Rhododendron

Rhododendron /ˌroʊdəˈdɛndrən/ (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree")[3][4] is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal as well as the state flower of West Virginia and Washington in United States, and state tree of Sikkim and Uttarakhand in India . Most species have brightly coloured flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer.[5]

Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. They are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower.

Rhododendron
Alpenroos
Rhododendron ferrugineum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Ericoideae
Tribe: Rhodoreae
Genus: Rhododendron
L.[1]
Type species
Rhododendron ferrugineum
Subgenera[2]

Former subgenera:

Description

Rhododendron is a genus of shrubs and small to (rarely) large trees, the smallest species growing to 10–100 cm (4–40 in) tall, and the largest, R. protistum var. giganteum, reported to 30 m (100 ft) tall.[6][7] The leaves are spirally arranged; leaf size can range from 1–2 cm (0.4–0.8 in) to over 50 cm (20 in), exceptionally 100 cm (40 in) in R. sinogrande. They may be either evergreen or deciduous. In some species, the undersides of the leaves are covered with scales (lepidote) or hairs (indumentum). Some of the best known species are noted for their many clusters of large flowers. There are alpine species with small flowers and small leaves, and tropical species such as section Vireya that often grow as epiphytes. Species in this genus may be part of the heath complex in oak-heath forests in eastern North America.[8][9]

They have frequently been divided based on the presence or absence of scales on the abaxial (lower) leaf surface (lepidote or elepidote). These scales, unique to subgenus Rhododendron, are modified hairs consisting of a polygonal scale attached by a stalk.[2]

Rhododendron are characterised by having inflorescences with scarious (dry) perulae, a chromosome number of x=13, fruit that has a septicidal capsule, an ovary that is superior (or nearly so), stamens that have no appendages, and agglutinate (clumped) pollen.[10]

Taxonomy

Rhododendron wardii var puralbum
Rhododendron wardii var. puralbum
Rhododendron&Vast ocean of clouds、コバノミツバツツジ&篠山盆地雲海、盃ヶ岳4256293
Rhododendron in Japan
Garden with Rhododendrons
A garden with tall Rhododendrons in Lynnwood, Washington
Manaslu-Circuit Rhododendron Forest
Rhododendron forest in Nepal
Rhododendron (গুরাস)02
Rhododendron (গুরাস), Sandakphu, West Bengal, India
Rhododendron at Fakding, Nepal
Rhododendrons (Guras or Buras) at Fakding, Nepal
Azalea -- Rhododendron
Azalea, Texas Gulf Coast

Rhododendron is the largest genus in the family Ericaceae, with as many as 1,024 species,[11] (though estimates vary from 850-1000[12]) and is morphologically diverse. Consequently, the taxonomy has been historically complex.[10]

Early history

Although Rhododendrons had been known since the description of Rhododendron hirsutum by Charles de l'Écluse (Clusius) in the sixteenth century, and were known to classical writers (Magor 1990), and referred to as Chamaerhododendron (low-growing rose tree), the genus was first formally described by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum in 1753.[1][13] He listed five species under Rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum (type species), R. dauricum, R. hirsutum, R. chamaecistus (now Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Rchb.) and R. maximum). At that time he considered the then known six species of Azalea[14] that he had described earlier in 1735 in his Systema Naturae as a separate genus.[15][16]

Linnaeus' six species of Azalea were Azalea indica, A. pontica, A. lutea, A. viscosa, A. lapponica and A. procumbens (now Kalmia procumbens), which he distinguished from Rhododendron by having five stamens, as opposed to ten. As new species of what are now considered Rhododendron were discovered, if they seemed to differ significantly from the type species they were assigned to separate genera. For instance Rhodora (Linnaeus 1763) for Rhododendron canadense, Vireya (Blume 1826)[17] and Hymenanthes (Blume 1826) for Rhododendron metternichii, now R. degronianum. Meanwhile, other botanists such as Salisbury (1796)[18] and Tate (1831)[19] began to question the distinction between Azalea and Rhododendron, and finally in 1836, Azalea was incorporated into Rhododendron[20] and the genus divided into eight sections. Of these Tsutsutsi (Tsutsusi), Pentanthera, Pogonanthum, Ponticum and Rhodora are still used, the other sections being Lepipherum, Booram, and Chamaecistus. This structure largely survived till recently (2004), following which the development of molecular phylogeny led to major re-examinations of traditional morphological classifications,[15][16] although other authors such as Candolle, who described six sections,[21] used slightly different numeration.

Soon, as more species became available in the nineteenth century so did a better understanding of the characteristics necessary for the major divisions. Chief amongst these were Maximovicz's Rhododendreae Asiae Orientali[22] and Planchon. Maximovicz used flower bud position and its relationship with leaf buds to create eight "Sections".[23] Bentham and Hooker used a similar scheme, but called the divisions "Series".[24] It was not until 1893 that Koehne appreciated the significance of scaling and hence the separation of lepidote and elepidote species. The large number of species that were available by the early twentieth century prompted a new approach when Balfour introduced the concept of grouping species into series. The Species of Rhododendron[25] referred to this series concept as the Balfourian system. That system continued up to modern times in Davidian's four volume The Rhododendron Species.[26]

Modern era

The next major attempt at classification was by Sleumer who from 1934 began incorporating the Balfourian series into the older hierarchical structure of subgenera and sections, according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, culminating in 1949 with his "Ein System der Gattung Rhododendron L.",[27] and subsequent refinements.[28][29] Most of the Balfourian series are represented by Sleumer as subsections, though some appear as sections or even subgenera. Sleumer based his system on the relationship of the flower buds to the leaf buds, habitat, flower structure, and whether the leaves were lepidote or non-lepidote. While Sleumer's work was widely accepted, many in the United States and the United Kingdom continued to use the simpler Balfourian system of the Edinburgh group.

Sleumer's system underwent many revisions by others, predominantly the Edinburgh group in their continuing Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh notes. Cullen of the Edinburgh group, placing more emphasis on the lepidote characteristics of the leaves, united all of the lepidote species into subgenus Rhododendron, including four of Sleumer's subgenera (Rhododendron, Pseudoazalea, Pseudorhodorastrum, Rhodorastrum).[29][30] In 1986 Philipson & Philipson raised two sections of subgenus Aleastrum (Mumeazalea, Candidastrum) to subgenera, while reducing genus Therorhodion to a subgenus of Rhododendron.[31] In 1987 Spethmann, adding phytochemical features proposed a system with fifteen subgenera grouped into three 'chorus' subgenera.[32]

A number of closely related genera had been included together with Rhododendron in a former tribe, Rhodoreae. These have been progressively incorporated into Rhododendron.[33] Chamberlain and Rae moved the monotypic section Tsusiopsis together with the monotypic genus Tsusiophyllum into section Tsutsusi,[34] while Kron & Judd reduced genus Ledum to a subsection of section Rhododendron.[35] Then Judd & Kron moved two species (Rhododendron schlippenbachii, R. quinquefolium) from section Brachybachii subgenus Tsutsusi and two from section Rhodora subgenus Pentanthera (R. albrechtii, R. pentaphyllum) into section Sciadorhodion subgenus Pentanthera.[36] Finally Chamberlain brought the various systems together in 1996, with 1,025 species divided into eight subgenera. For a comparison of the Sleumer and Chamberlain schemata see Table 1 of Goetsch (2005).[2][10][16][37][38]

Phylogenetic analyses

Cladogram of genus Rhododendron
(Goetsch et al. 2005)
A

Rhododendron

Choniastrum

B

Hymenanthes

C

Azaleastrum

Therorhodion

The era of molecular analysis rather than descriptive features can be dated to the work of Kurashige (1988) and Kron (1997) who used matK sequencing. Later Gao et al. (2002) used ITS sequences[39] to determine a cladistic analysis. They confirmed that the genus Rhododendron was monophyletic, with subgenus Therorhodion in the basal position, consistent with the matK studies. Following publication of the studies of Goetsch et al. (2005) with RPB2,[2] there began an ongoing realignment of species and groups within the genus, based on evolutionary relationships. Their work was more supportive of Sleumer's original system than the later modifications introduced by Chamberlain et al..[2][40]

The major finding of Goetsch and colleagues was that all species examined (except R. camtschaticum, subgenus Therorhodion) formed three major clades which they labelled A, B and C, with the subgenera Rhododendron and Hymenanthes nested within clades A and B as monophyletic groups respectively. By contrast subgenera Azaleastrum and Pentanthera were polyphyletic, while R. camtschaticum appeared as a sister to all other rhododendrons. The small polyphyletic subgenera Pentanthera and Azaleastrum were divided between two clades. The four sections of Pentanthera between clades B and C, with two each, while Azaleastrum had one section in each of A and C.

Thus subgenera Azaleastrum and Pentanthera needed to be dissassembled, and Rhododendron, Hymenanthes and Tsutsusi correspondingly expanded. In addition to the two separate genera included under Rhododendron by Chamberlain (Ledum, Tsusiophyllum), Goetsch et al.. added Menziesia (Clade C). Despite a degree of paraphyly, the subgenus Rhododendron was otherwise untouched with regard to its three sections but four other subgenera were eliminated and one new subgenus created, leaving a total of five subgenera in all, from eight in Chamberlain's scheme. The discontinued subgenera are Pentanthera, Tsutsusi, Candidastrum and Mumeazalea, while a new subgenus was created by elevating subgenus Azaleastrum section Choniastrum to subgenus rank.

Subgenus Pentanthera (deciduous azaleas) with its four sections was dismembered by eliminating two sections and redistributing the other two between the existing subgenera in clades B (Hymenanthes) and C (Azaleastrum), although the name was retained in section Pentanthera (14 species) which was moved to subgenus Hymenanthes. Of the remaining three sections, monotypic Viscidula was discontinued by moving Rhododendron nipponicum to Tsutsusi (C), while Rhodora (2 species) was itself polyphyletic and was broken up by moving Rhododendron canadense to section Pentanthera (B) and Rhododendron vaseyi to section Sciadorhodion, which then became a new section of subgenus Azaleastrum (C).

Subgenus Tsutsusi (C) was reduced to section status retaining the name, and included in subgenus Azaleastrum. Of the three minor subgenera, all in C, two were discontinued. The single species of monotypic subgenus Candidastrum (Rhododendron albiflorum) was moved to subgenus Azaleastrum, section Sciadorhodion. Similarly the single species in monotypic subgenus Mumeazalea (Rhododendron semibarbatum) was placed in the new section Tsutsusi, subgenus Azaleastrum. Genus Menziesa (9 species) was also added to section Sciadorhodion. The remaining small subgenus Therorhodion with its two species was left intact. Thus two subgenera, Hymenanthes and Azaleastrum were expanded at the expense of four subgenera that were eliminated, although Azaleastrum lost one section (Choniastrum) as a new subgenus, since it was a distinct subclade in A. In all, Hymenanthes increased from one to two sections, while Azaleastrum, by losing one section and gaining two increased from two to three sections.[2] (See schemata under Subgenera) (Table 1.)[40]

Table 1.: Taxonomic changes within genus Rhododendron
Chamberlain (1996) Goetsch (2005)
Genus Subgenus Section Species Subgenus Section
Menziesa 9 species Azaleastrum Sciadorhodion
Rhododendron Candidastrum R. albiflorum
Pentanthera Sciadorhodion 4 species
Rhodora R. vaseyi
R. canadense Hymenanthes Pentanthera
Pentanthera 14 species
Viscidula R. nipponicum Azaleastrum Tsutsusi
Tsutsusi Brachycalyx 15 species
Tsutsusi 65 species
Mumeazalea R. semibarbatum
Azaleastrum Choniastrum 11 species Choniastrum

Subsequent research has supported the revision by Goetsch, although has largely concentrated on further defining the phylogeny within the subdivisions.[41] In 2011 the two species of Diplarche were also added to Rhododendron, incertae sedis.[42]

Subdivision

This genus has been progressively subdivided into a hierarchy of subgenus, section, subsection, and species.

Subgenera

Terminology from the Sleumer (1949) system is frequently found in older literature, with five subgenera and is as follows;

  • Subgenus Lepidorrhodium Koehne: Lepidotes. 3 sections
  • Subgenus Eurhododendron Maxim.: Elipidotes.
  • Subgenus Pseudanthodendron Sleumer: Deciduous azaleas. 3 sections
  • Subgenus Anthodendron Rehder & Wilson: Evergreen azaleas. 3 sections
  • Subgenus Azaleastrum Planch.: 4 sections

In the later traditional classification, attributed to Chamberlain (1996), and as used by horticulturalists and the American Rhododendron Society,[43] Rhododendron has eight subgenera based on morphology, namely the presence of scales (lepidote), deciduousness of leaves, and the floral and vegetative branching patterns, after Sleumer (1980).[2][10][29] These consist of four large and four small subgenera. The first two subgenera (Rhododendron and Hymenanthes) represent the species commonly considered as 'Rhododendrons'. The next two smaller subgenera (Pentanthera and Tsutsusi) represent the 'Azaleas'. The remaining four subgenera contain very few species.[44] The largest of these is subgenus Rhododendron, containing nearly half of all known species and all of the lepidote species.

For a comparison of the Sleumer and Chamberlain systems, see Goetsch et al. (2005) Table 1.[2]

This division was based on a number of what were thought to be key morphological characteristics. These included the position of the inflorescence buds (terminal or lateral), whether lepidote or elepidote, deciduousness of leaves, and whether new foliage was derived from axils from previous year's shoots or the lowest scaly leaves (Table 2.).

Rhododendron luteum BotGardBln1105Autumn
Deciduous Rhododendron luteum in fall color
Rhododendron kaempferi 08
Evergreen azalea Rhododendron kaempferi
2014-10-29 13 26 34 Evergreen Rhododendron foliage coloring before being shed in Ewing, New Jersey
Evergreen azalea cultivar leaf color before shedding
Table 2.: Morphological classification of Rhododendron
(Chamberlain 1996)[37]
Inflorescence buds Leaf scales Leaf shoots Leaves Subgenus Section
Terminal Present Rhododendron
Absent Previous year Evergreen Hymenanthes
Deciduous Pentanthera Pentanthera
Rhodora
Viscidula
Lowest leaves Pentanthera Sciadorhodion
Tsutsusi
Lateral Evergreen Azaleastrum
Deciduous Candidastrum
Mumeazalea
Therorhodion

Following the cladistic analysis of Goetsch et al. (2005)[2] this scheme was simplified, based on the discovery of three major clades (A, B, C) as follows.

Clade A

Clade B

Clade C

Sister taxon

  • Subgenus Therorhodion (Maxim.) A. Gray: 2 species (Rhododendron camtschaticum, Rhododendron redowskianun).

Sections and subsections

The larger subgenera are further subdivided into sections and subsections[44] Some subgenera contain only a single section, and some sections only a single subsection. Shown here is the traditional classification, with species number after Chamberlain (1996), but this scheme is undergoing constant revision. Revisions by Goetsch et al. (2005)[2] and by Craven et al. (2008)[41] shown in (parenthetical italics). Older ranks such as Series (groups of species) are no longer used but may be found in the literature, but the American Rhododendron Society still uses a similar device, called Alliances[43]

  • Subgenus Rhododendron L. (3 sections, 462 species: increased to five sections in 2008)
    • (Discovereya (Sleumer) Argent, raised from Vireya)
    • Pogonathum Aitch. & Hemsl. (13 species; Himalaya and adjacent mountains)
    • (Pseudovireya (C.B.Clarke) Argent, raised from Vireya)
    • Rhododendron L. (149 species in 25 subsections; temperate to subarctic Northern Hemisphere)
    • Vireya (Blume) Copel.f. (300 species in 2 subsections; tropical southeast Asia, Australasia. At one time considered separate subgenus[45])
  • Subgenus Hymenanthes (Blume) K.Koch (1 section, 224 species) (Increased to two sections)
    • Ponticum G. Don (24 subsections)
    • (Pentanthera (G. Don) Pojarkova (2 subsections) new section, moved from subgenus Pentanthera)
  • Subgenus Pentanthera (G. Don) Pojarkova (4 sections, 23 species) (Discontinued)
    • Pentanthera (G. Don) Pojarkova (2 subsections) (Moved to subgenus Hymenanthes)
    • Rhodora (L.) G. Don (2 species; Rhododendron canadense, Rhododendron vaseyi) (Discontinued, redistributed)
    • Sciadorhodion Rehder & Wilson (4 species) (Moved to subgenus Azaleastrum)
    • Viscidula Matsum. & Nakai (1 species; Rhododendron nipponicum) (Discontinued, added to section Tsutsusi, subgenus Azaleastrum)
  • Subgenus Tsutsusi (Sweet) Pojarkova (2 sections, 80 species) (Discontinued, reduced to section and moved to subgenus Azaleastrum)
  • Subgenus Azaleastrum Planch. (2 sections, 16 species) (Increased to three sections)
    • Azaleastrum Planch. (5 species)
    • (Choniastrum Franch. (11 species) (Raised to subgenus))
    • (Sciadorhodion Rehder & Wilson (4 species) (Moved from subgenus Pentanthera))
    • (Tsutsusi (Sweet) Pojarkova (reduced from subgenus))
  • Subgenus Candidastrum Franch. (1 species: Rhododendron albiflorum) (Discontinued, moved to section Sciadorhodion, subgenus Azaleastrum)
  • Subgenus Mumeazalea (Sleumer) W.R. Philipson & M.N. Philipson (1 species: Rhododendron semibarbatum) (Discontinued, moved to section Tsutsusi, subgenus Azaleastrum)
  • Subgenus Therorhodion A. Gray (2 species)
  • (Subgenus Choniastrum Franch. (11 species))

Distribution and habitat

Rhododendron fallacinum (cropped)
Rhododendron fallacinum photographed in situ on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo

Species of the genus Rhododendron are widely distributed between latitudes 80°N and 20°S and are native to areas from North America to Europe, Russia, and Asia, and from Greenland to Queensland, Australia and the Solomon Islands.[10] The centres of diversity are in the Himalayas and Malaysia,[39] with the greatest species diversity in the Sino-Himalayan region, Southwest China and northern Burma, from Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Nepal, Sikkim, Nagaland to northwestern Yunnan and western Sichuan and southeastern Tibet. Other significant areas of diversity are in the mountains of Korea, Japan and Taiwan. More than 90% of Rhododendron sensu Chamberlain belong to the Asian subgenera Rhododendron, Hymenanthes and section Tsutsusi. Of the first two of these, the species are predominantly found in the area of the Himalayas and Southwest China (Sino-Himalayan Region).[2]

The 300 tropical species within the Vireya section of subgenus Rhododendron occupy the Malay archipelago from their presumed Southeast Asian origin to Northern Australia, with 55 known species in Borneo and 164 in New Guinea. The species in New Guinea are native to subalpine moist grasslands at around 3,000 metres above sea level in the Central Highlands.[45] Subgenera Rhododendron and Hymenanthes, together with section Pentanthera of subgenus Pentanthera are also represented to a lesser degree in the Mountainous areas of North America and Western Eurasia. Subgenus Tsutsusi is found in the maritime regions of East Asia (Japan, Korea, Taiwan, East China), but not in North America or Eurasia.[2][23]

Ecology

Invasive species

Rhododendron ponticum has become invasive in Ireland[46] and the United Kingdom.[47] It is an introduced species, spreading in woodland areas and replacing the natural understory. R. ponticum is difficult to eradicate, as its roots can make new shoots.

Insects

A number of insects either target rhododendrons or will opportunistically attack them. Rhododendron borers and various weevils are major pests of rhododendrons, and many caterpillars will preferentially devour them.

Rhododendron species are used as food plants by the larvae (caterpillars) of some butterflies and moths; see List of Lepidoptera that feed on rhododendrons.

Diseases

Major diseases include Phytophthora root rot, stem and twig fungal dieback; Ohio State University Extension provides information on maintaining health of rhododendrons.[48]

Rhododendron bud blast, a fungal condition that causes buds to turn brown and dry, and not open, is caused by the fungus Pycnostysanus azaleae, which may be brought to the plant by the rhododendron leafhopper, Graphocephala fennahi.[49]:562

In addition, rhododendrons can easily be suffocated by other plants or evergreen trees that grow up around them and block sunlight.

Cultivation

Both species and hybrid rhododendrons (including azaleas) are used extensively as ornamental plants in landscaping in many parts of the world, including both temperate and subtemperate regions.[41] Many species and cultivars are grown commercially for the nursery trade.

Rhododendrons can be propagated by air layering or stem cuttings.[49]:540–541 They can self-propagate by sending up shoots from the roots. Sometimes an attached branch that has drooped to the ground will root in damp mulch, and the resulting rooted plant then can be cut off the parent rhododendron.

Rhododendrons are often valued in landscaping for their structure, size, flowers, and the fact that many of them are evergreen.[50] Azaleas are frequently used around foundations and occasionally as hedges, and many larger-leafed rhododendrons lend themselves well to more informal plantings and woodland gardens, or as specimen plants. In some areas, larger rhododendrons can be pruned to encourage more tree-like form, with some species such as Rhododendron arboreum and R. falconeri eventually growing to 10–15 m or more tall.[50]

Commercial growing

Rhododendrons are grown commercially in many areas for sale, and are occasionally collected in the wild, a practice now rare in most areas. Larger commercial growers often ship long distances; in the United States, most of them are on the west coast (Oregon, Washington state and California). Large-scale commercial growing often selects for different characteristics than hobbyist growers might want, such as resistance to root rot when overwatered, ability to be forced into budding early, ease of rooting or other propagation, and saleability.[51]

In the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, rhododendron flowers have been used for some time to make popular fruit and flower wines. The industry is promoted by the state government with tax benefits, looking to promote this industry as a full-fledged subclass of its economy.[52]

Horticultural divisions

Horticulturally, rhododendrons may be divided into the following groups:[15][53]

  • Evergreen rhododendrons - large group of evergreen shrubs that vary greatly in size. Most rhododendron flowers are bell-shaped and have 10 stamens.
  • Vireya (Malesian) rhododendrons: epiphytic tender shrubs[54]
  • Azaleas - group of shrubs which have smaller and thinner leaves than evergreen rhododendrons. They are generally medium-sized shrubs with smaller funnel-shaped flowers that usually have 5 stamens:
    • Deciduous hybrid azaleas:[55]
      • Exbury hybrids – derived from the Knap Hill hybrids, developed by Lionel de Rothschild at the Exbury Estate in England.[56][57]
      • Ghent (Gandavense) hybrids – Belgian raised[58]
      • Knap Hill hybrids – developed by Anthony Waterer at the Knap Hill Nursery in England.[56]
      • Mollis hybrids – Dutch and Belgian raised[59]
      • New Zealand Ilam hybrids – derived from Knap Hill/Exbury hybrids
      • Occidentale hybrids – English raised
      • Rustica Flore Pleno hybrids – sweet-scented, double-flowered[58]
    • Evergreen hybrid azaleas:
      • Gable hybrids – raised by Joseph B. Gable in Pennsylvania.[60]
      • Glenn Dale hybrids – US raised complex hybrids
      • Indian (Indica) hybrids – mostly of Belgian origin
      • Kaempferi hybrids – Dutch raised
      • Kurume hybrids – Japanese raised
      • Kyushu hybrids – very hardy Japanese azaleas (to -30 °C)
      • Oldhamii hybrids – dwarf hybrids raised at Exbury, England
      • Satsuki hybrids – Japanese raised, originally for bonsai
      • Shammarello hybrids – raised in northern Ohio[61]
      • Vuyk (Vuykiana) hybrids – raised in the Netherlands[62]
  • Azaleodendrons – semi-evergreen hybrids between deciduous azaleas and rhododendrons

Planting and care

Nova Zembla Rhododendron plants growing in NJ in April
Nova Zembla Rhododendrons growing in a nursery in New Jersey.

Like other ericaceous plants, most rhododendrons prefer acid soils with a pH of roughly 4.5-5.5; some tropical Vireyas and a few other rhododendron species grow as epiphytes and require a planting mix similar to orchids. Rhododendrons have fibrous roots and prefer well-drained soils high in organic material. In areas with poorly drained or alkaline soils, rhododendrons are often grown in raised beds using media such as composted pine bark.[63] Mulching and careful watering are important, especially before the plant is established.

A new calcium-tolerant stock of rhododendrons (trademarked as 'Inkarho') has been exhibited at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show in London (2011). Individual hybrids of rhododendrons have been grafted on to a rootstock on a single rhododendron plant that was found growing in a chalk quarry. The rootstock is able to grow in calcium-rich soil up to a pH of 7.5.[64][65]

Hybrids

Rhododendrons are extensively hybridized in cultivation, and natural hybrids often occur in areas where species ranges overlap. There are over 28,000 cultivars of Rhododendron in the International Rhododendron Registry held by the Royal Horticultural Society. Most have been bred for their flowers, but a few are of garden interest because of ornamental leaves and some for ornamental bark or stems. Some hybrids have fragrant flowers[66]—such as the Loderi hybrids, created by crossing Rhododendron fortunei and R. griffithianum.[67] Other examples include the PJM hybrids, formed from a cross between Rhododendron carolinianum and R. dauricum, and named after Peter J. Mezitt of Weston Nurseries, Massachusetts.[68]

Uses

Pharmacology

Rhododendron species have long been used in traditional medicine.[69][70] Animal studies and in vitro research has identified possible anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities which may be due to the antioxidant effects of flavonoids or other phenolic compounds and saponins the plant contains.[71] Xiong et al. have found that the root of the plant is able to reduce the activity of NF-κB in rats.[72]

Toxicology

Some species of rhododendron are poisonous to grazing animals because of a toxin called grayanotoxin in their pollen and nectar. People have been known to become ill from eating honey made by bees feeding on rhododendron and azalea flowers. Xenophon described the odd behaviour of Greek soldiers after having consumed honey in a village surrounded by Rhododendron ponticum during the march of the Ten Thousand in 401 BC. Pompey's soldiers reportedly suffered lethal casualties following the consumption of honey made from Rhododendron deliberately left behind by Pontic forces in 67 BC during the Third Mithridatic War. Later, it was recognized that honey resulting from these plants has a slightly hallucinogenic and laxative effect.[73] The suspect rhododendrons are Rhododendron ponticum and Rhododendron luteum (formerly Azalea pontica), both found in northern Asia Minor. Eleven similar cases have been documented in Istanbul, Turkey during the 1980s.[74] Rhododendron is extremely toxic to horses, with some animals dying within a few hours of ingesting the plant, although most horses tend to avoid it if they have access to good forage. The effects of R. ponticum was mentioned in the 2009 film Sherlock Holmes as a proposed way to arrange a fake execution.[75] It was also mentioned in the third episode of Season 2 of BBC's Sherlock, speculated to have been a part of Sherlock's fake death scheme.

Culture

Symbolism

In the language of flowers, the Rhododendron symbolizes danger and to beware.[76]

Rhododendron arboreum (lali guransh) is the national flower of Nepal. R. ponticum is the state flower of Indian-administered Kashmir and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir. Rhododendron niveum is the state tree of Sikkim in India. Rhododendron arboreum is also the state tree of the state of Uttarakhand, India. Pink Rhododendron (Rhododendron campanulatum) is the State Flower of Himachal Pradesh, India. Rhododendron is also the state flower of Nagaland, the 16th state of the Indian Union.

Rhododendron maximum, the most widespread rhododendron of the Appalachian Mountains, is the state flower of the US state of West Virginia, and is in the Flag of West Virginia.

Rhododendron macrophyllum, a widespread rhododendron of the Pacific Northwest, is the state flower of the US state of Washington.

Literature

The nineteenth-century American poet and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1834 wrote a poem titled "The Rhodora, On Being Asked, Whence Is the Flower",

Leon Wyczółkowski - Różowe azalie
Leon Wyczółkowski, Pink Rhododendrons, 1903

In Joyce's Ulysses, rhododendrons play an important role in Leopold and Molly's early courtship: Molly remembers them in her soliloquy – "the sun shines for you he said the day we were lying among the rhododendrons on Howth head in the grey tweed suit and his straw hat the day I got him to propose to me". Jasper Fforde a British author, also uses rhododendron as a motif throughout many of his published books. See Thursday Next series,[77] and Shades of Grey.[78] Amongst the Zomi tribes in India and Myanmar, "Rhododendrons" called "Ngeisok" is used in a poetic manner to signify a lady.

In Daphne Du Maurier's novel Rebecca, the character of Rebecca is associated with "blood red" rhododendrons throughout the novel, perhaps due to the toxic roots of the plant mirroring the poisonous character of Rebecca. On the other hand, azaleas (a type of rhododendron) represent the second Mrs. De Winter.

Culinary

The rhododendron is the national flower of Nepal, where the flower is considered edible and enjoyed for its sour taste. The pickled flower can last for months and the flower juice is also marketed.[79]:51 The flower, fresh or dried, is added to fish curry in the belief that it will soften the bones.[79]:53 The juice of rhododendron flower is used to make a squash called burans (named after the flower) in the hilly regions of Uttarakhand. It is admired for its distinctive flavor and color.[80]

Labrador tea

The herbal tea called Labrador tea (not a true tea) is made from one of three closely related species:

Conservation

In the UK the forerunner of the Rhododendron, Camellia and Magnolia Group (RCMG), The Rhododendron Society was founded in 1916.[81] while in Scotland species are being conserved by the Rhododendron Species Conservation Group.[82]

See also

References

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Bibliography

Books and book chapters

Articles

Subdivisions

Dept Agriculture azaleas and rhododendrons publication
The cultural requirements of azaleas and rhododendrons are so similar that this 1960 U.S. Department of Agriculture publication treated them together.

Azaleas

Tsutsusi

Vireya

Separate genera

Additional resources

Records of the Rhododendron Society of America reside at the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia.

External links

Databases

Rhododendron societies

Botanical gardens

Amalgaviridae

Amalgaviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that has one genus: Amalgavirus. Members of both the family and the genus are referred to as amalgaviruses. There are currently four recognized species of the family: Blueberry latent virus, Rhododendron virus A, Southern tomato virus, the type species of Amalgavirus, and Vicia cryptic virus M. The family and genus are called amalga, from amalgam, due to the viruses possessing characteristics of both partitiviruses and totiviruses, indicating a likely genetic relation to those two families. Members of this family infect plants and are transmitted vertically via seeds. Their genomes are monopartite, about 3.5 kilobases in length, and contain two partially overlapping open reading frames, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a putative capsid protein.

Azalea

Azaleas are flowering shrubs in the genus Rhododendron, particularly the former sections Tsutsuji (evergreen) and Pentanthera (deciduous). Azaleas bloom in the spring (May and June in the temperate Northern Hemisphere), their flowers often lasting several weeks. Shade tolerant, they prefer living near or under trees. They are part of the family Ericaceae.

Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden

Crystal Springs Rhododendron Garden is a botanical garden located between Reed College and the Eastmoreland Golf Course in southeastern Portland in the U.S. state of Oregon.

Ericaceae

The Ericaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the heath or heather family, found most commonly in acid and infertile growing conditions. The family is large, with c. 4250 known species spread across 124 genera, making it the 14th most species-rich family of flowering plants. The many well-known and economically important members of the Ericaceae include the cranberry, blueberry, huckleberry, rhododendron (including azaleas), and various common heaths and heathers (Erica, Cassiope, Daboecia, and Calluna for example).

Flag of West Virginia

The flag of West Virginia is the official flag of the U.S. state of West Virginia and was officially adopted by the West Virginia Legislature on March 7, 1962. The present flag consists of a pure white field bordered by a blue stripe with the coat of arms of West Virginia in the center, wreathed by Rhododendron maximum and topped by an unfurled red ribbon reading "State of West Virginia."

The first flags to represent West Virginia following statehood were battle flags utilized by West Virginia regiments during the American Civil War. West Virginia's first official state flag was adopted in 1905, based upon the flag designed and used by the West Virginia State Commission at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. This flag was altered in 1907 for the Jamestown Exposition and featured the coat of arms on the obverse and a sprig of Rhododendron maximum on the reverse. In order to reproduce the flag more inexpensively, the West Virginia Legislature ratified the current flag with the state's coat of arms integrated with the rhododendron, which appears on both the obverse and the reverse. The "Pledge of Allegiance to the West Virginia State Flag" was unanimously adopted by the office of the Secretary of State of West Virginia in 1977.

Grayanotoxin

Grayanotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxins named after Leucothoe grayana, a plant native to Japan originally named for 19th century American botanist Asa Gray. Grayanotoxin I (grayanotaxane-3,5,6,10,14,16-hexol 14-acetate) is also known as andromedotoxin, acetylandromedol, rhodotoxin and asebotoxin. Grayanotoxins are produced by Rhododendron species and other plants in the Ericaceae family. Honey made from the nectar and so containing pollen of these plants also contains grayanotoxins and is commonly referred to as mad honey. Consumption of the plant or any of its secondary products, including mad honey, can cause a rare poisonous reaction called grayanotoxin poisoning, mad honey disease, honey intoxication, or rhododendron poisoning. It is most frequently produced and consumed in regions of Nepal and Turkey as a recreational drug and traditional medicine.

HMS Rhododendron (K78)

HMS Rhododendron was a Flower-class corvette that served with the Royal Navy during the Second World War. She served as an ocean escort in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Ledol

Ledol is a poisonous sesquiterpene that can cause cramps, paralysis, and delirium. Caucasian peasants used Rhododendron plants for these effects in shamanistic rituals.

Mount Hood Corridor

The Mount Hood Corridor is a part of Oregon between Sandy and Government Camp, in Clackamas County. It is named after Mount Hood and has served travelers going in both directions since the days of Native Americans and Oregon Trail migrants. The area between Alder Creek and Government Camp is sometimes known as Hoodland.It includes the following communities (from east to west):

Government Camp

Rhododendron

Faubion

Zigzag

Welches

Wemme

Wildwood

Mountain Air Park

Salmon

Brightwood

Alder Creek

Marmot

Cherryville

Firwood

Several other small communities and rural neighborhoods

Sandy (incorporated city)The modern-day corridor includes part of the historic Barlow Road and a good-sized portion of the Mount Hood Scenic Byway. U.S. Route 26 runs through the corridor, sometimes alongside the Sandy River.

For the United States 2000 Census, much of the corridor was consolidated into a single Mount Hood Village CDP. In December 2005, the communities from Rhododendron to Marmot applied to Clackamas County seeking to form a village called the Villages at Mount Hood.

Olinda, Victoria

Olinda is a town in the Victorian Dandenongs, with a population of 1,738 as of the 2016 census. Located 36 km east of Melbourne, and within the local government area of the Shire of Yarra Ranges. It is a popular weekend destination for tourists, with a variety of restaurants and cafes. The town is home to the National Rhododendron Garden and R.J. Hamer Arboretum.

Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa

Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa also known as Rhododendron Psilocybe and Blue-Haired Psilocybe is a psilocybin mushroom of the Agaricales family having psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds. First documented in 1980 in the Pacific Northwest, it is relatively uncommon and can be distinguished from other closely related species by its smaller spores and forking cheilocystidia.

Psilocybe cyanescens also has forking cheilocystidia, but less often than Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa. Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa is also distinguished from Psilocybe cyanescens by an absence of pleurocystidia.

The name of this species refers to the fibrils on the Stipe (mycology) that turn bluish in age, or when handled.

This species is closely related to Psilocybe subfimetaria.

Rhododendron, Oregon

Rhododendron is an unincorporated community in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States. It is located within the Mount Hood Corridor, between Government Camp and Zigzag on U.S. Route 26 (a.k.a. the Mount Hood Scenic Byway). It is one of the communities that make up the Villages at Mount Hood.

A post office was established in the area in 1909 and named "Rowe" after Henry S. Rowe, a mayor of Portland, Oregon who was interested in developing the state's scenic attractions. In 1917 the office was renamed "Zig Zag" and shortly thereafter "Zigzag". (The name was later reused for the post office in the current community of Zigzag.) In 1920 the office was renamed "Rhododendron" because of the large number of rhododendrons growing near there. The community started out as a summer resort colony, but with the increased popularity of skiing, it became a year-round settlement.

Rhododendron State Park

Rhododendron State Park in Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, United States, is a 2,723-acre (11.02 km2) state park located on and around Little Monadnock Mountain, containing a 16-acre (65,000 m2) stand of native Rhododendron maximum, the largest of nineteen similar stands in central and northern New England, the northern limit of their growing range.

Rhododendron arboreum

Rhododendron arboreum, the tree rhododendron, also known as Burans or Laligurans or simply Gurans (Nepali: गुराँस) in Nepal, is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a showy display of bright red flowers. It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Thailand. Rhododendron arboreum is the national flower of Nepal; in India it is the state tree of Uttarakhand and state flower of Nagaland.

Rhododendron macrophyllum

Rhododendron macrophyllum, the Pacific rhododendron, California rosebay, California rhododendron, coast rhododendron or big leaf rhododendron, is a large-leaved species of Rhododendron native to the Pacific Coast of North America. It is the state flower of Washington.

Rhododendron maximum

Rhododendron maximum — its common names include great laurel, great rhododendron, rosebay rhododendron, American rhododendron and big rhododendron — is a species of Rhododendron native to the Appalachians of eastern North America, from Alabama north to coastal Nova Scotia.

Rhododendron ponticum

Rhododendron ponticum, called common rhododendron or pontic rhododendron, is a species of Rhododendron native to southern Europe and southwest Asia.

Rhododendron tomentosum

Rhododendron tomentosum (syn. Ledum palustre), commonly known as marsh Labrador tea, northern Labrador tea or wild rosemary, is a flowering plant in the subsection Ledum of the large genus Rhododendron in the family Ericaceae.

Subgenus

In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.

In the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a subgeneric name can be used independently or included in a species name, in parentheses, placed between the generic name and the specific epithet: e.g. the tiger cowry of the Indo-Pacific, Cypraea (Cypraea) tigris Linnaeus, which belongs to the subgenus Cypraea of the genus Cypraea. However, it is not mandatory, or even customary, when giving the name of a species, to include the subgeneric name.

In the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp), the subgenus is one of the possible subdivisions of a genus. There is no limit to the number of divisions that are permitted within a genus by adding the prefix "sub-" or in other ways as long as no confusion can result. The secondary ranks of section and series are subordinate to subgenus. An example is Banksia subg. Isostylis, a subgenus of the large Australian genus Banksia. The ICNafp requires an explicit "connecting term" to indicate the rank of the division within the genus. Connecting terms are usually abbreviated, e.g. "subg." for "subgenus", and are not italicized.

In zoological nomenclature, when a genus is split into subgenus, the originally described population is retained as the "nominotypical subgenus" or "nominate subgenus", which repeats the same name as the genus. For example, Panthera (Panthera) pardus, a leopard. In botanical nomenclature, the same principle applies, although the terminology is different. Thus the subgenus that contains the original type of the genus Rhododendron is Rhododendron subg. Rhododendron. Such names are called "autonyms".

Subgenera, sections and species of genus Rhododendron, according to morphological (Chamberlain) and phylogenetic (Goetsch, Craven) schemes
Chamberlain (1996)
Goetsch (2005)
Craven (2008)

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