Richard I (28 August 932 – 20 November 996), also known as Richard the Fearless (French: Richard Sans-Peur; Old Norse: Jarl Richart), was the Count of Rouen or Jarl of Rouen from 942 to 996. Dudo of Saint-Quentin, whom Richard commissioned to write the "De moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum" (Latin, "On the Customs and Deeds of the First Dukes of Normandy"), called him a Dux. However, this use of the word may have been in the context of Richard's renowned leadership in war, and not as a reference to a title of nobility. Richard either introduced feudalism into Normandy or he greatly expanded it. By the end of his reign, the most important Norman landholders held their lands in feudal tenure.
|Richard I "the Fearless"|
|Count of Rouen|
|Reign||17 December 942 – 20 November 996|
|Born||28 August 932|
Fécamp Normandy, France
|Died||20 November 996 (aged 64)|
Fécamp Normandy, France
|Spouse||Emma of Paris|
|Issue||Richard II of Normandy |
Robert II (Archbishop of Rouen)
Mauger, Count of Corbeil
Emma of Normandy
Maud of Normandy
Hawise of Normandy
Geoffrey, Count of Eu (illegitimate)
William, Count of Eu (illegitimate)
Beatrice of Normandy (illegitimate)
|House||House of Normandy|
|Father||William I Longsword|
Richard was born to William Longsword, princeps (chieftain or ruler) of Normandy, and Sprota. His mother was a Breton concubine captured in war and bound to William by a more danico marriage. He was also the grandson of the famous Rollo. William was told of the birth of a son after the battle with Riouf and other Viking rebels, but his existence was kept secret until a few years later when William Longsword first met his son Richard. After kissing the boy and declaring him his heir, William sent Richard to be raised in Bayeux. Richard was about ten years old when his father was killed on 17 December 942. After William was killed, Sprota became the wife of Esperleng, a wealthy miller. Rodulf of Ivry was their son and Richard's half-brother.
With the death of Richard's father in 942, King Louis IV of France installed the boy, Richard, in his father's office. Under the influence of Arnulf I, Count of Flanders, the King took him into Frankish territory:32–4 and placing him in the custody of the count of Ponthieu before the King reneged and seized the lands of the Duchy of Normandy. He then split up the Duchy, giving its lands in lower Normandy to Hugh the Great. Louis IV thereafter kept Richard in close confinement at Lâon, but the youth escaped from imprisonment:36–7 with assistance of Osmond de Centville, Bernard de Senlis (who had been a companion of Rollo of Normandy), Ivo de Bellèsme, and Bernard the Dane (ancestor to the families of Harcourt and Beaumont).[a]
In 946, at the age of 14, Richard allied himself with the Norman and Viking leaders in France and with men sent by King Harold of Denmark. A battle was fought after which Louis IV was captured. Hostages were taken and held until King Louis recognised Richard as Duke, returning Normandy to him.:37–41 Richard agreed to "commend" himself to Hugh, the Count of Paris, Hugh resolved to form a permanent alliance with Richard and promised his daughter Emma, who was just a child, as a bride; the marriage would take place in 960.:41–2
Louis IV working with Arnulf I, Count of Flanders persuaded Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor to attack Richard and Hugh. The combined armies of Otto, Arnulf and Louis IV were driven from the gates of Rouen, fleeing to Amiens and being decisively defeated in 947.:41–2 A period of peace ensued, Louis IV dying in 954, 13 year old Lothair becoming King. The middle aged Hugh appointed Richard as guardian of his 15-year-old son, Hugh Capet in 955.:44
In 962, Theobald I, Count of Blois, attempted a renewed invasion of Rouen, Richard's stronghold, but his troops were summarily routed by Normans under Richard's command, and forced to retreat before ever having crossed the Seine river. Lothair, the king of the West Franks, was fearful that Richard's retaliation could destabilize a large part of West Francia so he stepped in to prevent any further war between the two. In 987, Hugh Capet became King of the Franks.
For the last 30 years until his death in 996 in Fécamp, Richard concentrated on Normandy itself, and participated less in Frankish politics and its petty wars. In lieu of building up the Norman Empire by expansion, he stabilized the realm and reunited the Normans, forging the reclaimed Duchy of his father and grandfather into West Francia's most cohesive and formidable principality.
Richard used marriage to build strong alliances. His marriage to Emma of Paris connected him directly to the House of Capet. His second wife, Gunnora, from a rival Viking group in the Cotentin, formed an alliance to that group, while her sisters formed the core group that were to provide loyal followers to him and his successors.
His daughters forged valuable marriage alliances with powerful neighboring counts as well as to the king of England. Emma married firstly Æthelred the Unready and after his death in 1016, the invader, Cnut the Great. Her children included Edward the Confessor, Alfred Aetheling and with Cnut, Harthacnut, so completing a major link between the Duke of Normandy and the Crown of England that would add validity to the claim by William the Conqueror to the throne of England.
Richard also built on his relationship with the church, undertaking acts of piety,:lv restoring their lands and ensuring the great monasteries flourished in Normandy. His further reign was marked by an extended period of peace and tranquility.
His first marriage in 960 was to Emma, daughter of Hugh "The Great" of France, and Hedwig von Sachsen. They were betrothed when both were very young. She died after 19 March 968, with no issue.
According to Robert of Torigni, not long after Emma's death, Duke Richard went out hunting and stopped at the house of a local forester. He became enamored with the forester's wife, Seinfreda, but she was a virtuous woman and suggested he court her unmarried sister, Gunnor, instead. Gunnor became his mistress and her family rose to prominence. Her brother, Herfast de Crepon, may have been involved in a controversial heresy trial. Gunnor was, like Richard, of Viking descent, being a Dane by blood. Richard finally married her to legitimize their children:[b]
Richard was known to have had several other mistresses and had children with many of them. Known children are:
The Little Duke, a Victorian juvenile novel by Charlotte Mary Yonge, is a fictionalized account of Richard's boyhood and early struggles.
| Count of Rouen
Conan I († 27 June 992) nicknamed Le Tort (The Crooked) was the Duke of Brittany from 990 to his death. He was the son of Judicael Berengar, succeeding his father as Count of Rennes in 970.Corbeil-Essonnes
Corbeil-Essonnes (French pronunciation: [kɔʁbɛj esɔn]) on the River Seine is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 28.3 km (17.6 mi) from the center of Paris.
Although neighboring Évry is the official seat of the Arrondissement of Évry, the sub-prefecture building and administration are located inside the commune of Corbeil-Essonnes.Fécamp
Fécamp is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.Geoffrey, Count of Eu
Geoffrey of Brionne (962 - 1015), also called Godfrey was Count of Eu and Brionne in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries.Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany
Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany (980 – 20 November 1008), also known as Geoffrey of Rennes and Geoffrey Berengar, was the eldest son of Duke Conan I of Brittany. He was Count of Rennes (ruler of the Romano-Frankish civitas of Rennes), by right of succession. In 992 he assumed the title of Duke of Brittany, which had long been an independent state, but he had little control over much of Lower Brittany.Gunnora
Gunnora (or Gunnor) (circa 936 – 5 Jan 1031) was a Duchess of Normandy by marriage to Richard I of Normandy.Herfast de Crépon
Herfast de Crépon was the brother of Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy, the wife of Richard I of Normandy. His parentage is unknown, but it is stated by Dudo of St. Quentin that the family was of noble Danish blood, while Robert of Torigni stated his father was a forester in the Pays de Caux in northern France. About 1015, he witnessed a grant of Gunnora to the abbey of Mont Saint-Michel.
It has been suggested that he is identical to the Arfast who in December 1022 at the church of St. Croix, Orléans, testified before king Robert II of France at the trial of several canons accused of neo-Manachaeism. Arfast testified that though uninfluenced by their heresy he pretended to share their beliefs so as to gain knowledge that could be used to denounce them. Public sentiment was so inflamed against the heresy that the king was forced to station queen Constance at the church door to prevent the crowd from immediately killing the heretics. On their conviction, the majority were taken out of the church and burned. Arfast then retired as a monk to the abbey of Saint-Père-en-Vallée, Chartres, to which he donated land, as did Gunnora and her children Richard II of Normandy and Robert, archbishop of Rouen.
By an unknown wife, Herfast was the father of Osbern, the steward under two of the dukes of Normandy, and of Ranulf, known from ducal charters. Herfast died before 22 August 1026 or 1027.List of Mont-Saint-Michel abbots
List of Mont-Saint-Michel abbey abbots, of the Benedict order, starting in 966 after the removal by Duke Richard I of Normandy of the previous order, present since 709, and originally funded by Saint Aubert of Avranches.Mauger, Count of Corbeil
Mauger, jure uxoris Count of Corbeil was the third son of Richard I of Normandy, and ruled as Count of Corbeil through his wife Germaine de Corbeil, daughter of Aymon, Count of Corbeil. "Corbeil" is thought to be the modern Corbeil-Essonnes on the River Seine about 17 miles south-east of Paris.Montgomerie family
de Montgomerie is a prominent family of Anglo-Normans origin, belonging to both French and British nobility.
The original family were prominent in early Anglo-Norman England and gave their name to Montgomeryshire, in neighbouring Wales. Roger de Montgomerie (died 1094), also known as Roger the Great de Montgomery, was the first Earl of Shrewsbury, and Earl of Arundel, Sussex. His father was Roger de Montgomery, seigneur of Montgomery, and was a relative, probably a grandnephew, of the Duchess Gunnor, wife of Duke Richard I of Normandy. The elder Roger had large holdings in central Normandy, chiefly in the valley of the Dives, which the younger Roger inherited. Roger was one of William the Conqueror's principal counsellors, playing a major role in the Council of Lillebonne.Normans
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands) are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, and Norse Viking settlers. The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland, and they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia. The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, and it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries.The Norman dynasty had a major political, cultural and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East. The Normans were famed for their martial spirit and eventually for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language which is still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands. The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, and under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure.The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, and for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after briefly conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which also led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066. In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain, and Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries.Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, and to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands. The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England, Spain, and Sicily, as well as the various cultural, judicial, and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories.Odo, Count of Penthièvre
Odo of Rennes (Medieval Breton: Eudon Pentevr, Modern Breton: Eozen Penteur, Latin: Eudo, French: Eudes/Éon de Penthièvre) (999–1079), Count of Penthièvre, was the youngest of the three sons of Duke Geoffrey I of Brittany and Hawise of Normandy, daughter of Richard I of Normandy. Eozen married Agnes of Cornouaille (Orguen Kernev), the daughter of Alan Canhiart, Count of Cornouaille and sister of Hoel II, Duke of Brittany who was married in 1066 to Eozen's niece Hawise, Duchess of Brittany.Odo I, Count of Blois
Odo I (also spelled Eudes) (c. 950 – 12 March 996), Count of Blois, Chartres, Reims, Provins, Châteaudun, and Omois, was the son of Theobald I of Blois and Luitgard, daughter of Herbert II of Vermandois. He received the title of count palatine, which was traditional in his family, from King Lothair of West Francia.
Like his relations, the counts of Vermandois, he remained faithful to the Carolingians against the Capetians. Following the war between his father and Odalric, Archbishop of Reims, over the castle of Coucy, he received the castle to hold it from the archbishop.
In the 970s, in the wars for control of Brittany, he subjugated the county of Rennes and Count Conan I affirmed the rights of his family in the region. Around 977, his father died and he succeeded in his counties.
In 988, he assisted Charles of Lorraine in taking Laon. In 991, he abandoned the Lorrainers at Dreux and besieged Melun, belonging to Bouchard the Venerable, a vassal of Hugh Capet. Hugh, with Richard I of Normandy and Fulk Nerra, assembled against him and he had to lift his siege.
Near 995, he entered into a war against Fulk, who was already at war with Geoffrey I of Brittany. Odo allied with his brother-in-law William IV of Aquitaine and Baldwin IV of Flanders. Even his old enemy, Richard of Normandy joined in the war on Fulk. In the winter of 995 – 996, they besieged Langeais, however Odo became ill and was taken to the monastery of Marmoutier at Tours where he died on 12 March 996.Odo II, Count of Blois
Odo II (French: Eudes le Champenois) (983 – 15 November 1037) was the Count of Blois, Chartres, Châteaudun, Beauvais and Tours from 1004 and Count of Troyes (as Odo IV) and Meaux (as Odo I) from 1022. He twice tried to make himself a king: first in Italy after 1024 and then in Burgundy after 1032.
Odo II was the son of Odo I of Blois and Bertha of Burgundy. He was the first to unite Blois and Champagne under one authority although his career was spent in endless feudal warfare with his neighbors and suzerains, many of whose territories he tried to annex.About 1003/4 he married Maud, a daughter of Richard I of Normandy. After her death in 1005, and as she had no children, Richard II of Normandy demanded a return of her dowry: half the county of Dreux. Odo refused and the two warred over the matter. Finally, King Robert II, who had married Odo's mother, imposed his arbitration on the contestants in 1007, leaving Odo in possession of the castle Dreux while Richard II kept the remainder of the lands. Odo quickly married a second wife, Ermengarde, daughter of William IV of Auvergne.Defeated by Fulk III, Count of Anjou, and Herbert I, Count of Maine, at the Battle of Pontlevoy in July 1016, he quickly tried to overrun the Touraine. After the death of his cousin Stephen I in 1019/20, without heirs he seized Troyes, Meaux and all of Champagne for himself without royal approval. From there he attacked Ebles, the archbishop of Reims, and Theodoric I, Duke of Lorraine. Due to an alliance between the king and the Emperor Henry II he was forced to relinquish the county of Rheims to the archbishop.
He was offered the crown of Italy by the Lombard barons, but the offer was quickly retracted in order not to upset relations with the king of France. In 1032, he invaded the Kingdom of Burgundy on the death of Rudolph III. He retreated in the face of a coalition of the Emperor Conrad II and the new king of France, Henry I. He died in combat near Bar-le-Duc during another attack on Lorraine.Richard of Normandy
Richard of Normandy may refer to:
Richard I of Normandy, "the Fearless", count (942–996)
Richard II of Normandy, "the Good", duke (996–1026)
Richard, son of William the Conqueror, called "Duke of Bernay" (c. 1054–c. 1072)Robert I
Robert I may refer to:
Robert I, Duke of Neustria (697–748)
Robert I of France (866–923), King of France, 922–923, rebelled against Charles the Simple
Rollo, Duke of Normandy (c. 846 – c. 930; reigned 911–927)
Robert I Archbishop of Rouen (d. 1037), Archbishop of Rouen, 989–1037, son of Duke Richard I of Normandy
Robert the Magnificent (1000–1035), also named Robert I, Duke of Normandy, 1027–1035), father of William the Conqueror. Sometimes known as Robert II, with Rollo of Normandy, c. 860 – c. 932, as Robert I because Robert was his baptismal name when he became a Christian
Robert I, Duke of Burgundy (1011–1076), Duke of Burgundy, 1032–1076
Robert I, Count of Flanders (1029–1093), also named Robert the Frisian, Count of Flanders, 1071–1093
Robert I de Brus (ca. 1078 – 1141/1142)
Robert I of Dreux (c. 1123 – 1188), Count of Braine in France, son of King Louis VI
Robert I of Artois (1216–1250), son of King Louis VIII of France
Robert I of Scotland (1274–1329), also named Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, 1306–1329, helped achieve Scotland's independence
Robert of Naples (1277–1343), King of Naples, 1309–1343, son of King Charles II of Naples
Robert Estienne (1503–1559), scholar-printer and son of Henry Estienne
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (1869–1955)Roger de Montgomery
Roger de Montgomery (died 1094), also known as Roger the Great de Montgomery, was the first Earl of Shrewsbury, and Earl of Arundel, Sussex. His father was Roger de Montgomery, seigneur of Montgomery, and was a relative, probably a grandnephew, of the Duchess Gunnor, wife of Duke Richard I of Normandy. The elder Roger had large holdings in central Normandy, chiefly in the valley of the Dives, which the younger Roger inherited.William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford
William FitzOsbern (c. 1020 – 22 February 1071), Lord of Breteuil, in Normandy, was a relative and close counsellor of William the Conqueror and one of the great magnates of early Norman England. FitzOsbern was created Earl of Wessex, a title which his son did not inherit. He was created Earl of Hereford before 22 February 1067, one of the first peerage titles in the English peerage. He is one of the very few proven companions of William the Conqueror known to have fought at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. His chief residence was Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight, one of many English castles he built.William Longsword
William Longsword (French: Guillaume Longue-Épée, Latin: Willermus Longa Spata, Old Norse: Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; c. 893 – 17 December 942) was the second ruler of Normandy, from 927 until his assassination in 942.He is sometimes anachronistically dubbed "Duke of Normandy", even though the title duke (dux) did not come into common usage until the 11th century. Longsword was known at the time by the title Count (Latin comes) of Rouen.Flodoard—always detailed about titles—consistently referred to both Rollo and his son William as principes (chieftains) of the Norse.
|House of Normandy |
|House of Blois |
|House of Plantagenet |
|House of Valois |