Richard Crossman

Richard Howard Stafford Crossman OBE (15 December 1907 – 5 April 1974), sometimes known as Dick Crossman, was a British Labour Party Member of Parliament, as well as a significant figure among the party's advocates of Zionism and anti-communism. Late in his life, Crossman was editor of the New Statesman. He is remembered for his highly revealing three-volume Diaries of a Cabinet Minister.

Richard Crossman

Crossland MP
Secretary of State for Social Services
In office
1 November 1968 – 19 June 1970
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byKeith Joseph
Lord President of the Council
Leader of the House of Commons
In office
11 August 1966 – 18 October 1968
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byHerbert Bowden
Succeeded byFred Peart
Minister of Housing and Local Government
In office
16 October 1964 – 11 August 1966
Prime MinisterHarold Wilson
Preceded byKeith Joseph
Succeeded byTony Greenwood
Shadow Secretary of State for Education
In office
14 February 1963 – 16 October 1964
LeaderHarold Wilson
Succeeded byQuintin Hogg
Chair of the Labour Party
In office
7 October 1960 – 6 October 1961
LeaderHugh Gaitskell
Preceded byGeorge Brinham
Succeeded byHarold Wilson
Member of Parliament
for Coventry East
In office
5 July 1945 – 28 February 1974
Preceded byConstituency Created
Succeeded byConstituency Abolished
Personal details
Richard Howard Stafford Crossman

15 December 1907
Cropredy, Oxfordshire, England, UK
Died5 April 1974 (aged 66)
Banbury, Oxfordshire, England, UK
Political partyLabour
Alma materNew College, Oxford

Early life

Crossman was born in either Cropredy, Oxfordshire,[1] or Bayswater, London,[2] the son of Helen Elizabeth (née Howard; she was of the Howard family of Ilford descended from Luke Howard, a Quaker chemist and meteorologist who founded the pharmaceutical company Howards and Sons)[3] and Charles Stafford Crossman,[4] a barrister and later a High Court judge, and grew up in Buckhurst Hill, Essex.

He was educated at Twyford School, and at Winchester College (although these scholarships were abolished in 1857,[5] he was 'founder's kin', being descended from William of Wykeham through his father's ancestor, John Danvers),[6][7] where he became head boy. He excelled academically and on the football field. He studied Classics at New College, Oxford, receiving a double first and became a fellow in 1931. He taught philosophy at the university before becoming a lecturer for the Workers' Educational Association. He was a councillor on Oxford City Council, and became head of the Labour group in 1935.

He had numerous homosexual affairs at university.[8]

Service in Second World War and afterwards

At the outbreak of Second World War Crossman joined the Political Warfare Executive under Robert Bruce Lockhart, where he headed the German Section.[9] He produced anti-Nazi propaganda broadcasts for Radio of the European Revolution, set up by the Special Operations Executive (SOE). He eventually became Assistant Chief of the Psychological Warfare Division of SHAEF and was awarded an OBE for his wartime service.[10] In April 1945, Crossman was one of the first British officers to enter the former Dachau concentration camp. With war correspondent Colin Wills, Crossman co-wrote the script for German Concentration Camps Factual Survey, a British government documentary, produced by Sidney Bernstein with treatment advice by Alfred Hitchcock, that showed gruelling scenes from Nazi concentration camps. The uncompleted film was shelved for decades before being assembled by scholars at the Imperial War Museum and released in 2014. That same year, German Concentration Camps Factual Survey was itself the subject of a documentary, Night Will Fall.[11][12]

Crossman became a key participant in the annual Königswinter Conference, organised by Lilo Milchsackto bring together British and German legislators, academics and opinion-formers from 1950 onwards. The conferences were credited with helping to heal bad memories created by the war. Crossman met the German politician Hans von Herwarth, the ex-soldier Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin and future German President Richard von Weizsäcker and other leading German decision makers. At the conference too were Denis Healey, soon to become a Labour Party politician, and Robin Day, later a political broadcaster.[13]

Political career

Crossman entered the House of Commons at the 1945 general election, as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Coventry East, a seat he held until shortly before he died in 1974. During 1945–46 he served, on the nomination of the Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, as a member of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry into the Problems of European Jewry and Palestine. The committee's report, submitted in April 1946, included a recommendation for 100,000 Jewish displaced persons to be permitted to enter Palestine. The recommendation was rejected by the British government, after which Crossman led the socialist opposition to the official British policy for Palestine. That incurred Bevin's enmity, and may have been the primary factor which prevented Crossman from achieving ministerial rank during the 1945–51 government. Crossman initially supported the Arab cause but after meeting Chaim Weizmann, he became a lifelong Zionist. In his diary, he described Weizmann as "one of the very few great men I have ever met."[14]

Crossman cemented his role as a leader of the left-wing of the Parliamentary Labour Party in 1947 by co-authoring the Keep Left pamphlet, and later became one of the more prominent Bevanites. He was a member of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party from 1952 until 1967, and Chairman of the Labour Party in 1960–61.

In 1957, Crossman was one of the plaintiffs, along with Aneurin Bevan and Morgan Phillips, in a claim for libel made against The Spectator, which had described the three men as drinking heavily during a socialist conference in Italy.[15] Having sworn that the charges were untrue, the three collected damages from the magazine. Many years later, Crossman's posthumously published diaries confirmed that The Spectator's charges had been true and that all three of them had perjured themselves.[16]

Crossman was Labour's spokesman on Education before the 1964 general election, but upon forming the new Government Harold Wilson appointed Crossman Minister of Housing and Local Government. In 1966 he became Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons.

He was Secretary of State for Health and Social Services from 1968 to 1970, in which position he worked on an ambitious proposal to supplement Britain's flat state pension with an earnings-related element. The proposal had not, however, been passed into law at the time the Labour Party lost the 1970 general election. During the months of political turmoil that led up to the election loss, Crossman had been considered, however briefly, as a last-minute option to replace Wilson as Prime Minister.

Books and journalism

After Labour's general election defeat in 1970, Crossman resigned from the Labour front bench to become editor of the New Statesman, where he had been a frequent contributor and assistant editor from 1938 until 1955. He left the New Statesman in 1972.

Crossman was a prolific writer and editor. In Plato To-Day (1937) he imagines Plato visiting Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia. Plato criticises Nazi and Communist politicians for misusing the ideas he had set forth in The Republic.[17] After the war Crossman edited The God That Failed (1949), a collection of anti-Communist essays.

Crossman is best remembered for his colourful and highly subjective three-volume Diaries of a Cabinet Minister, written while he was living in Vincent Square, published posthumously from 1975 to 1977 and covering his time in government from 1964 to 1970. The diaries appeared after he had died, and following a legal battle by the government to block publication. One of Crossman's legal executors was Michael Foot, then a cabinet minister, who opposed his own government's attempts to suppress the diaries.[18] Among other things, the diaries describe Crossman's battles with "the Dame", his Permanent Secretary Evelyn Sharp, Baroness Sharp, GBE (1903–1985), the first woman in Britain to hold the position. Crossman's backbench diaries were published in 1981.

Crossman's diaries were an acknowledged source for the television comedy series Yes Minister.[19][20]


Crossman died of liver cancer in April 1974 at his home in Oxfordshire. He was survived by his third wife, Anne Patricia (15 April 1920 – 3 October 2008; née McDougall, daughter of Patrick McDougall, of Prescote Manor, Cropredy, founder of the Banbury cattle market), with whom he shared common descent from the Danvers family of Cropredy. Anne Crossman worked at Bletchley Park during the second World War, and served as secretary to the M.P. Maurice Edelman. The Crossmans had two children, Patrick and Virginia.[7]


The Civil Service is profoundly deferential – 'Yes, Minister! No, Minister! If you wish it, Minister!' [21]

Published works

  • Government and the Governed (A History of Political Ideas and Political Practice) London: Cristophers (1939)
  • Plato To-Day New York: Oxford University Press (1939)
  • Palestine Mission: A Personal Record New York: Harper (1947)
  • The God That Failed New York: Harper (1950) (editor)
  • A Nation Reborn New York: Atheneum (1960)
  • The Politics of Socialism New York: Atheneum (1965)
  • The Myths of Cabinet Government Cambridge: Harvard University Press (1972)
  • Diaries of a Cabinet Minister (three volumes, 1975, 1976 and 1977)
  • The Backbench Diaries of Richard Crossman (1981)



  1. ^ Dalyell, 2002
  2. ^ Howard, 2008
  3. ^ Brief Lives with some memoirs, Alan Watkins, Elliot and Thompson, 2004, pp 54-5
  4. ^ Biographical Register 1880-1974 - Corpus Christi College (University of Oxford) - Google Books. 3 January 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  5. ^ "The Reverend Anthony Trotman". The Daily Telegraph. 4 November 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  6. ^ Brief Lives with some memoirs, Alan Watkins, Elliot and Thompson, 2004, pg 54
  7. ^ a b "Anne Crossman". The Daily Telegraph. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  8. ^ Michael Bloch. "Double lives – a history of sex and secrecy at Westminster". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  9. ^ Mayne, Richard (1 April 2003). In Victory, Magnanimity, in Peace, Goodwill. p. 6. ISBN 0-7146-5433-7.
  10. ^ "No. 37308". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 October 1945. p. 5067.
  11. ^ Jeffries, Stuart (9 January 2015). "The Holocaust film that was too shocking to show". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  12. ^ "German Concentration Camps Factual Survey". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  13. ^ Long Life: Presiding Genius, Nigel Nicolson, 15 August 1992, The Spectator, Retrieved 28 November 2015 ]
  14. ^ Palestine and the Great Powers, 1945-1948, Michael J. Cohen
  15. ^ "Messrs Bevan, Morgan Phillips and Richard Crossman...puzzled the Italians by their capacity to fill themselves like tanks with whisky and coffee... Although the Italians were never sure the British delegation were sober, they always attributed to them an immense political acumen." See Bose, Mihir, "Britain's Libel Laws: Malice Aforethought", History Today, 5 May 2013.
  16. ^ Roy Jenkins wrote of his former colleagues (in "Aneurin Bevan" in Portraits and Miniatures, 2011) that they "sailed to victory on the unfortunate combination of Lord Chief Justice Goddard's prejudice against the anti-hanging and generally libertarian Spectator of those days and the perjury of the plaintiffs, subsequently exposed in Crossman's endlessly revealing diaries." Geoffrey Wheatcroft wrote (in The Guardian, 18 March 2000, "Lies and Libel"): "Fifteen years later, Crossman boasted (in my presence) that they had indeed all been toping heavily, and that at least one of them had been blind drunk." Dominic Lawson wrote (in The Independent, "Chris Huhne's downfall is another example of the amazing risks a politician will take". 4 February 2013): "Crossman’s posthumously published diaries revealed that the story was accurate; and in 1978 Brian Inglis on What the Papers Say revealed that Crossman had told him a few days after the case that they had committed perjury". Mihir Bose (in "Britain's Libel Laws: Malice Aforethought", History Today, 5 May 2013) quotes Bevan's biographer, John Campbell, to the effect that the case had destroyed the career of the young journalist involved, Jenny Nicholson.
  17. ^ Goldhill, Simon, Love, Sex and Tragedy, U. Chicago Press, 2004, p. 202
  18. ^ Anthony Howard Michael Foot: The last of a dying breed The Telegraph, 5 March 2010
  19. ^ "Yes Minister Questions & Answers". Jonathan Lynn Official Website. Archived from the original on 19 November 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
  20. ^ Crossman, Richard (1979). Diaries of a Cabinet Minister: Selections, 1964–70. London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd. ISBN 0-241-10142-5.
  21. ^ Ratcliffe, Susan. "Richard Crossman (1907–74)". Oxford Index. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 October 2015.

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament
for Coventry East

Constituency abolished
Party political offices
Preceded by
George Brinham
Chairman of the Labour Party
Succeeded by
Harold Wilson
Political offices
Preceded by
Keith Joseph
Minister of Housing and Local Government
Succeeded by
Tony Greenwood
Preceded by
Herbert Bowden
Lord President of the Council
Succeeded by
Fred Peart
Leader of the House of Commons
Preceded by
Kenneth Robinson
as Minister of Health
Secretary of State for Health and Social Services
Succeeded by
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Preceded by
Judith Hart
as Minister of Social Security
Media offices
Preceded by
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Anthony Howard
1937 Birmingham West by-election

The Birmingham West by-election of 1937 was held on 29 April 1937. The by-election was held due to the death of the incumbent Conservative MP, Austen Chamberlain. It was won by the Conservative candidate Walter Higgs.

Anthony Howard (journalist)

Anthony Michell Howard, CBE (12 February 1934 – 19 December 2010) was a British journalist, broadcaster and writer. He was the editor of the New Statesman, The Listener and the deputy editor of The Observer. He selected the passages used in The Crossman Diaries, a book of entries taken from Richard Crossman's The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister.


Bevanism was the ideological argument for the Bevanites, a movement on the left wing of the Labour Party in the late 1950s and typified by Aneurin Bevan. Also called 'the Old Left', it was named after its dominant personality; however its intellectual direction was given by Richard Crossman and his followers including Michael Foot and Barbara Castle. Bevanism was opposed by the Gaitskellites, who are variously described as centre-left, social democrats, or "moderates" within the party.

The Gaitskellites typically won most of the battles inside Parliament, but Bevanism was stronger among local Labour activists. Bevanites split over the issue of nuclear weapons, and the movement faded away after Bevan died in 1960.

Brian Abel-Smith

Brian Abel-Smith (6 November 1926 – 4 April 1996) was a British economist and expert adviser and one of the most influential figures of the twentieth century in shaping health and social welfare. In Britain, his research for the Guillebaud committee in 1956 proved that the NHS provided extremely good value for money and deserved more investment. From the 1960s he was one of a new breed of special advisers to Labour government ministers – helping Richard Crossman, Barbara Castle and David Ennals to reconfigure the NHS, set up Resource Allocation Working Party, and the Black Inquiry into Health Inequalities. Internationally, he steered the development of health services in over 50 countries. He was a key WHO and EEC adviser, intimately involved in setting the agenda for global campaigns such as Health for All by the year 2000.

Care in the Community

Care in the Community (also called "Community Care" or "Domiciled Care") is the British policy of deinstitutionalization, treating and caring for physically and mentally disabled people in their homes rather than in an institution. Institutional care was the target of widespread criticism during the 1960s and 1970s, but it was not until 1983 that the government of Margaret Thatcher adopted a new policy of care after the Audit Commission published a report called 'Making a Reality of Community Care' which outlined the advantages of domiciled care.

Although this policy has been attributed to the Margaret Thatcher government in the 1980s, community care was not a new idea. As a policy it had been around since the early 1950s. Its general aim was a more cost-effective way of helping people with mental health problems and physical disabilities, by removing them from impersonal, often Victorian, institutions, and caring for them in their own homes. Since the 1950s various governments had been attracted to the policy of community care. Despite support for the policy, the number of in-patients in large hospitals and residential establishments continued to increase. At the same time, public opinion was gradually turned against long-stay institutions by allegations from the media. Some might argue that such allegations were politically driven and that the deliberate underfunding, mismanagement and thus undermining of some institutions by the government was used as an excuse by the government to shut them down. It could also be argued that although there might have been incidents of where care should have been improved, the care in many such institutions may have been satisfactory or good.

In the 1960s Barbara Robb put together a series of accounts in a book called Sans Everything and she used this to launch a campaign to improve or else close long stay facilities. Shortly after this the brutality and poor care being meted out in Ely, a long stay hospital for the mentally handicapped in Cardiff, was exposed by a nurse writing to the News of the World. This exposure prompted an official enquiry. Its findings were highly critical of conditions, staff morale and management. Rather than bury this report it was in fact deliberately leaked to the papers by the then Secretary of State for Health Richard Crossman, who hoped to obtain increased resources for the health service.

Following the situation at Ely Hospital a series of scandals in mental hospitals hit the headlines. All told similar stories of abuse and inhumane treatment of patients who were out of sight and out of mind of the public, hidden away in institutions. At the same time Michael Ignatieff and Peter Townsend both published books which exposed the poor quality of care within certain institutions.

In the 1980s there was increasing criticism and concern about the quality of long term care for dependent people. There was also concern about the experiences of people leaving long term institutional care and being left to fend for themselves in the community. Yet the government was committed to the idea of 'care in the community'. In 1986 the Audit Commission published a report called 'Making a Reality of Community Care'. This report outlined the slow progress in resettling people from long stay hospitals. It was this report which prompted the subsequent Green and White papers on community care.

Coventry East (UK Parliament constituency)

Coventry East was a parliamentary constituency in the city of Coventry in the West Midlands. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system.

It was only ever represented by one Member - Labour cabinet minister Richard Crossman.

David Young (Labour politician)

David Wright Young (12 October 1930—1 January 2003), was a British Labour politician.

Born in Greenock, Young attended the Greenock Academy, St Paul's College in Cheltenham, and the University of Glasgow. At first he was a teacher, becoming head of the History department, but he later became an insurance executive in Coventry.

Young joined the Labour Party in 1955, and he was Chair of Coventry East Constituency Labour Party from 1964 to 1968. The Labour MP for the constituency at this time was Richard Crossman, a senior figure on the left of the party. In 1973 he was elected to Nuneaton Borough Council, serving for three years.

After a succession of candidacies in unwinnable seats (South Worcestershire in 1959, Banbury in 1966, and Bath in 1970), Young was elected to the House of Commons on his fourth attempt for Bolton East in February 1974. He served as Parliamentary Secretary to Fred Mulley from 1977 to 1979.

Following boundary changes, he became MP for Bolton South East in 1983. Although willing to continue, he was replaced as Labour candidate for the seat by Brian Iddon before the 1997 general election. Young accepted his deselection with good grace.

February 1974 United Kingdom general election

The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month. The Labour Party, led by former Prime Minister Harold Wilson made moderate gains, but was short of an overall majority. The Conservative Party, led by incumbent Edward Heath lost 37 seats, but achieved a slightly higher share of the vote than Labour. This resulted in a hung parliament, and Wilson became Prime Minister for a second time after Heath resigned due to being unable to form a coalition. Labour won 301 seats, 17 short of a majority.

This election saw Northern Ireland diverging heavily from the rest of the United Kingdom, with all twelve MPs elected being from local parties (eleven of them representing unionist parties), following the decision of the Ulster Unionists to withdraw support from the Conservative Party in protest over the Sunningdale Agreement. The Scottish National Party achieved significant success in this election. They increased their share of the popular vote in Scotland from 11% to 22% and their number of MPs rose from 1 to 7. There were also the first Plaid Cymru MPs to be elected in a general election in Wales (they had previously won a by-election).

Although the incumbent Conservative government of Edward Heath polled the most votes by a small margin, the Conservatives were overtaken in terms of seats by Harold Wilson's Labour Party due to a more efficiently-distributed Labour vote, and the decision by Ulster Unionist MPs not to take the Conservative whip.

The two largest parties both lost a considerable share of the popular vote, largely to the Liberals under Jeremy Thorpe who polled two and a half times the share of the national vote that they had achieved in the previous election. But even with over six million votes, only 14 Liberal MPs were elected. There had been some media expectation that the Liberals could take twice as many seats.Heath did not resign immediately as Prime Minister. Assuming that Northern Ireland's Unionist MPs could be persuaded to support a Conservative government on confidence matters over one led by Wilson, he entered into negotiations with Thorpe to form a coalition government. Thorpe, never enthusiastic about supporting the Conservatives, demanded major electoral reforms in exchange for such an agreement. Unwilling to accept such terms, Heath resigned and Wilson returned for his second stint as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Labour did not have enough seats to combine with another party to achieve an overall majority. This made the formation of a stable government in this Parliament a practical impossibility. Wilson was widely expected from the outset to call another general election before long, and this happened in October that year.

The election night was covered live on the BBC, and was presented by Alastair Burnet, David Butler, Robert McKenzie and Robin Day.Prominent members of Parliament who retired or were defeated at this election included Gordon Campbell, Bernadette McAliskey, Enoch Powell, Richard Crossman, Tom Driberg and Patrick Gordon Walker. It was the first of two United Kingdom general elections held that year, the first election to take place after the United Kingdom became a member of the European Communities on 1 January 1973 and also the first election since the Second World War not to produce an overall majority in the House of Commons for the winning party.

German Concentration Camps Factual Survey

German Concentration Camps Factual Survey is the official British documentary film on the Nazi concentration camps, based on footage shot by the Allied forces in 1945.The film was produced by Sidney Bernstein, then with the British Ministry of Information, with Alfred Hitchcock acting as a "treatment advisor". The script was written by Richard Crossman and Colin Wills. Soviet filmmaker Sergei Nolbandov was production supervisor.The project was abandoned in September 1945, and the film was left unfinished for nearly seventy years. The film's restoration was completed by film scholars at the Imperial War Museum. The finished film had its world premiere early in 2014 at the Berlin Film Festival, and was shown in a limited number of venues in 2015. It was released in North America in 2017.The British government shelved the film without showing it to the public, and questions have been raised about the extent to which political considerations, such as British concern about Zionism or changes in German occupation policy, may have played in the film being withheld.

Herbert Bowden, Baron Aylestone

Herbert William Bowden, Baron Aylestone, (20 January 1905 – 30 April 1994) was a British Labour politician.

Born in Cardiff, Wales, Bowden was a councillor on Leicester City Council 1938–45 and president of Leicester Labour Party in 1938. He served in the Royal Air Force during World War II. He was elected at the 1945 general election for South Leicester, taking South-West Leicester at the 1950 election. He was appointed a whip in 1949 and a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury in 1950. From 1951, he was Deputy Chief Whip, then Chief Whip through Labour's years in opposition. He was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 1953 Coronation Honours.When Labour returned to power in 1964, Bowden was appointed Leader of the House of Commons and Lord President of the Council, having become a Privy Counsellor in 1962. In 1966 he was moved to the new post of Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs, serving until 1967. On 20 September 1967, he was created a life peer as Baron Aylestone, of Aylestone in the City of Leicester and became chairman of the Independent Television Authority. He was appointed a member of the Order of the Companions of Honour in the 1975 Birthday Honours. He joined the Social Democratic Party in the 1980s.

Lord Aylestone died in Worthing aged 89.

Janet Morgan, Lady Balfour of Burleigh

Janet Patricia Morgan, Lady Balfour of Burleigh (born December 1945) is a Canadian-born English writer and historian.

The daughter of Dr. Frank Morgan and Sheila Saddler, she was born Janet Morgan in Montreal while her father was working on a top-secret British atomic research project, the Montreal Laboratory. She returned to England with her family before the end of World War II. She earned a MA and PhD. She was named a Commander in the Order of the British Empire in 2008. She is a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.In 1993, she married Robert Bruce, Lord Balfour of Burleigh.She has been chair of the Scottish Cultural Resources Access Network, the Nuclear Liabilities Fund and the Nuclear Trust. She has served as a director of the Scottish Oriental Smaller Companies Trust and Murray International Trust.Morgan wrote a biography of Agatha Christie that was authorized by the writer's family. She also wrote biographies of Edwina Mountbatten and George Bruce, her father-in-law and the previous Lord Balfour of Burleigh. She was editor for The Backbench Diaries of Richard Crossman.

Keith Joseph

Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician. A member of the Conservative Party, he served in the Cabinet under four prime ministers: Harold Macmillan, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher. He was a key influence in the creation of what came to be known as "Thatcherism" and the subsequent decline of one-nation conservatism and the postwar consensus.

Keith Joseph was the first to introduce the concept of the social market economy into Britain, an economic and social system inspired by Christian democracy. He also co-founded the Centre for Policy Studies writing its first publication: Why Britain needs a Social Market Economy.

Kenneth Robinson

Sir Kenneth Robinson (19 March 1911 – 16 February 1996) was a British Labour politician who served as Minister of Health in Harold Wilson's first government, from 1964 to 1968, when the position was merged into the new title of Secretary of State for Social Services.

Morgan Phillips

Morgan Walter Phillips (18 June 1902 – 15 January 1963) was a colliery worker and trade union activist who became the General Secretary of the British Labour Party, involved in two of the party's election victories.

New Statesman

The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London. Founded as a weekly review of politics and literature on 12 April 1913, it was connected then with Sidney and Beatrice Webb and other leading members of the socialist Fabian Society, such as George Bernard Shaw who was a founding director. They had supported The New Age, a journal edited by A. R. Orage, but by 1912 that journal moved away editorially from supporting Fabian politics and women's suffrage.

Today, the magazine is a print-digital hybrid. According to its present self-description, it has a liberal, sceptical, political position.The magazine was founded in 1913 by members of the Fabian Society as a weekly review of politics and literature. The longest-serving editor was Kingsley Martin (1930–1960), and the current editor is Jason Cowley, who assumed the post in 2008. The magazine has notably recognized and published new writers and critics, as well as encouraged major careers. Its contributors have included John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell, Virginia Woolf, Christopher Hitchens, and Paul Johnson.

Historically, the magazine was affectionately referred to as "The Staggers" because of crises in funding, ownership, and circulation. The nickname is now used as the title of its politics blog.Circulation was at its highest in the 1960s but has surged again in recent years. In 2016, the certified average circulation was 34,025. Traffic to the magazine's website that year reached a new high with 27 million page views and four million unique users. Associated websites are CityMetric, Spotlight and NewStatesman Tech. In 2018, New Statesman America was launched.


Prescote is a hamlet and civil parish about 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Banbury in Oxfordshire. Its boundaries are the River Cherwell in the southeast, a tributary of the Cherwell called Highfurlong Brook in the west, and Oxfordshire's boundary with Northamptonshire in the northeast.

Resource Allocation Working Party

The Resource Allocation Working Party was a group set up within the National Health Service in 1975 to suggest a mechanism whereby resources for secondary care could be matched to need (Gatrell, 2002).

Between 1948 and 1968 NHS financial allocations were essentially based on sequential inflation uplifts. A Regional Health Authority or Teaching Hospital could argue for an increase. The richer parts of the country had better funding in 1948 than the more deprived areas and so the differences between the various regions widened over time. In 1976-1977 there was an almost 30% difference in the revenue allocation between the 14 regions, with the North West having the least and North-East Thames region the most per head of population.

Richard Crossman developed a formula based on population, beds and cases but its fundamental problem was that the formula was partly based on utilisation and current resources. Since utilisation depends on availability of resources which were unequally distributed it could not rectify the problem. When Barbara Castle was Secretary of State for Health in 1972, the problem of regional resource inequality was addressed again. Her Special Adviser Professor Brian Abel-Smith had a particular interest in this problem (on which he had already advised Crossman, whose Special Adviser he had been earlier). He chaired the Advisory Committee to the Social Medicine and Health Services Research Unit at St Thomas' Hospital. He drew the attention of the Committee to the problems of resource allocation and encouraged them to consider possible research to rectify this unacceptable situation. They produced a proposal for a complicated randomised controlled trial of different funding formulae, but the Minister, David Owen, rejected it as interesting but politically impossible.

Owen established the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP), to examine the possibilities of a better funding formula. It came to the conclusion that Standardised Mortality Ratios were a reasonable indicator of regional variations in health care needs in the acute sector. The Report of the Working Party also emphasised the need to develop and apply positive preventive measures such as promoting changes in smoking habits and improving the environments in which people live and work.

The Royal Commission on the National Health Service drew attention to the inequalities of funding. Expenditure on NHS services in Scotland was £127.10 per head of population, in the NW Thames region £122.38, in the West Midlands £91.52.The four Metropolitan Thames Regional Health Authorities and most of the London Teaching Hospitals were disadvantaged by, and unhappy about, the new formula. The simplicity and transparency of the formula made it difficult for politicians to manipulate. The idea that mortality should be used to influence the distribution of health resources was questioned on the grounds that most health care is provided for people who do not die. The formula devised by the Resource Allocation Working Party survived until 1989 and did reduce the funding gap between the Northern regions and London. It was replaced by a more complex formula announced in the publication of Working for Patients in 1989,and there have since been further changes and debate, particularly about the relative weighting to be given to old age, which favours more prosperous Southern areas, and deprivation which favours poorer Northern areas.

Stafford Crossman

Sir Charles Stafford Crossman (8 December 1870 – 1 January 1941) was an English barrister and High Court judge. He was the father of Labour politician Richard Crossman.The third son of Dr Edward Crossman, Crossman was educated at Winchester, where he was a scholar, and New College, Oxford, where he took first-class honours in honour moderations and literae humaniores, in addition of winning the Hertford scholarship in 1890. After Oxford, he returned to Winchester as an assistant master for a year. He was called the bar by Lincoln's Inn in 1897.Crossman was junior counsel to the Board of Inland Revenue in 1926–27, junior equity counsel to the Treasury in 1927–34, and counsel to the Royal College of Physicians in 1927–34. In 1934, while still at the junior bar, he was appointed to the High Court of Justice in succession to Mr Justice Maugham. He was assigned to the Chancery Division and received the customary knighthood. He sat on the High Court until his death in 1941. The Labour politician Tam Dalyell wrote that Crossman was "perhaps the most distinguished, if driest, Chancery Judge of his generation".Although a Conservative politically, Crossman was a close friend of future Labour prime minister Clement Attlee. Richard Crossman was later apt to ascribe Attlee's suspicion of him to the fact that he caused his father distress by becoming a socialist.Crossman married Helen Elizabeth Howard, the daughter of chemicals manufacturer David Howard DL, in 1902; they had three sons and three daughters. The Labour politician Richard Crossman was his son.

Ministers of Pensions
Ministers of Social Insurance/National Insurance
Ministers of Pensions and National Insurance
Ministers of Social Security
Secretaries of State for Social Services
Secretaries of State for Social Security
Secretaries of State for Work and Pensions
Ministers of Health
Secretaries of State for Social Services
Secretaries of State for Health
Secretaries of State for Health and Social Care

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