A rice huller or rice husker is an agricultural machine used to automate the process of removing the chaff (the outer husks) of grains of rice. Throughout history, there have been numerous techniques to hull rice. Traditionally, it would be pounded using some form of mortar and pestle. An early simple machine to do this is a rice pounder. Later even more efficient machinery was developed to hull and polish rice. These machines are most widely developed and used throughout Asia where the most popular type is the Engelberg huller designed by German Brazilian engineer Evaristo Conrado Engelberg in Brazil and first patented in 1885.
The Engelberg huller uses steel rollers to remove the husk. Other types of huller include the disk or cono huller which uses an abrasive rotating disk to first remove the husk before passing the grain to conical rollers which polish it to make white rice, this is done repeatedly since other sides of circular side of rice are not husked. Rubber rollers may be used to reduce the amount of breakage of the grains, so increasing the yield of the best quality head rice, but the rubber rollers tend to require frequent replacement, which can be a significant drawback.
Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous. It was originally articulated as intermediate technology by the economist Dr. Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher in his work Small is Beautiful. Both Schumacher and many modern-day proponents of appropriate technology also emphasize the technology as people-centered.Appropriate technology has been used to address issues in a wide range of fields. Well-known examples of appropriate technology applications include: bike- and hand-powered water pumps (and other self-powered equipment), the universal nut sheller, self-contained solar lamps and streetlights, and passive solar building designs. Today appropriate technology is often developed using open source principles, which have led to open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) and thus many of the plans of the technology can be freely found on the Internet. OSAT has been proposed as a new model of enabling innovation for sustainable development.Appropriate technology is most commonly discussed in its relationship to economic development and as an alternative to technology transfer of more capital-intensive technology from industrialized nations to developing countries. However, appropriate technology movements can be found in both developing and developed countries. In developed countries, the appropriate technology movement grew out of the energy crisis of the 1970s and focuses mainly on environmental and sustainability issues. Today the idea is multifaceted; in some contexts, appropriate technology can be described as the simplest level of technology that can achieve the intended purpose, whereas in others, it can refer to engineering that takes adequate consideration of social and environmental ramifications. The facets are connected through robustness and sustainable living.Bodenhoffs Plads
Bodenhodds Plads is an area located in the north-eastern part of Christianshavn, Copenhagen, Denmark. The site is separated from Grønlandske Handels Plads to the west by Christianshavns Kanal and by Trangraven from Holmen to the north. It is connected to both areas by the three-way footbridge Trangravsbroen.Broken rice
Broken rice is fragments of rice grains, broken in the field, during drying, during transport, or by milling. Mechanical separators are used to separate the broken grains from the whole grains and sort them by size.Broken rice is fragmented, not defective; there is nothing wrong with it. It is as nutritious as the equivalent unbroken rice (i.e. if all the germ and bran remains, it is as nutritious as brown rice; if none remains, it is only as nutritious as white rice).
Broken rice has a long history; Ibn Baṭṭūṭa mentions rice couscous in the area of Mali in 1350, presumably made of African rice.Chaff
Chaff ( or ) is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw. Chaff is indigestible by humans, but livestock can eat it and in agriculture it is used as livestock fodder, or is a waste material ploughed into the soil or burned.Ernesto Morgado
Ernesto M. Morgado is Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering in Instituto Superior Técnico (Technical University of Lisbon) since 1992. He was one of the people behind the creation of the Computer Science and Engineering degree of Instituto Superior Técnico (Technical University of Lisbon), in 1988, and one of the founders of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the same institute in 1998.
He was Lecturer of Computer Science in Millard Fillmore College (State University of New York at Buffalo) in 1980 and Canisius College (1981–1984).
Ernesto M. Morgado is also a software industry entrepreneur. In 1986, together with João Pavão Martins, he founded SISCOG - Sistemas Cognitivos, SA, a start up company devoted to the applications of Artificial Intelligence. Together they led the company to develop and deploy a series of complex software systems in railway and metro companies throughout Europe. These systems plan and manage more than 20,000 people, affect the life of millions of passengers, and have been awarded by several prestigious organisations in Europe and the United States.
Ernesto M. Morgado is also involved in the food industry.
He is president of Ernesto Morgado S.A., a rice huller company founded by his grand father in 1920. Since 2003, he has led the company from a staple food company to a company capable of producing value-added products, namely high-quality ready meals based on rice.
He is president of FERM (Federation of European Rice Millers) since its inception in 2002, president of ANIA (Portuguese Rice Millers Association) since 1990, and vice-president of COTArroz (Portuguese Rice Chain Association) since 2004. At FIPA (Portuguese Food Industry Federation), he is currently, and for the second time, president of the Board (1997–2003 and 2009) and has been in the past the vice-president of its Executive Committee (1990–1997) and presidency of the Control Council (2003–2009).
He was also a member of CIP (Portuguese Industry Confederation) Council of Presidents (1990–2007).
Ernesto M. Morgado has been awarded a Licentiate degree in Mechanical Engineering (1976) from Instituto Superior Técnico (Technical University of Lisbon) and a Master of Science in Computer Science (1981) and a Ph.D. in Artificial Intelligence (1986) from State University of New York at Buffalo.
Ernesto M. Morgado is also an author and co-author of the following publications:
Semantic Networks as Abstract Data Types, Doctors Thesis, Technical Report 86-19, Department of Computer Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, Set. 1986 (Morgado, E.M.)
Meta-Knowledge, -Rules and -Reasoning, Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, S.C. Shapiro (ed.), p. 598-603, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1987 (Morgado, E.M.)
EPIA-89 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 390, Heidelberg, West Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1989 (Martins, J.P. and Morgado, E.M.)
An AI-Based Approach to Crew Scheduling, Proc. IEEE Conference on AI Applications - CAIA 93, 1993 (Martins, J.P. and Morgado, E.M.)Glossary of sake terms
This glossary of sake terms lists some of terms and definitions involved in making sake, and some terms which also apply to other beverages such as beer. Sake, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran. Unlike wine, in which alcohol is produced by fermenting sugar that is naturally present in fruit, sake is produced by a brewing process more akin to that of beer, where starch is converted into sugars which ferment into alcohol.Jhalokati Sadar Upazila
Jhalakati Sadar (Bengali: ঝালকাঠি সদর) is an Upazila of Jhalokati District in the Division of Barisal, Bangladesh.List of agricultural machinery
Agricultural equipment is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. The best-known example of this kind is the tractor.Magdalena Villaruz
Magdalena Smith Villaruz (born 1934) is an entrepreneur and inventor from the Philippines. Originally a rice farmer, she went on to transform agricultural technology by creating the turtle hand tractor and many other ground-breaking inventions.In February 1986, Villaruz was awarded the WIPO Gold Medal in Metro Manila for her inventions of the turtle hand tractor (also known as the power cultivator) and several others. In July 1995, she was awarded another WIPO Gold Medal in Cebu, Philippines for various inventions, including the screen type thresher. Her inventions have helped the advancement of Philippine agricultural technology.Rice
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production (rice, 741.5 million tonnes in 2014), after sugarcane (1.9 billion tonnes) and maize (1.0 billion tonnes).
Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally.
Rice, a monocot, is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide.
The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.
The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may also be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza.Rice polisher
A rice polisher is a machine for buffing (or "polishing") kernels of rice to change their appearance, taste, and texture, transforming brown rice into white rice.Rice polishers are abrasive machines that use talc or some other very fine dust to buff the outer surface of rice kernels. In Japanese farming communities there is often a shared rice polishing machine. The first fully automated rice polishing machine is believed to have been patented by the English engineer and inventor Sampson Moore in 1861. In the 20th century, kitchen appliances for consumers were created that allowed individual cooks to polish rice in their homes.Ricing
Ricing may refer to:
Rice burner, a pejorative ("ricing or modifying a Japanese car")
Ricing (cooking), to pass food through a food mill or "ricer"
Processing rice using a Rice huller
Processing rice using a Rice polisherThreshing machine
A threshing machine or a thresher is a piece of farm equipment that threshes grain, that is, it removes the seeds from the stalks and husks. It does so by beating the plant to make the seeds fall out.
Before such machines were developed, threshing was done by hand with flails: such hand threshing was very laborious and time-consuming, taking about one-quarter of agricultural labour by the 18th century. Mechanization of this process removed a substantial amount of drudgery from farm labour. The first threshing machine was invented circa 1786 by the Scottish engineer Andrew Meikle, and the subsequent adoption of such machines was one of the earlier examples of the mechanization of agriculture. During the 19th century, threshers and mechanical reapers and reaper-binders gradually became widespread and made grain production much less laborious.
Michael Stirling is said to have invented a rotary threshing machine in 1758 which for forty years was used to process all the corn on his farm at Gateside, no published works have yet been found but his son William made a sworn statement to his minister to this fact, he also gave him the details of his father's death in 1796.Separate reaper-binders and threshers have largely been replaced by machines that combine all of their functions, that is combine harvesters or combines. However, the simpler machines remain important as appropriate technology in low-capital farming contexts, both in developing countries and in developed countries on small farms that strive for especially high levels of self-sufficiency. For example, pedal-powered threshers are a low-cost option, and some Amish sects use horse-drawn binders and old-style threshers.
As the verb thresh is cognate with the verb thrash (and synonymous in the grain-beating sense), the names thrashing machine and thrasher are (less common) alternate forms.Winnowing
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff. It is also used to remove hay and chaff or other pests from stored grain. Threshing, the loosening of grain or seeds from the husks and straw, is the step in the chaff-removal process that comes before winnowing.
In its simplest form it involves throwing the mixture into the air so that the wind blows away the lighter chaff, while the heavier grains fall back down for recovery. Techniques included using a winnowing fan (a shaped basket shaken to raise the chaff) or using a tool (a winnowing fork or shovel) on a pile of harvested grain.Winnowing barn
Winnowing barns (or winnowing houses) were commonly found in South Carolina on antebellum rice plantations. A winnowing barn consists of a large shed on tall posts with a hole in the floor. Raw, husked rice was carried up into the barn by slaves and then the grain was dropped through the hole. As the grain dropped to the ground, the lighter and undesirable chaff was carried away in the wind, leaving a mound of purified rice grains directly below the winnowing barn. The purified grain was then packed into barrels and carried down river to port cities for distribution.
Prior to the development of the winnowing barn, winnowing was done by hand using winnowing baskets — a long and labor-intensive process. Thus, the development of the winnowing barn helped South Carolina become the second largest exporter of rice in the world, next to Indonesia and the Far East.