race for Governor. Cuomo and Duffy were elected in November 2010 for a four-year term beginning January 1, 2011. Duffy chose not to run for reelection in 2014, and instead became the President and CEO of the Greater Rochester Chamber of Commerce.

Suzanne Garment

Suzanne Garment (née Weaver) is an American scholar, writer, editor and attorney.

Garment is best known for her book, Scandal: The Culture of Mistrust in American Politics, and for her work as a aide to Ambassador Daniel Patrick Moynihan working to block the 1975 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 of the United Nations that "Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination."

The Century Foundation

The Century Foundation (established first as The Cooperative League and then the Twentieth Century Fund) is a progressive think tank headquartered in New York City with an office in Washington, D.C. It was founded as a nonprofit public policy research institution on the belief that the prosperity and security of the United States depends on a mix of effective government, open democracy, and free markets. Its staff, fellows, and authors produce books, reports, papers, pamphlets, and online publications. The Foundation also hosts policy-related events and workshops for various audiences, including policy experts, journalists, college students and other academics, and the general public. It also manages several ongoing policy projects and operates a number of websites on various policy-related topics.

Waterside Plaza

Waterside Plaza is a residential and business complex located on the East River in the Kips Bay section of Manhattan, New York City. It was formerly a Mitchell-Lama Housing Program-funded rental project.


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