Richard Hooker

Richard Hooker (25 March, 1554 – 3 November 1600) was an English priest in the Church of England and an influential theologian.[2] He was one of the most important English theologians of the sixteenth century.[3] His defence of the role of redeemed reason informed the theology of the seventeenth century Caroline Divines and later provided many members of the Church of England with a theological method which combined the claims of revelation, reason and tradition.[3]

Scholars disagree regarding Hooker's relationship with what would later be called "Anglicanism" and the Reformed theological tradition. Traditionally, he has been regarded as the originator of the Anglican via media between Protestantism and Catholicism.[4]:1 However, a growing number of scholars have argued that he should be considered as being in the mainstream Reformed theology of his time and that he only sought to oppose the extremists (Puritans), rather than moving the Church of England away from Protestantism.[4]:4 The term "Anglican" is not found in his writings and indeed first appears early in the reign of Charles I as the Church of England moved towards an Arminian position doctrinally and a more "Catholic" look liturgically under the leadership of Archbishop William Laud.

Richard Hooker
Wenceslas Hollar - Richard Hooker (State 1)
Born25 March, 1554
Died3 November 1600 (aged 46)
Bishopsbourne, Kent, England
EducationCorpus Christi College, Oxford
Spouse(s)Jean Churchman
ChurchChurch of England
Ordained14 August 1579
Offices held
Subdean, Rector
HookerAliasVowellArms
Arms of Hooker alias Vowell, of Exeter: Or, a fess vair between two lions passant guardant sable[1]

Youth (1554–1581)

Details of Hooker's life come chiefly from Izaak Walton's biography of him. Hooker was born in the village of Heavitree in Exeter, Devon sometime around Easter Sunday (March) 1554.[5] He attended Exeter Grammar School until 1569. Richard came from a good family, but one that was neither noble nor wealthy. His uncle John Hooker was a success and served as the chamberlain of Exeter.

Hooker's uncle was able to obtain for Richard the help of another Devon native, John Jewel, bishop of Salisbury. The bishop saw to it that Richard was accepted to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he became a fellow of the society in 1577.[5] On 14 August 1579 Hooker was ordained a priest by Edwin Sandys, then bishop of London. Sandys made Hooker tutor to his son Edwin, and Richard also taught George Cranmer, the great nephew of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. In 1580 he was deprived of his fellowship for "contentiousness" having campaigned for the losing candidate (Rainoldes, a lifelong friend who would become a leader of the Puritan party and participate in the Hampton Court Conference of 1604) in a contested election to the presidency of the college. However, he recovered it when Rainoldes finally assumed the post".[6]

London and marriage (1581–1595)

In 1581, Hooker was appointed to preach at Paul's Cross and he became a public figure, more so because his sermon offended the puritans by diverging from their theories of predestination. Some ten years before Hooker arrived in London, the Puritans had produced an "Admonition to Parliament" together with "A view of Popish Abuses" and initiated a long debate which would last beyond the end of the century. John Whitgift (soon to become Archbisop of Canterbury) produced a reply and Thomas Cartwright a reaction to the reply. Hooker was drawn into the debate through the influence of Edwin Sandys and George Cranmer.[6] He was also introduced to John Churchman, a distinguished London merchant who became Master of the Merchant Taylors Company. It was at this time, according to his first biographer Walton, that Hooker made the "fatal mistake" of marrying his landlady's daughter, Jean Churchman. As Walton put it:[7] "There is a wheel within a wheel; a secret sacred wheel of Providence (most visible in marriages), guided by His hand that allows not the race to the swift nor bread to the wise, nor good wives to good men: and He that can bring good out of evil (for mortals are blind to this reason) only knows why this blessing was denied to patient Job, to meek Moses, and to our as meek and patient Mr Hooker." However, Walton is described by Christopher Morris as an "unreliable gossip" who "generally moulded his subjects to fit a ready-made pattern,"[8] and both he and John Booty give the date of the marriage as 1588. Hooker seems to have lived on and off with the Churchmans until 1595 and, according to Booty, he "seems to have been well treated and considerably assisted by John Churchman and his wife".[6]

Unknown man, formerly known as Richard Hooker from NPG
Portrait of an unknown man, formerly thought to be Richard Hooker

Hooker became rector of St. Mary's Drayton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire, in 1584, but probably never lived there.[5] The following year, he was appointed Master of the Temple in London by the Queen (possibly as a compromise candidate to those proposed by Lord Burleigh and Whitgift).[6] There, Hooker soon came into public conflict with Walter Travers, a leading Puritan and Reader(Lecturer) at the Temple, partly because of the sermon at Paul's Cross four years before, but mainly because Hooker argued that salvation was possible for some Roman Catholics.[2] The controversy abruptly ended when Travers was silenced by Archbishop in March 1586 and the Privy Council strongly supported the decision. About this time Hooker began to write his major work Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, a critique of the Puritans and their attacks on the Church of England and particularly the Book of Common Prayer.[9]

In 1591, Hooker left the Temple and was presented to the living of St. Andrew's Boscomb in Wiltshire to support him while he wrote.[5] He seems to have lived mainly in London but apparently did spend time in Salisbury where he was Subdean of Salisbury Cathedral and made use of the Cathedral Library. The first four volumes of the major work were published in 1593 with a subsidy from Edwin Sandys and apparently the last four were held back for further revision by the author.[6]

Last years (1595–1600)

In 1595, Hooker became Rector of the parishes of St. Mary the Virgin in Bishopsbourne and St. John the Baptist Barham in Kent and left London to continue his writing. He published the fifth book of "Of the Laws" in 1597. It is longer than the first four taken together. He died 3 November 1600 at his Rectory Bishopsbourne[5] and was buried in the chancel of the church being survived by his wife and four daughters. His will includes the following provision: "Item, I give and bequeth three pounds of lawful English money towards the building and making of a newer and sufficient pulpitt in the p'sh of Bishopsbourne." The pulpit can still be seen in Bishopsbourne church, along with a statue of him, and currently an exhibition about his contribution to the Church of England. Subsequently, a monument was erected there by William Cowper in 1632 which described him as "judicious".[8]

Works

Apart from the Lawes, Hooker's lesser writings, which are few in number, fall into three groups: those related to the Temple Controversy with Travers (including three sermons); those connected with the last writing of the last books of the Laws; and other miscellaneous sermons (four complete plus three fragments).[10]

Learned Discourse of Justification

This sermon from 1585 was one of those that triggered Travers attack and appeal to the Privy Council. Travers accused Hooker of preaching doctrine favourable to the Church of Rome when in fact he had just described their differences emphasising that Rome attributed to works "a power of satisfying God for sin;..." For Hooker, works were a necessary expression of thanksgiving for unmerited justification by a merciful God.[11] Hooker defended his belief in the doctrine of Justification by faith, but argued that even those who did not understand or accept this could be saved by God.

Of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Politie

Of the lawes of ecclesiastical politie (1666)
Title page of 1666 edition Of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Politie

Of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Politie is Hooker's best-known work, with the first four books being published in 1594. The fifth was published in 1597, while the final three were published posthumously,[2] and indeed may not all be his own work. Structurally, the work is a carefully worked out reply to the general principles of Puritanism as found in The Admonition and Thomas Cartwright's follow-up writings, more specifically:

  1. Scripture alone is the rule that should govern all human conduct;
  2. Scripture prescribes an unalterable form of Church government;
  3. The English Church is corrupted by Roman Catholic orders, rites, etc.;
  4. The law is corrupt in not allowing lay elders;
  5. 'There ought not to be in the Church Bishops'.[12]

Of the Lawes has been characterised as "probably the first great work of philosophy and theology to be written in English."[13] The book is far more than a negative rebuttal of the puritan claims: it is (here McAdoo quotes John S. Marshall) 'a continuous and coherent whole presenting a philosophy and theology congenial to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer and the traditional aspects of the Elizabethan Settlement."[14]

Quoting C. S. Lewis,[15] Stephen Neill underlines its positive side in the following terms: Hitherto, in England, "controversy had involved only tactics; Hooker added strategy. Long before the close fighting in Book III begins, the puritan position has been rendered desperate by the great flanking movements in Books I and II. . . . Thus the refutation of the enemy comes in the end to seem a very small thing, a by-product."[16]

It is a massive work that deals mainly with the proper governance of the churches ("polity"). The Puritans advocated the demotion of clergy and ecclesiasticism. Hooker attempted to work out which methods of organising churches are best.[2] What was at stake behind the theology was the position of the Queen Elizabeth I as the Supreme Governor of the Church. If doctrine were not to be settled by authorities, and if Martin Luther's argument for the priesthood of all believers were to be followed to its extreme with government by the Elect, then having the monarch as the governor of the church was intolerable. On the other side, if the monarch were appointed by God to be the governor of the church, then local parishes going their own ways on doctrine were similarly intolerable.

In political philosophy, Hooker is best remembered for his account of law and the origins of government in Book One of the Politie. Drawing heavily on the legal thought of Thomas Aquinas, Hooker distinguishes seven forms of law: eternal law ("that which God hath eternally purposed himself in all his works to observe"), celestial law (God's law for the angels), nature's law (that part of God's eternal law that governs natural objects), the law of reason (dictates of Right Reason that normatively govern human conduct), human positive law (rules made by human lawmakers for the ordering of a civil society), divine law (rules laid down by God that can only be known by special revelation), and ecclesiastical law (rules for the governance of a church). Like Aristotle, whom he frequently quotes, Hooker believes that humans are naturally inclined to live in society. Governments, he claims, are based on both this natural social instinct and on the express or implied consent of the governed.

The Laws is remembered not only for its stature as a monumental work of Anglican thought, but also for its influence in the development of theology, political theory, and English prose.

Scholastic thought in a latitudinarian manner

Hooker-Statue.jpeg
Statue of Hooker in front of Exeter Cathedral

Hooker worked largely from Thomas Aquinas, but he adapted scholastic thought in a latitudinarian manner. He argued that church organisation, like political organisation, is one of the "things indifferent" to God. He wrote that minor doctrinal issues were not issues that damned or saved the soul, but rather frameworks surrounding the moral and religious life of the believer. He contended there were good monarchies and bad ones, good democracies and bad ones, and good church hierarchies and bad ones: what mattered was the piety of the people. At the same time, Hooker argued that authority was commanded by the Bible and by the traditions of the early church, but authority was something that had to be based on piety and reason rather than automatic investiture. This was because authority had to be obeyed even if it were wrong and needed to be remedied by right reason and the Holy Spirit. Notably, Hooker affirmed that the power and propriety of bishops need not be in every case absolute.

Legacy

King James I is quoted by Izaak Walton, Hooker's biographer, as saying, "I observe there is in Mr. Hooker no affected language; but a grave, comprehensive, clear manifestation of reason, and that backed with the authority of the Scriptures, the fathers and schoolmen, and with all law both sacred and civil."[17] Hooker's emphasis on Scripture, reason, and tradition considerably influenced the development of Anglicanism, as well as many political philosophers, including John Locke.[2] Locke quotes Hooker numerous times in the Second Treatise of Civil Government and was greatly influenced by Hooker's natural-law ethics and his staunch defence of human reason. As Frederick Copleston notes, Hooker's moderation and civil style of argument were remarkable in the religious atmosphere of his time.[18] In the Church of England he is celebrated with a Lesser Festival on 3 November and the same day is also observed in the Calendars of other parts of the Anglican Communion.

References

  1. ^ Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.479
  2. ^ a b c d e The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church by F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor) Oxford University Press, USA; 3 edition p.789 (13 March 1997)
  3. ^ a b Breward, Ian. "Hooker, Richard" in J.D. Douglas. The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church Exeter: The Paternoster Press (1974)
  4. ^ a b Brydon, Michael (2006). The Evolving Reputation of Richard Hooker: An Examination of Responses, 1600–1714. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(subscription required)
  5. ^ a b c d e Philip B., Secor. "Richard Hooker Prophet of Anglicanism". Exeter Cathedral. Archived from the original on 6 March 2001. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e Booty, John E. (1982), "Richard Hooker", in Wolf, William J., The Spirit of Anglicanism, Edinburgh: T&T Clark, pp. 3–8
  7. ^ Walton, Isaac. Lives of John Donne, Henry Wotton, Rich'd Hooker, George Herbert, &c, Volume 2, p.13
  8. ^ a b Introduction to the Everyman Edition of "Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, p.v-vi. (1958 reprint)
  9. ^ Procter, Francis & Frere, Walter Howard. A New History of the Book of Common Prayer MacMillan (1902), p.111
  10. ^ Booty, John E. (1979), "Richard Hooker", in Wolf, William J., The Spirit of Anglicanism, Edinburgh: T&T Clark, p. 13ff
  11. ^ Booty, John E. (1979), "Richard Hooker", in Wolf, William J., The Spirit of Anglicanism, Edinburgh: T&T Clark, p. 14
  12. ^ McAdoo, Henry (1992), "Richard Hooker", in Rowell, Geoffrey, The English Religious Tradition and the Genius of Anglicanism, Wantage (UK): IKON, p. 111
  13. ^ Duncan B. Forrester, "Richard Hooker," in Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, eds., History of Political Philosophy, 2nd ed. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1972, p. 332.
  14. ^ Marshall, John S. (1963), Hooker and the Anglican Tradition, London, p. 66.
  15. ^ Lewis, C.S. (1954), English Literature in the Sixteenth Century, Excluding Drama, p. 459
  16. ^ Neill, Stephen (1960), Anglicanism, London: Pelican, p. 122
  17. ^ *Walton, Izaac, The Life of Mr Rich. Hooker. In Walton's Lives. Edited by George Saintsbury and reprinted in Oxford World's Classics, 1927.
  18. ^ Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy, vol. 3. Westminster, MD: Newman, 1962, p. 324.

Further reading

  • Atkinson, Nigel, Richard Hooker and the Authority of Scripture, Tradition and Reason (Regent, 2005)
  • Brydon, Michael, The Evolving Reputation of Richard Hooker: An Examination of Responses, 1600–1714 (Oxford, 2006)
  • Faulkner, Robert K., Richard Hooker and the Politics of a Christian England (1981)
  • Grislis, Egil, Richard Hooker: A Selected Bibliography (1971)
  • Hooker, Richard, A Learned Discourse of Justification. 1612.
  • Hooker, Richard, Works (Three volumes). Edited by John Keble, Oxford, 1836; Revised by R. W. Church and F. Paget, Oxford, 1888. Reprint by Burt Franklin, 1970 and by Via Media Publications.
  • Hughes, Phillip Edgecumbe (1982), Faith and Works: Cranmer and Hooker on Justification (1982). ISBN 0-8192-1315-2
  • Kirby, W.J.T. (1998). "Richard Hooker's Discourse on Natural Law in the Context of the Magisterial Reformation" (PDF). Animus. 3. ISSN 1209-0689. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  • Littlejohn, W. Bradford, The Peril and Promise of Christian Liberty: Richard Hooker, the Puritans, and Protestant Political Theology (Eerdmans, 2017)
  • A. C. McGrade, ed., Richard Hooker and the Construction of Christian community (1997)
  • Munz, Peter, The Place of Hooker in the History of Thought (1952, repr. 1971).
  • http://www.johnjayinstitute.org/resources/publications/three-things-conservatives-could-learn-from-richard-hooker/

External links

Calendar of saints (Anglican Church of Korea)

This article comprises Calendar of saints of the Anglican Church of Korea.

Cathedral Close, Exeter

The area of Cathedral Close, Exeter has been in the centre of Exeter, Devon, England, since Roman times when there was a basilica and a bath house in this area. A church was established here by the seventh century when a young Saint Boniface came from Crediton to study. The area was walled after 1283 and seven gates into the yard were created. The gates included one at St Petrocks and the original grand entrance into the yard – Broadgate. This created the cathedral close.The postal address Cathedral Close refers only to the properties adjoining the north-eastern side of the grassed area around the cathedral. The north-western side of the Cathedral Green, including the Royal Clarence Hotel, is known as Cathedral Yard.In the centre of the green is a statue of Richard Hooker, a 16th-century Anglican theologian, who was born in Exeter.

Ecclesiastical polity

Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination. It also denotes the ministerial structure of a church and the authority relationships between churches. Polity relates closely to ecclesiology, the study of doctrine and theology relating to church organization.

Ecclesiastical polity is defined as both the subject of ecclesiastical government in the abstract and the particular system of government of a specific Christian organization. The phrase sometimes is used in civil law.

Farringdon, Devon

Farringdon is a village, civil parish and former manor in the district of East Devon in the county of Devon, England. The parish is surrounded clockwise from the north by the parishes of Clyst Honiton, Aylesbeare, a small part of Colaton Raleigh, Woodbury, Clyst St Mary and a small part of Sowton.The village is twinned with Secqueville-en-Bessin, Normandy, France.The parish church of St Petrock and St Barnabas is a Grade II* listed building. Rebuilt in 1870, it retains its original Norman font. One of its most famous incumbents was John Travers (died 1620), a Nottingham man who was brother to the famous puritan cleric Walter Travers and who was related by marriage to another, Richard Hooker.

Heavitree

Heavitree is a historic village and parish situated formerly outside the walls of the City of Exeter in Devon, England, and is today an eastern suburb of that city. It was formerly the first significant village outside the city on the road to London. It was the birthplace of Thomas Bodley, and Richard Hooker, and until 1818 was a site for executions.

Henry Parry (bishop of Worcester)

Henry Parry (1561–1616) was an English bishop.

John Hooker (English constitutionalist)

John Hooker (or "Hoker") alias John Vowell (c. 1527–1601) of Exeter in Devon, was an English historian, writer, solicitor, antiquary, and civic administrator. From 1555 to his death he was Chamberlain of Exeter. He was twice MP for Exeter in 1570/1 and 1586, and for Athenry in Ireland in 1569 and wrote an influential treatise on parliamentary procedure. He wrote an eye-witness account of the siege of Exeter during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549. He spent several years in Ireland as legal adviser to Sir Peter Carew, and following Carew's death in 1575 wrote his biography. He was one of the editors of the second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, published in 1587. His last, unpublished and probably uncompleted work was the first topographical description of the county of Devon. He founded a guild of Merchant Adventurers under a charter from Queen Mary. He was the uncle of Richard Hooker, the influential Anglican theologian.

Life Time (M*A*S*H)

"Life Time" is the 11th episode in the eighth season of the CBS television series M*A*S*H. It originally aired on November 26, 1979, it was directed by Alan Alda and was co-written by Alan Alda and Dr. Walter D. Dishell, M.D., the latter of whom was the show's medical consultant, along with phantom assistance from authors W.C. Heinz, Ring Lardner, Jr., who had written the script for the film MASH, and even Richard Hooker, himself a former U.S. Army MASH unit surgeon, and author of the 1968 novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors, from which the film and series both drew their inspirations.

List of M*A*S*H novels

The M*A*S*H book series includes the original novel that inspired the movie and then the TV series. The first, MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors, was co-authored by H. Richard Hornberger (himself a former military surgeon) and W. C. Heinz (a former World War II war correspondent); it was published in 1968 under the pen name Richard Hooker. It told the story of a U.S. Mobile Army Surgical Hospital in Korea during the Korean War. In 1972, Hornberger (writing again as Hooker) published the sequel M*A*S*H Goes to Maine, covering the lives of the surgeons after they returned home from the war.

After the success of the M*A*S*H TV series, a long series of "M*A*S*H Goes to X" novels appeared, beginning with M*A*S*H Goes to New Orleans in 1974. Although credited to Hooker and William E. Butterworth, they were essentially written by Butterworth alone. The sequel novels added many additional characters, mostly satiric caricatures of public figures from the 1970s: for instance, operatic tenor Luciano Pavarotti is parodied in the form of a singer named "Korsky-Rimsakov", and news anchor Dan Rather becomes the egotistical "Don Rhotten". The tone of the Butterworth novels is also markedly different from Hooker's original books, being much more broadly comical, less darkly satirical, and unrealistic.

After the conclusion of the "Butterworth" series with M*A*S*H Goes to Montreal (1977), a final "Hooker" novel was published, M*A*S*H Mania, which ignored the events and inconsistencies of the intervening novels and picked up where M*A*S*H Goes to Maine left off, depicting the original characters in middle age.

M*A*S*H

M*A*S*H is an American media franchise consisting of a series of novels, a film, several television series, plays, and other properties, owned by 20th Century Fox and based on the semi-autobiographic fiction of Richard Hooker.

The franchise depicts a group of fictional characters who served at the fictional "4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (M*A*S*H)" during the Korean War, loosely based on the historic 8055th MASH unit. Hawkeye Pierce is featured as the main character, played by Donald Sutherland in the film and by Alan Alda on television. Later spin-offs involve characters who appeared in the series, but were set after the end of the war. Almost all versions of the series fit into the genre of black comedy or dramedy; the lead characters were doctors or nurses, and the practice of medicine was at the center of events. However, to relieve the pressures of duty in a field hospital close to the front and the attendant horrors of war, the staff engage in humorous hijinks, frivolity and petty rivalries off duty.

The franchise effectively ended with the conclusion of Trapper John, M.D. on September 4, 1986. A large fanbase for the series exists, and 20th Century Fox has had notable success selling the film and seasons of the TV series on DVD.

M*A*S*H Goes to Maine

M*A*S*H Goes to Maine is a novel written by Richard Hooker and originally published in 1972. A sequel to 1968's book MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors, it features several of that novel's characters back in rural Maine after the Korean War armistice. An attempt to adapt M*A*S*H Goes to Maine as a feature film sequel to the 1970 movie was unsuccessful.

Richard Field

Richard Field may refer to:

Richard Field (Jesuit) (1554?–1606), Anglo-Irish Jesuit

Richard Field (printer) (1561–1624), English printer and publisher, best known for his close association with the poems of William Shakespeare

Richard Field (theologian) (1561–1616), English ecclesiological theologian associated with the work of Richard Hooker

Richard Stockton Field (1803–1870), United States Senator from New Jersey, and later a United States federal judge

Richard Field (politician) (1866–1961), member of the Tasmanian Parliament

Richard Field (judge) (born 1947), judge of the High Court of England and Wales

Richard Field (footballer) (1891–1965), British footballer

Richard Hooker (author)

Hiester Richard Hornberger Jr. (February 1, 1924 – November 4, 1997) was an American writer and surgeon who wrote under the pseudonym Richard Hooker. Hornberger's best-known work was his novel MASH (1968), based on his harrowing drama and comedic experiences as a wartime army surgeon doctor during the Korean War (1950–1953) and written in collaboration with W. C. Heinz. It was used as the basis for an award-winning, critically and commercially successful movie – M*A*S*H (1970) and two years later in an acclaimed long running television series (1972–1983) of the same name.

Richard Hooker (disambiguation)

Richard Hooker was an English priest and theologian.

Richard Hooker may also refer to:

Richard Hooker (author) (1924–1997)

Richard Hooker (tennis), played in 1898 U.S. National Championships – Men's Singles

Richard Hooker of 32nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment,

Richard Hooker Wilmer

Richard Hooker Wilmer (March 15, 1816 – June 14, 1900) was the second Bishop of Alabama in the Episcopal Church. A firm believer in slavery, Richard Wilmer was the only bishop to be consecrated by the Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America (PECCSA).

Via media

Via media is a Latin phrase meaning "the middle road" and is a philosophical maxim for life which advocates moderation in all thoughts and actions.

Originating from early Ancient Greek philosophy, where Aristotle (384–322 BCE) taught moderation, urging his students to follow the middle road between extremes, the via media was the dominant philosophical precept by which Ancient Roman civilisation and society was organised.

Vincent Strudwick

Vincent Noel Harold Strudwick (born 1932) is a British Church of England priest, theologian and educationalist. His areas of expertise include sixteenth-century English history and the ecclesiology of Richard Hooker.

Walter Travers

Walter Travers (1548? – 1635) was an English Puritan theologian. He was at one time chaplain to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, and tutor to his son Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury.

He is remembered mostly as an opponent of the teaching of Richard Hooker. He was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he was admitted to Christ's College before migrating to Trinity, and then travelled to Geneva to visit Theodore Beza. He was ordained by Thomas Cartwright in Antwerp, where in the late 1570s his work was favoured by the encouragement of Sir Francis Walsingham and Henry Killigrew (diplomat). He was a lecturer at the Temple Church in London in 1581, until he was forbidden to preach by Archbishop Whitgift in March 1586.He was Provost of Trinity College, Dublin from 1594 to 1598.

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