Rhodes

Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος, Ródos [ˈroðos]) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece and is also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean administrative region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes.[1] The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of Crete, southeast of Athens and just off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Rhodes' nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, who once conquered the land.[2]

Historically, Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe.[3][4][5][6] The name of the U.S. state of Rhode Island is thought to be based on this island.

Rhodes

Ρόδος
Palace of the Grand Master in the city of Rhodes
Palace of the Grand Master in the city of Rhodes
Flag of Rhodes

Flag
Official seal of Rhodes

Seal
2011 Dimos Rodou
Coordinates: 36°10′N 27°56′E / 36.167°N 27.933°ECoordinates: 36°10′N 27°56′E / 36.167°N 27.933°E
Country Greece
Administrative region South Aegean
Regional unitRhodes
Area
 • Total1,400.684 km2 (540.807 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,216 m (3,990 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
(2011)
 • Total115,490
 • Density82/km2 (210/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
851 00
Telephone2241, 2244, 2246
Websitewww.rhodes.gr
Lindos Rhodes 1
General view of the village of Lindos, with the acropolis and the beaches, island of Rhodes, Greece

Name

The island has been known as Ρόδος in Greek throughout its history. In addition, the island has been called Rodi in Italian, Rodos in Turkish, and Rodi or Rodes in Ladino.

The Travels of Sir John Mandeville incorrectly reports that Rhodes was formerly called "Collosus", through a conflation of the Colossus of Rhodes and Paul's Epistle to the Colossians, which refers to Colossae.[7]

The island's name might be derived from erod, Phoenician for snake, since the island was infested with snakes in antiquity.[8]

Geography

Rhodos topo
Topographic map of Rhodes
Akramitis
Akramitis mountain

The island of Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead, 79.7 km (49.5 mi) long and 38 km (24 mi) wide, with a total area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres (541 sq mi) and a coastline of approximately 220 km (137 mi). Limestone is the main bedrock.[9] The city of Rhodes is located at the northern tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient and modern commercial harbours. The main air gateway (Diagoras International Airport, IATA code: RHO) is located 14 km (9 mi) to the southwest of the city in Paradisi. The road network radiates from the city along the east and west coasts.

Outside of the city of Rhodes, the island is dotted with small villages and spa resorts, among them Faliraki, Lindos, Kremasti, Haraki, Pefkos, Archangelos, Afantou, Ixia, Koskinou, Embona (Attavyros), Paradisi, and Trianta (Ialysos). There are mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes sea water) used to give medicinal baths and the spa resorts offer various health treatments.

Rhodes is situated 363 km (226 mi) east-south-east from the Greek mainland, and 18 km (11 mi) from the southern shore of Turkey.

Flora

The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and covered with forests of pine (Pinus brutia) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens). While the shores are rocky, the island has arable strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables, olives and other crops are grown.

Fauna

The Rhodian population of fallow deer was found to be genetically distinct in 2005, and to be of urgent conservation concern.[10] In Petaloudes Valley (Greek for "Valley of the Butterflies"), large numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months. Mount Attavyros, at 1,216 metres (3,990 ft), is the island's highest point of elevation.

Earthquakes

Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus of Rhodes; one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of Rhodes;[11] and one on 26 June 1926.[12]

On 15 July 2008, Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings and one death.[13]

Climate

Rhodes has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate classification).

Ixia beach Rhodes Greece 2
Ixia beach, Rhodes
Η κοιλάδα των πεταλούδων
Valley of Petaloudes

History

Early and classical antiquity

Carnelian necklace As 7702
Mycenean necklace of carnelian found in Kattavia
Rhodes 88-42 BC-AD
Silver drachma of Rhodes, 88/42 BC. Obverse: radiate head of Helios. Reverse: rose, "rhodon" (ῥόδον), the symbol of Rhodes.
Apollon temple acropolis Rhodes
Temple of Apollo at the Acropolis of Rhodes

Prehistory

The island was inhabited in the Neolithic period, although little remains of this culture.

Minoan Era

In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to Rhodes. Later Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the Telchines and associated the island of Rhodes with Danaus; it was sometimes nicknamed Telchinis.

Mycenaean Era

In the 15th century BC, Mycenaean Greeks invaded. After the Bronze Age collapse, the first renewed outside contacts were with Cyprus.[17]

Homer mentions that Rhodes participated in the Trojan War under the leadership of Tlepolemus.[18]

Archaic Era

In the 8th century BC, the island's settlements started to form, with the coming of the Dorians, who built the three important cities of Lindos, Ialyssos and Kameiros, which together with Kos, Cnidus and Halicarnassus (on the mainland) made up the so-called Dorian Hexapolis (Greek for six cities).

In Pindar's ode, the island was said to be born of the union of Helios the sun god and the nymph Rhodos, and the cities were named for their three sons. The rhoda is a pink hibiscus, native to the island. Diodorus Siculus added that Actis, one of the sons of Helios and Rhode, travelled to Egypt. He built the city of Heliopolis and taught the Egyptians astrology.[19]

In the second half of the 8th century, the sanctuary of Athena received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. At Kameiros on the northwest coast, a former Bronze Age site, where the temple was founded in the 8th century, there is another notable contemporaneous sequence of carved ivory figurines. The cemeteries of Kameiros and Ialyssos yielded several exquisite exemplars of the Orientalizing Rhodian jewellery, dated in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC.[20] Phoenician presence on the island at Ialysos is attested in traditions recorded much later by Rhodian historians.

Classical Era

The Persians invaded and overran the island, but they were in turn defeated by forces from Athens in 478 BC. The Rhodian cities joined the Athenian League. When the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC, Rhodes remained largely neutral, although it remained a member of the League. The war lasted until 404 BC, but by this time Rhodes had withdrawn entirely from the conflict and decided to go her own way.

In 408 BC, the cities united to form one territory. They built the city of Rhodes, a new capital on the northern end of the island. Its regular plan was, according to Strabo, superintended by the Athenian architect Hippodamus.

In 357 BC, the island was conquered by the king Mausolus of Caria, then it fell again to the Persians in 340 BC. Their rule was also short.

Hellenistic age

Rhodes then became a part of the growing empire of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after he defeated the Persians.

Colosse de Rhodes (Barclay)
The Colossus of Rhodes, as depicted in an artist's impression of 1880

Following the death of Alexander, his generals vied for control of the kingdom. Three—Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Antigonus—succeeded in dividing the kingdom among themselves. Rhodes formed strong commercial and cultural ties[21] with the Ptolemies in Alexandria, and together formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC.

The city developed into a maritime, commercial and cultural center; its coins circulated nearly everywhere in the Mediterranean. Its famous schools of philosophy, science, literature and rhetoric shared masters with Alexandria: the Athenian rhetorician Aeschines, who formed a school at Rhodes; Apollonius of Rhodes;[22] the observations and works of the astronomers Hipparchus and Geminus, the rhetorician Dionysius Thrax. Its school of sculptors developed, under Pergamese influence, a rich, dramatic style that can be characterized as "Hellenistic Baroque". Agesander of Rhodes, with two other Rhodian sculptors, carved the famous Laocoön group, now in the Vatican Museums, and the large sculptures rediscovered at Sperlonga in the villa of Tiberius, probably in the early Imperial period.[23]

In 305 BC, Antigonus directed his son, Demetrius, to besiege Rhodes in an attempt to break its alliance with Egypt. Demetrius created huge siege engines, including a 180 ft (55 m) battering ram and a siege tower named Helepolis that weighed 360,000 pounds (163,293 kg). Despite this engagement, in 304 BC after only one year, he relented and signed a peace agreement, leaving behind a huge store of military equipment. The Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect a statue of their sun god, Helios, the statue since called the Colossus of Rhodes.

Throughout the 3rd century BC, Rhodes attempted to secure her independence and her commerce, most especially her virtual control over the grain trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Both of these goals were dependent upon no one of the three great Hellenistic states achieving dominance, and consequently the Rhodians pursued a policy of maintaining a balance of power among the Antigonids, Seleucids and Ptolemies, even if that meant going to war with her traditional ally, Egypt. To this end they employed as leverage their economy and their excellent navy, which was manned by proverbially the finest sailors in the Mediterranean world: "If we have ten Rhodians, we have ten ships." The Rhodians also established their dominance on the shores of Caria across from their island, which became known as the "Rhodian Peraia". It extended roughly from the modern city of Muğla (ancient Mobolla) in the north and Kaunos bordering Lycia in the south, near the present-day Dalyan, Turkey.

Rhodes successfully carried on this policy through the course of the third century BC, an impressive achievement for what was essentially a democratic state. By the end of that period, however, the balance of power was crumbling, as declining Ptolemaic power made Egypt an attractive target for Seleucid ambitions. In 203/2 BC the young and dynamic kings of Antigonid Macedon and Seleucid Asia, Philip V and Antiochus III, agreed to accept—at least temporarily—their respective military ambitions, Philip's campaign in the Aegean and western Anatolia and Antiochus’ final solution of the Egyptian question. Heading a coalition of small states, the Rhodians checked Philip's navy, but not his superior army. Without a third power to which to turn, the Rhodians appealed in 201 BC to the Roman Republic.

Rhodos Ritterkastell bei Lindos
Medieval gate at the Acropolis of Lindos

Despite being exhausted by the titanic struggle against Hannibal (218-201 BC) the Romans agreed to intervene, having already been stabbed in the back by Philip during the war against Carthage. The Senate saw the appeal from Rhodes and her allies as the opportunity to pressure Philip. The result was the Second Macedonian War (200-196 BC), which ended Macedon's role as a major player and preserved Rhodian independence. Rhodian influence in the Aegean was cemented through the organization of the Cyclades into the Second Nesiotic League under Rhodian leadership.

The Romans actually withdrew from Greece after the end of the conflict, but the resulting power vacuum quickly drew in Antiochus and subsequently the Romans, who defeated (192-188 BC) the last Mediterranean power that might even vaguely threaten their predominance. Having provided Rome with valuable naval help in her first foray into Asia, the Rhodians were rewarded with territory and enhanced status. The Romans once again evacuated the east – the Senate preferred clients to provinces – but it was clear that Rome now ruled the world and Rhodian autonomy was ultimately dependent upon good relations with them.

And those good graces soon evaporated in the wake of the Third Macedonian War (171-168 BC). In 169 BC, during the war against Perseus, Rhodes sent Agepolis as ambassador to the consul Quintus Marcius Philippus, and then to Rome in the following year, hoping to turn the Senate against the war.[24] Rhodes remained scrupulously neutral during the war, but in the view of hostile elements in the Senate she had been a bit too friendly with the defeated King Perseus. Some actually proposed declaring war on the island republic, but this was averted. In 164, Rhodes became a permanent ally of Rome, ending an independence that no longer had any meaning. It was said that the Romans ultimately turned against the Rhodians because the islanders were the only people they had encountered who were more arrogant than themselves.

After surrendering its independence Rhodes became a cultural and educational center for Roman noble families and was especially noted for its teachers of rhetoric, such as Hermagoras and the unknown author of Rhetorica ad Herennium. At first, the state was an important ally of Rome and enjoyed numerous privileges, but these were later lost in various machinations of Roman politics. Cassius eventually invaded the island and sacked the city. In the early Imperial period Rhodes became a favorite place for political exiles.[25]

In the 1st century AD, the Emperor Tiberius spent a brief term of exile on Rhodes. Saint Paul brought Christianity to people on the island.[26] Rhodes reached her zenith in the 3rd century.

In ancient times there was a Roman saying: "hic Rhodus, hic salta!"—"Here is Rhodes, jump here", an admonition to prove one's idle boasts by deed rather than talk. It comes from an Aesop's fable called "The Boastful Athlete" and was cited by Hegel, Marx, and Kierkegaard.

Byzantine period

In 395 with the division of the Roman Empire, the long Byzantine period began for Rhodes. In Late Antiquity, the island was the capital of the Roman province of the Islands, headed by a praeses (hegemon in Greek), and encompassing most of the Aegean islands, with twenty cities. Correspondingly, the island was also the metropolis of the ecclesiastical province of Cyclades, with eleven suffragan sees.[27]

Beginning from ca. 600 AD, its influence in maritime issues was manifested in the collection of maritime laws known as "Rhodian Sea Law" (Nomos Rhodion Nautikos), accepted throughout the Mediterranean and in use throughout Byzantine times (and influencing the development of admiralty law up to the present). In 622/3, during the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Rhodes was captured by the Sasanian navy.[28][29][30]

Rhodes was occupied by the Islamic Umayyad forces of Caliph Muawiyah I in 654, who carried off the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes.[27][31] The island was again captured by the Arabs in 673 as part of their first attack on Constantinople. When their fleet was destroyed by Greek fire before Constantinople and by storms on its return trip, however, the island was evacuated in 679/80 as part of the Byzantine–Umayyad peace treaty.[32] In 715 the Byzantine fleet dispatched against the Arabs launched a rebellion at Rhodes, which led to the installation of Theodosios III on the Byzantine throne.[27][33]

From the early 8th to the 12th centuries, Rhodes belonged to the Cibyrrhaeot Theme of the Byzantine Empire, and was a centre for shipbuilding and commerce.[27] In c. 1090, it was occupied by the forces of the Seljuk Turks, not long after the Battle of Manzikert.[34] Rhodes was recaptured by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the First Crusade.

Rhodes-TerrePleinSpain
Part of the late medieval fortifications of Rhodes

As Byzantine central power weakened under the Angeloi emperors (1185–1204), in the first half of the 13th century, Rhodes became the centre of an independent domain under Leo Gabalas and his brother John,[27] until it was occupied by the Genoese in 1248–1250. The Genoese were evicted by the Empire of Nicaea, after which the island became a regular province of the Nicaean state (and after 1261 of the restored Byzantine Empire). In 1305, the island was given as a fief to Andrea Morisco, a Genoese adventurer who had entered Byzantine service. But, Rhodes was controlled by Menteşe, was one of Anatolian beyliks between 1300 and 1314.

Crusader and Ottoman rule

OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522
Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript
A small harbour in Rhodes
Rhodes in the 19th century

In 1306–1310, the Byzantine era of the island's history came to an end when the island was occupied by the Knights Hospitaller.[27] Under the rule of the newly named "Knights of Rhodes", the city was rebuilt into a model of the European medieval ideal. Many of the city's famous monuments, including the Palace of the Grand Master, were built during this period.

The strong walls which the knights had built withstood the attacks of the Sultan of Egypt in 1444, and a siege by the Ottomans under Mehmed II in 1480. Eventually, however, Rhodes fell to the large army of Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522. The Sultan deployed 400 ships delivering 100,000 men to the island (200,000 in other sources). Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their fortifications. The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the surviving defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to the Kingdom of Sicily. Despite the defeat, both Christians and Muslims seem to have regarded the conduct of Villiers de L'Isle-Adam as extremely valiant, and the Grand Master was proclaimed a Defender of the Faith by Pope Adrian VI (see Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes). The knights would later move their base of operations to Malta.

Rhodes was thereafter a possession of the Ottoman Empire (see Sanjak of Rhodes) for nearly four centuries.

Modern history

Rhodus type Müller A86
5 soldi Austrian Levant stamp cancelled in brown RHODUS.[35]
Offices of the Prefecture of the Dodecanese 02
Palazzo Governale (today the offices of the Prefecture of the Dodecanese), built during the Italian period

The island was populated by ethnic groups from the surrounding nations, including Jews. Under Ottoman rule, they generally did fairly well, but discrimination and bigotry occasionally arose. In February 1840, the Jews of Rhodes were falsely accused of ritually murdering a Christian boy. This became known as the Rhodes blood libel.

Austria opened a post-office at RHODUS (Venetian name) before 1864,[36] as witnessed by stamps with Franz-Josef head.

In 1912, Italy seized Rhodes from the Turks during the Italo-Turkish War. The island's population was spared the "exchange of the minorities" between Greece and Turkey. Rhodes and the rest of the Dodecanese Islands were assigned to Italy in the Treaty of Ouchy and were supposed to be given back but were not. Turkey ceded them officially in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. It then became the core of their possession of the Isole Italiane dell'Egeo.

Following the Italian Armistice of 8 September 1943, the British attempted to get the Italian garrison on Rhodes to change sides. This was anticipated by the German Army, which succeeded in occupying the island with the Battle of Rhodes. In great measure, the German occupation caused the British failure in the subsequent Dodecanese Campaign.

The Turkish Consul Selahattin Ülkümen succeeded, at considerable risk to himself and his family, in saving 42 Jewish families, about 200 persons in total, who had Turkish citizenship or were members of Turkish citizens' families.

On 8 May 1945 the Germans under Otto Wagener surrendered Rhodes as well as the Dodecanese as a whole to the British, who soon after then occupied the islands as a military protectorate.

In 1947, Rhodes, together with the other islands of the Dodecanese, was united with Greece.

In 1949, Rhodes was the venue for negotiations between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, concluding with the 1949 Armistice Agreements.

The name of the US state of Rhode Island is based on a reference to Rhodes by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano. In a 1524 letter detailing his excursion into the waters around either Block Island or Aquidneck Island Verrazano wrote that he "discovered an Ilande in the form of a triangle, distant from the maine lande 3 leagues, about the bignesse of the Ilande of the Rodes".

Archaeology

Kameiros - Fountain square 03
Fountain square at the ancient site of Kameiros
Rhodos Monolithos R02
Medieval castle of Monolithos

The Colossus of Rhodes was considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. This giant bronze statue was documented as once standing at the harbour. It was completed in 280 BC and destroyed in an earthquake in 224 BC. No trace of the statue remains today.

Historical sites on the island of Rhodes include the Acropolis of Lindos, the Acropolis of Rhodes with the Temple of Pythian Apollo and an ancient theatre and stadium,[37] ancient Ialysos, ancient Kamiros, the Governor's Palace, Rhodes Old Town (walled medieval city), the Palace of the Grand Masters, Kahal Shalom Synagogue in the Jewish Quarter, the Archeological Museum, the ruins of the castle of Monolithos, the castle of Kritinia, St. Catherine Hospice and Rhodes Footbridge.

Religion

Rhodes Filerimos3 tango7174
Filerimos Monastery in Ialysos

Christianity

The predominant religion is Greek Orthodox; the island is the seat of the Metropolis of Rhodes.

There is a significant Latin Catholic[38] minority on the island of 2,000, many of whom are descendants of Italians who remained after the end of the Italian occupation, pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rhodes.

Islam

Rhodes has a Turkish Muslim minority, a remnant from Ottoman Turkish times who were not required in the population exchange of 1923-24 to leave because the Dodecanese Islands were under Italian administration. They are organized around the Turkish Association of Rhodes (Turkish: Rodos Türk Derneği), which gives the figure 3,500 for the population they bring together and represent for the island.[39] The number of the Turks in Rhodes could be as many as 4,000.[40][41][42]

Judaism

The Jewish community of Rhodes[43] goes back to the first century AD. Kahal Shalom Synagogue, established in 1557, during the Ottoman era, is the oldest synagogue in Greece and still stands in the Jewish quarter of the old town of Rhodes. At its peak in the 1920s, the Jewish community was one-third of the town's total population.[44] In the 1940s, there were about 2000 Jews of various ethnic backgrounds. The Nazis deported and killed most of the community during the Holocaust. Kahal Shalom has been renovated with the help of foreign donors but few Jews live year-round in Rhodes today, so services are not held on a regular basis.[45]

The Jewish Museum of Rhodes was established in 1997 to preserve the Jewish history and culture of the Jews of Rhodes. It is adjacent to the Kahal Shalom Synagogue.

Government

Archangelos042
View of Archangelos
Lindos Rhodes
View of Lindos with the Acropolis
Rodi - Spiaggia 04
St Paul's Bay, Lindos

The present municipality Rhodes was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 10 former municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities in parentheses):[1]

The municipality has an area of 1400.681 km2.[47] It covers the island of Rhodes and a few uninhabited offshore islets. Rhodes city was the capital of the former Dodecanese Prefecture. Rhodes is the most populated island of the South Aegean Region.

Towns and villages

Rhodes has 43 towns and villages:

Town/Village Population Municipal unit Town/Village Population Municipal unit
Rhodes City 50,636 Rhodes Gennadi 671 South Rhodes
Ialysos 11,331 Ialysos Salakos 576 Kameiros
Afantou 6,329 Afantou Kritinia 503 Attavyros
Archangelos 5,476 Archangelos Kattavia 307 South Rhodes
Kremasti 5,396 Petaloudes Dimylia 465 Kameiros
Kalythies 4,832 Kallithea Kalavarda 502 Kameiros
Koskinou 3,679 Kallithea Pylona 627 Lindos
Pastida 3,641 Petaloudes Istrios 291 South Rhodes
Paradeisi 2,667 Petaloudes Damatria 641 Petaloudes
Maritsa 1,808 Petaloudes Laerma 361 Lindos
Embonas 1,242 Attavyros Apolakkia 496 South Rhodes
Soroni 1,278 Kameiros Platania 196 Kameiros
Lardos 1,380 Lindos Kalathos 502 Lindos
Psinthos 853 Kallithea Lachania 153 South Rhodes
Malona 1,135 Archangelos Monolithos 181 Attavyros
Lindos 3,087 Lindos Mesanagros 155 South Rhodes
Apollona 845 Kameiros Profilia 304 South Rhodes
Massari 1,004 Archangelos Arnitha 215 South Rhodes
Fanes 858 Kameiros Siana 152 Attavyros
Theologos 809 Petaloudes Vati 323 South Rhodes
Archipoli 582 Afantou Agios Isidoros 355 Attavyros
Asklipio 646 South Rhodes

Economy

Hafenmarkt Rhodos01
View of the market (Nea Agora) of Mandraki (Rhodes city), built during the Italian period

The economy is tourist-oriented, and the most developed sector is service. Tourism has elevated Rhodes economically, compared to the rest of Greece.[48]

Small industries process imported raw materials for local retail, though other industry includes agricultural goods production, stockbreeding, fishery and winery.

Transportation

Air

Airpoort rhodes 02
Diagoras Airport, arrivals terminal

Rhodes has three airports, but only one is public. Diagoras Airport, one of the biggest in Greece, is the main entrance/exit point for both locals and tourists. The island is well connected with other major Greek cities and islands as well as with major European capitals and cities via charter flights.

  • Rhodes International Airport, "Diagoras": public airport, 14 km (9 mi) southwest of Rhodes City, third in international passenger volume and fourth in total passenger volume in Greece.
  • Rhodes Maritsa Airport: closed to public, near Maritsa village. Built in 1938 by the Italians, it was the first airport of the island and was the public airport until 1977. Nowadays, it serves the Hellenic Air Force and is sometimes used for car races.
  • Kalathos Airfield: inoperative, 7 km (4 mi) north of Lindos. Built by the Italians during World War II, was called Aeroporto di Gadurrà. Today only the runway is visible.
  • Kattavia Airstrip, located in the south of the island it was an emergency airstrip built by the Italians during World War II. Today it is abandoned.

Two pilot schools offer aviation services (small plane rental and island hopping).

Sea

Louis Majesty Rhodes 2
MS Thomson Majesty at the harbour of Rhodes
Rhodes SkalaKamirou tango7174
The Kameiros Skala Dock

Rhodes has five ports, three of them in Rhodes City, one in the west coast near Kamiros and one in east coast near Lardos.

  • Central Port: located in the city of Rhodes serves exclusively international traffic consisting of scheduled services to/from Turkey, cruise ships and yachts. Since Summer 2012, the port is also a homeport for Costa Cruises during the summer period.
  • Kolona Port: opposite and north of the central port, serves intra-Dodecanese traffic and all sizes yachts.
  • Akandia Port: the new port of the island, south and next to the central port, being built since the 1960s, for domestic, cargo and general purpose traffic. Since 2017 summer a passenger terminal is finally in use hosting a cafe and waiting lounges.[49]
  • Kamiros Skala Dock: 30 km (19 mi) south west of the city near Ancient Kamiros ruins serves mainly the island of Halki
  • Lardos Dock: formerly servicing local industries, now under development as an alternative port for times when the central port is inaccessible due to weather conditions. It is situated in a rocky shore near the village of Lardos in south east Rhodes.

Road network

The road network of the island is mostly paved and consists of 3 national roads plus one planned, 40 provincial and numerous local. These are the four major island arteries:

  • Rhodes-Kamiros Province Avenue: Province road 2 till Kalavarda village and 21 from there till Kamiros with two lane that runs through the west coast north to south and connects Rhodes City with Diagoras Airport and Kamiros.
  • Rhodes-Lindos National Avenue (Greek National Road 95): Four and two lane, runs mainly inland north to south and connects Rhodes City with Lindos. Part from Rhodes Town until Kolympia is now 4 lanes, the rest until Lindos is 2 lanes.
  • Rhodes-Kallithea-Faliraki Province Avenue 4: Two lanes, runs through the east coast north to south and connects Rhodes City with Kallithea monument and Faliraki Resort.
  • Tsairi-Airport National Avenue (Greek National Road 100): Four and two lane, runs inland east to west and connects the east coast with the west and the airport.
  • Lindos-Katavia Province Road 1: Two lane, begins just before Lindos and though villages and resorts leads to Katavia village, the southernmost of the island, from where a further deviation leads to Prasonissi.
  • Rhodes Town Ring Road (Phase 1): Beginning from the new marina and ending to Rhodes-Kallithea province avenue is a four lane expressway.

Future roads:

  • Further widening of Rhodes-Lindos National Avenue (Greek National Road 95) from Kolympia to Lindos. This is to be four lane with a jersey barrier in the middle. A tender is expected to take place by end of 2019 so as constructions can begin.
  • Ring Road phases 2, 3 and 4 pending; phase 2 will extend the expressway to Greek National Road 95 and then to Rhodes General Hospital where it supposedly will connect to also planned new Rhodes City-Airport expressway. In June 2018 Rhodes municipality stated that plans for the final 700 meters of the ring road leading to Akandia Port are pending approval.[50] Phases 3 and 4 which plan to run the ring road from hospital hill down to Ixia and then through Kritika back to the town will most probably never occur.
  • Plans also exist for a new four lane express road connecting Rhodes Town with Diagoras Airport. The road, recognised as National back in 2014[51], will follow existing Provincial Road 3 routing with a total length of 8,6 km and including 3 main junctions and is intended to relieve congestion on the coastal west avenue. The so called Leoforos Mesogeion is vastly anticipated and is a top priority for local authorities.

Bus

Bus services are handled by two operators:[52]

  • RODA: Municipal bus company that serves Rhodes city as well suburban areas (Koskinou, Faliraki, Ialysos, Kremasti, Airport, Pastida, Maritsa, Paradeisi) and the west coast of the island
  • KTEL: Limited liability private transport company that serve villages and resorts in the east coast of the island

Cars and motorbikes

Families in Rhodes often own more than one car, along with a motorbike. Traffic jams are common particularly in the summer months as vehicles more than double while parking spots downtown and around the old town are limited and can't cope with demand. Moreover, the island is served by 450 taxis and some 200 public and private buses adding to the traffic burden.

Sports

Rhodos003
Diagoras Stadium in the city of Rhodes
  • Football: AS Rodos and Diagoras F.C. are the island's biggest teams and rivals. Both competed in 2017-18 season at the national level third tier (Gamma Ethniki) along with GAS Ialysos but at season end the former relegated while Diagoras and Ialysos remained. Kremasti town team, Foivos, will join them for 2018-19 season as it was promoted. Local football leagues (organized at the prefecture level) contain three divisions with more than 50 teams.[53] Many stadia are grass covered.[54]
  • Basketball: Colossus BC sponsors professional basketball and currently plays in the top-level Greek Basket League. The local league includes a single division with two groups, one for Rhodes and the other for the rest islands, with 7 and 5 teams respectively.[55] Three indoor courts exist in Rhodes City, and one each in Ialysos, Kremasti and Faliraki. Archangelos town will also get an indoor court according to Rhodes municipality planned works and regional government's approved funds.[56]
  • Volleyball: Rodion Athlisis managed to escape local obscurity and currently competes at national level second tier losing promotion to first level in play-offs for two consecutive seasons.[57]
  • Water polo: mostly amateur based. There is not any single public indoor pool on the island.
  • Rugby: introduced in 2007. Teams compete at the national level.
  • Tennis: Rhodes Tennis Club (Ροδιακός Όμιλος Αντισφαίρισης) promotes officially tennis since 1949. Club operates on two separate locations, one downtown next to the casino and one next to Kallipateira National Athletic Centre.[58]
  • Sailing: Island has competed at the international level
  • Cycling: for a long period of time Rhodes had the only cycling track in Greece, producing Olympics-level competitors.
  • Rhodes competes in the bi-annual Island Games, which it hosted in 2007.[59]

Culture

Pitaroudia
Pitaroudia, a traditional chickpea dumpling from Rhodes and Dodecanese

Rhodian tradition in food is rich. Koriantolino and Souma (colorless alcoholic beverage produced from grape distillation) are the main alcoholic drinks of Rhodes. Local foods include Pitaroudia, Milla and Tsiriggia, Pougia, Lakani, Katsikaki Kapamas, Loppia with Goat, Makarounia, Matsi and Koulouria (Hand Made Pasta), Tsouvras, Sivrasi, Giaprakia, Kefalopoda Lambris, Giachni, Ladopita, Tachinopita, Sinoro (traditional cheese). Local pastry specialties are Melekouni, Fanouropita, Mouchalebi, Takakia, Escharitis, Amigdalota (white almond cookies), Moschopougia and Mantinades.

Notable people

Diagoras of Rodes
Diagoras of Rhodes carried in the stadium by his two sons

Tourism

Rhodes is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Greece. After Crete the island is the most visited destination in Greece, with arrivals standing at 1.785.305 in 2013. In 2014 they stood at 1.931.005, while in 2015 the arrival number reduced slightly and stood at 1.901.000. The average length of stay is estimated at 8 days. Guests from Great Britain, Israel, France, Italy, Sweden and Norway are the ones that constitute the biggest portion in terms of the arrivals by country.[60] In Rhodes the supply of available rooms is high, since more than 550 hotels are operating in the island, the majority of which are 2 star hotels.[60] Additionally, in terms of competitiveness, the World Tourism Organization ranks Greece in the 31st position globally.[61]

Panoramas

Rhodes harbor 2017:

Rhodos hamn 2017

Rhodes panorama 2017:

Panorama över Rhodos 2017

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  2. ^ "Rhodes". Visit Greece.
  3. ^ Paul Hellander, Greece, 2008
  4. ^ Duncan Garwood, Mediterranean Europe, 2009
  5. ^ Ryan Ver Berkmoes, Oliver Berry, Geert Cole, David Else, Western Europe, 2009
  6. ^ Harry Coccossis, Alexandra Mexa, The challenge of tourism carrying capacity assessment: theory and practice, 2004
  7. ^ Anthony Bale, trans., The Book of Marvels and Travels, Oxford 2012, ISBN 0199600600, p. 16 and footnote
  8. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Rhodes
  9. ^ "Geography and Geomorphology - South Aegean". www.aegeanislands.gr.
  10. ^ Marco, M; Cavallaro, A; Pecchioli, E & Vernesi, C (11 November 2006), "Artificial Occurrence of the Fallow Deer, Dama dama dama (L., 1758), on the Island of Rhodes (Greece): Insight from mtDNA Analysis", Human Evolution, 21, No. 2 (2): 167–175, doi:10.1007/s11598-006-9014-9
  11. ^ "Rhodes, Greece, 1481". Jan Kozak Collection: KZ13, The Earthquake Engineering Online Archive.
  12. ^ Ambraseys, N. N.; Adams, R. D. (1998). "The Rhodes earthquake of 26 June 1926". Journal of Seismology. 2 (3): 267–292. doi:10.1023/A:1009706415417.
  13. ^ "Earthquake's aftermath". Discover Rhodes. Retrieved 16 July 2008.
  14. ^ "Climatology - Rodos". Hellinic National Meteorological Service. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  15. ^ "Rhodes Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Rhodes, Greece - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  17. ^ B. d'Agostino, "Funerary customs and society on Rhodes in the Geometric Period: some observations", in E. Herring and I. Lemos, eds. Across Frontiers: Etruscans, Greeks, Phoenicians and Cypriots. Studies in Honour of D. Ridgway and F.R. Serra Ridgway 2006:57-69.
  18. ^ Iliad 2.653-654
  19. ^ The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus, Book V, ch.III. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
  20. ^ Sideris A., "Orientalizing Rhodian Jewellery in the Aegean", Cultural Portal of the Aegean Archipelago, Athens 2007.
  21. ^ A. Agelarakis"Demographic Dynamics and Funerary Rituals as Reflected from Rhodian Handra Urns", Archival Report, Archaeological and Historical Institute of Rhodes, 2005
  22. ^ He wrote about Jason and Medea in the Argonautica.
  23. ^ Boardman, 199-201
  24. ^ Polybius (1889). Friedrich Otto Hultsch (ed.). The Histories of Polybius. London: Macmillan & Co. pp. xxviii. 14, 15, xxix. 4, 7.
  25. ^ On Rhodes in antiquity see esp. R.M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, Cornell University Press, 1984.
  26. ^ See Acts 21.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Rhodes". In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1791–1792. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
  28. ^ Kia 2016, p. 223.
  29. ^ Greatrex & Lieu 2005, p. 197.
  30. ^ Howard-Johnston 2006, p. 33.
  31. ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 313. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
  32. ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 325, 327. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
  33. ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 344. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
  34. ^ Brownworth, Lars (2009). Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western Civilization. Crown. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-307-40795-5. ... the Muslims captured Ephesus in 1090 and spread out to the Greek islands. Chios, Rhodes, and Lesbos fell in quick succession.
  35. ^ Mueller, Edwin (1930). Die Poststempel auf der Freimarken-Ausgabe 1867 von Österreich und Ungarn.
  36. ^ Mueller, Edwin (1961). Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864. p. 217.
  37. ^ "Acropolis if Rhodes:Information". Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  38. ^ "Καθολικη Εκκλησια Τησ Ροδου". Catholicchurchrhodes.com. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
  39. ^ Turkish wedding in Rhodes attended by Abdullah Gül (in Turkish)
  40. ^ Ürkek bir siyasetin tarih önündeki ağır vebali: Oniki ada : hatalı kararlar, acı kayıplar at Google Books
  41. ^ "MUM GİBİ ERİYORLAR".
  42. ^ "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı'ndan". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  43. ^ See Angel, Marc. The Jews of Rhodes: The History of a Sephardic Community. Sepher-Hermon Press Inc. and The Union of Sephardic Congregations. New York: 1978 (1st ed.), 1980 (2nd ed.), 1998 (3rd ed.).
  44. ^ "History of Jewish Greece". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
  45. ^ "The Virtual Jewish History Tour — Greece". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
  46. ^ F.Fornol: Lachania
  47. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.
  48. ^ "3comma14.gr".
  49. ^ http://www.dimokratiki.gr/02-09-2017/anamorfonete-telios-limani-tis-akantias/
  50. ^ http://www.dimokratiki.gr/15-06-2018/anaferthike-se-ola-ta-erga-poy-ektelei-trechontos-o-dimos/
  51. ^ http://www.et.gr/idocs-nph/search/pdfViewerForm.html?args=5C7QrtC22wEc63YDhn5AeXdtvSoClrL8lj0jDA0wBrh5MXD0LzQTLWPU9yLzB8V6dxiWmYHFUbmCiBSQOpYnTy36MacmUFCx2ppFvBej56Mmc8Qdb8ZfRJqZnsIAdk8Lv_e6czmhEembNmZCMxLMtXdfQOB6C00YZBnEysLAU6pj8keECmvdb6G_FckhY0ki
  52. ^ "Bus schedule" (PDF). Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism.
  53. ^ http://www.epsdod.gr/
  54. ^ http://www.epsdod.gr/field/fields_map.php
  55. ^ http://www.12basket.gr/
  56. ^ https://www.rodiaki.gr/article/392771/kleisto-arxaggeloy-ena-oneiro-etoimo-na-parei-sarka-kai-osta
  57. ^ http://www.volleyball.gr/a2-andron/article/1717/a2-andron-mparaz-anodou-a-omilou-apollon-athhnon-rodion-athlhsis-3-1-photos
  58. ^ http://www.rhodestennis.gr/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&layout=category&task=&id=&Itemid=663
  59. ^ International Island Games Association website. Retrieved 27Jun08.
  60. ^ a b sete.gr
  61. ^ world tourism organization competitiveness ranking

Sources

External links

Brandi Rhodes

Brandi Alexis Runnels (née Reed; born June 23, 1983), known professionally as Brandi Rhodes, is an American professional wrestler and reality television personality.

Rhodes is the Chief Brand Officer of professional wrestling promotion All Elite Wrestling, where she also serves as an in-ring talent. She previously appeared for WWE as a ring announcer, and briefly competed for Impact Wrestling and Ring of Honor. She is also currently appearing on the E! reality series WAGS Atlanta. Prior to her wrestling career, she was a figure skater and a TV news anchor.

Cecil Rhodes

Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate. He also put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.

The son of a vicar, Rhodes grew up in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, and was a sickly child. He was sent to South Africa by his family when he was 17 years old in the hope that the climate might improve his health. He entered the diamond trade at Kimberley in 1871, when he was 18, and over the next two decades gained near-complete domination of the world diamond market. His De Beers diamond company, formed in 1888, retains its prominence into the 21st century. Rhodes entered the Cape Parliament at the age of 27 in 1880, and a decade later became Prime Minister. After overseeing the formation of Rhodesia during the early 1890s, he was forced to resign as Prime Minister in 1896 after the disastrous Jameson Raid, an unauthorised attack on Paul Kruger's South African Republic (or Transvaal).

One of Rhodes's primary motivations in politics and business was his professed belief that the Anglo-Saxon race was, to quote his will, "the first race in the world". Under the reasoning that "the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race", he advocated vigorous settler colonialism and ultimately a reformation of the British Empire so that each component would be self-governing and represented in a single parliament in London. Ambitions such as these, juxtaposed with his policies regarding indigenous Africans in the Cape Colony—describing the country's native black population as largely "in a state of barbarism", he advocated their governance as a "subject race", and was at the centre of actions to marginalise them politically—have led recent critics to characterise him as a white supremacist and "an architect of apartheid".Historian Richard A. McFarlane has described Rhodes "as integral a participant in southern African and British imperial history as George Washington or Abraham Lincoln are in their respective eras in United States history." After Rhodes's death in 1902, at the age of 48, he was buried in the Matopos Hills in what is now Zimbabwe.

Cody Rhodes

Cody Garrett Runnels Rhodes (born Cody Garrett Runnels, June 30, 1985) is an American professional wrestler, promoter, businessman and actor, better known by the ring name Cody Rhodes or simply Cody. He is an executive vice president of All Elite Wrestling, where he also serves as an in-ring talent.

Rhodes is the son of the late WWE Hall of Famer Dusty Rhodes and the half-brother of WWE wrestler Goldust. After an amateur wrestling career that resulted in becoming a two-time Georgia state champion, he followed his father and older brother's footsteps into the professional ranks and joined WWE in 2006, initially being assigned to the company's developmental territory Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW). After becoming a Triple Crown Champion in OVW, he was elevated to WWE's main roster in 2007 and remained there for 9 years, performing under his real name and later as Stardust. During his time with WWE, Rhodes became a two-time Intercontinental Champion and was a prolific tag team wrestler, winning six tag team championships (three World Tag Team Championships and three WWE Tag Team Championships) with four separate tag team partners. Rhodes left WWE after requesting his release in May 2016.

Following his departure from WWE, Rhodes began wrestling on the independent circuit, also making several appearances in Total Nonstop Action (TNA). In the time frame spanning from early 2016 to early 2017, he competed at WWE's WrestleMania, ROH's Final Battle and the New Japan Pro-Wrestling (NJPW) Wrestle Kingdom events as well as appearing for TNA at Bound for Glory. In September 2017, Rhodes with Ring of Honor, where he became a one-time ROH World Champion, one-time NWA World Heavyweight Champion (due to ROH's partnership with the National Wrestling Alliance), one-time IWGP United States Heavyweight Champion (due to ROH's partnership with NJPW), and a one-time ROH World Six-Man Tag Team Champion (with The Young Bucks) - at one point holding the NWA World, IWGP U.S., and ROH Six-Man titles simultaneously.

Colossus of Rhodes

The Colossus of Rhodes (Ancient Greek: ὁ Κολοσσὸς Ῥόδιος, translit. ho Kolossòs Rhódios Greek: Κολοσσός της Ρόδου, translit. Kolossós tes Rhódou) was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes, on the Greek island of the same name, by Chares of Lindos in 280 BC. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was constructed to celebrate Rhodes' victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, whose son Demetrius I of Macedon unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. According to most contemporary descriptions, the Colossus stood approximately 70 cubits, or 33 metres (108 feet) high—the approximate height of the modern Statue of Liberty from feet to crown—making it the tallest statue of the ancient world. It collapsed during the earthquake of 226 BC; although parts of it were preserved, it was never rebuilt.

As of 2015, there are tentative plans to build a new Colossus at Rhodes Harbour, although the actual location of the original remains in dispute.

Dusty Rhodes (wrestler)

Virgil Riley Runnels Jr. (October 11, 1945 – June 11, 2015), better known as "The American Dream" Dusty Rhodes, was an American professional wrestler, booker, and trainer who most notably worked for the National Wrestling Alliance, Jim Crockett Promotions, and the World Wrestling Federation, later known as the WWE. Following his retirement from wrestling, he made occasional on-air appearances on WWE television and pay-per-views and worked as a backstage booker and producer in WWE's NXT developmental territory. Billed as "the son of a plumber", Rhodes did not have a typical wrestler's physique; his character was that of the "Common Man", known for the personality exhibited in his interviews. WWE chairman Vince McMahon remarked that no wrestler "personified the essence of charisma quite like Dusty Rhodes".Rhodes was a three-time NWA World Heavyweight Champion, and during his time in Jim Crockett Promotions, later known as WCW, he was a United States Heavyweight Champion, and multi-time World Television, World Tag Team and World Six-Man Tag Team Champion. He also won many regional championships, and is one of six men inducted into each of the WWE, WCW, Professional Wrestling, and Wrestling Observer Newsletter Halls of Fame. His sons, Dustin and Cody, both pursued careers in professional wrestling and performed for WWE.

George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death on 6 February 1952. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

Known publicly as Albert until his accession, and "Bertie" among his family and close friends, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, and was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He attended naval college as a teenager, and served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during the First World War. In 1920, he was made Duke of York. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret. In the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never fully overcame.

George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936. However, later that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British prime minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman and remain king. Edward abdicated to marry Simpson, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.

During George's reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated. The parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the country's constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland and established the office of President. From 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1940 and 1941, respectively. Though Britain and its allies were ultimately victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of both countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948. Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, and India became a republic within the Commonwealth the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He was beset by smoking-related health problems in the later years of his reign. He was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II.

Goldust

Dustin Patrick Runnels (born April 11, 1969) is an American professional wrestler. He is currently signed to WWE, where he performs on the Raw brand under the ring name Goldust, though he is on hiatus due to a double knee surgery. The son of the late WWE Hall of Famer Dusty Rhodes and the half-brother of fellow wrestler Cody Rhodes, he is also known for performing in promotions such as World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) under the name Dustin Rhodes. His enigmatic, flamboyant, sexually ambiguous "Goldust" character has remained popular in WWF/E since its debut in 1995.

Between WWF/E and WCW, Runnels has won 23 total championships. In WCW, he was a two-time United States Heavyweight Champion, a one-time Six-Man Tag Team Champion, and a two-time World Tag Team Champion. In WWF/E, he is a three-time Intercontinental Champion, nine-time Hardcore Champion, one-time World Tag Team Champion, and two-time WWE Tag Team Champion. Runnels has also appeared in the second most Royal Rumble matches, at 13.

Jordan Rhodes

Jordan Luke Rhodes (born 5 February 1990) is a professional footballer who plays as a striker for Championship club Norwich City on loan from Sheffield Wednesday and the Scottish national team.

He started his career at Ipswich Town and after loan spells at Oxford United, Rochdale and Brentford he joined Huddersfield Town. In the 2011–12 season, he was the top scorer in England with 36 league goals, breaking Huddersfield's club record for most league goals scored in a season.In August 2012, he became English football's most expensive player outside the top flight when he joined Blackburn Rovers for an £8 million fee, equalling Blackburn's record transfer fee. In 2016, Rhodes joined Middlesbrough and the following year he signed for Sheffield Wednesday. His season-long loan with Norwich City began in July 2018.

Born in England, Rhodes opted to play for Scotland, for whom he had become eligible through school attendance while his father Andy Rhodes played as a goalkeeper for Scottish football clubs. Rhodes has represented Scotland at both U-21 level and as a full international.

Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani; Italian: Cavalieri dell'Ordine dell'Ospedale di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg.

The Hospitallers arose in the early 11th century, at the time of the great monastic reformation, as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in the Muristan district of Jerusalem, dedicated to John the Baptist and founded around 1023 by Gerard Thom to provide care for sick, poor or injured pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. Some scholars, however, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thom's order and its hospital.

After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a military religious order under its own Papal charter, charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the knights operated from Rhodes, over which they were sovereign, and later from Malta, where they administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily. The Hospitallers were the smallest group to briefly colonise parts of the Americas: they acquired four Caribbean islands in the mid-17th century, which they turned over to France in the 1660s.

The knights were weakened in the Protestant Reformation, when rich commanderies of the order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant and largely separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remaining separate to this day, although ecumenical relations between the descendant chivalric orders are amicable. The order was disestablished in England, Denmark, as well as in some other parts of northern Europe, and it was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798, following which it became dispersed throughout Europe.

Make Money Fast

Make Money Fast (stylised as MAKE.MONEY.FAST) is a title of an electronically forwarded chain letter which became so infamous that the term is now used to describe all sorts of chain letters forwarded over the Internet, by e-mail spam or Usenet newsgroups. In anti-spammer slang, the name is often abbreviated "MMF".

Rhodes College

Rhodes College is a private liberal arts college in Memphis, Tennessee. Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Rhodes enrolls approximately 2,000 students.

The campus sits on a 123-acre, wooded site in the heart of historic Midtown Memphis. Due to the campus' natural beauty and distinctive Collegiate Gothic architecture, The Princeton Review named Rhodes the #1 Most Beautiful College Campus in America in its 2017 edition of The Best 381 Colleges.

Rhodes has been named America's #1 Service-Oriented College by Newsweek, and has been recognized by The Princeton Review, U.S. News, Fiske Guide to Colleges and Forbes. Rhodes is also included in Colleges That Change Lives and The Princeton Review's Colleges That Create Futures: 50 Schools That Launch Careers By Going Beyond the Classroom. In the 2017 edition of The Princeton Review's Colleges That Pay You Back, Rhodes ranked #16 for Best Schools for Internships.

Rhodes Must Fall

Rhodes Must Fall (#RhodesMustFall) was a protest movement that began on 9 March 2015, originally directed against a statue at the University of Cape Town (UCT) that commemorates Cecil Rhodes. The campaign for the statue's removal received global attention and led to a wider movement to "decolonise" education across South Africa. On 9 April 2015, following a UCT Council vote the previous night, the statue was removed.

Rhodes Must Fall captured national headlines throughout 2015 and sharply divided public opinion in South Africa. It also inspired the emergence of allied student movements at other universities, both within South Africa and elsewhere in the world.

Rhodes Scholarship

The Rhodes Scholarship is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford. It was established in 1902, making it the first large-scale programme of international scholarship. The Rhodes Scholarship was founded by English businessman and politician Cecil John Rhodes, to promote unity between English speaking nations and instill a sense of civic-minded leadership and moral fortitude in future leaders irrespective of their chosen career paths. Although initially restricted to male applicants from countries which are today within the Commonwealth, as well as Germany and the United States, today the Scholarship is open to applicants from all backgrounds and from across the globe. Since its creation, controversy has surrounded both its former exclusion of women (thus leading to the establishment of the co-educational Marshall Scholarship), and Rhodes' Anglo-supremacist beliefs and legacy of colonialism.

Prominent recipients of the Rhodes Scholarship include former President of Pakistan Wasim Sajjad, former Australian Prime Ministers Tony Abbott, Bob Hawke and Malcolm Turnbull, former President of the United States Bill Clinton, and former United States National Security Advisor and United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice, as well as several Nobel laureates. Some people offered this scholarship have not accepted it; as a teenager Professor Sir Alimmudin Zumla declined the scholarship to study Medicine.

Rhodes University

Rhodes University is a public research university located in Makhanda in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It is one of four universities in the province. Established in 1904, Rhodes University is the province's oldest university, and it is the fifth or sixth oldest South African university in continuous operation, being preceded by the University of the Free State (1904), University of Witwatersrand (1896), Stellenbosch University (1866) and the University of Cape Town (1829). Rhodes was founded in 1904 as Rhodes University College, named after Cecil Rhodes, through a grant from the Rhodes Trust. It became a constituent college of the University of South Africa in 1918 before becoming an independent university in 1951.

The university had an enrolment of over 8,000 students in the 2015 academic year, of whom just over 3,600 lived in 51 residences on campus, with the rest (known as Oppidans) taking residence in digs (off-campus residences) or in their own homes in the town.

Rhodes piano

The Rhodes piano (also known as the Fender Rhodes piano or simply Fender Rhodes or Rhodes) is an electric piano invented by Harold Rhodes, which became popular in the 1970s. The instrument generates sound like a conventional piano with keys and hammers, but instead of strings, the hammers strike thin metal tines, which are amplified via an electromagnetic pickup plugged into an external keyboard amplifier and speaker.

The instrument evolved from Rhodes' attempt to manufacture pianos while teaching recovering soldiers during World War II. Development continued after the war and into the following decade. Fender started marketing the Piano Bass, a cut-down version of the piano, but the full-size instrument did not appear until after that company's sale to CBS in 1965. CBS oversaw mass production of the Rhodes piano in the 1970s, and it was used extensively through the decade, particularly in jazz, pop, and soul music. It was less used in the 1980s because of competition with polyphonic and digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 and an inconsistent quality control caused by cost-cutting.

The company was eventually sold to Roland, which manufactured digital versions of the Rhodes without authorization or approval from its inventor. In the 1990s, the instrument experienced a resurgence in popularity, resulting in Rhodes re-obtaining the rights to the piano in 1997. Although Harold Rhodes died in 2000, the instrument has since been reissued, and his teaching methods are still in use.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Italian: Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; Latin: Supremus Militaris Ordo Hospitalarius Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodiensis et Melitensis) and also known as the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalric and noble nature.It is the continuation of the medieval Order of Saint John, also known as the Knights Hospitaller, under international law. As a chivalric order, it was founded c. 1099 by the Blessed Gerard in medieval Jerusalem. As a subject of international law, it is an establishment of the 19th century, recognized at the Congress of Verona of 1822, and since 1834 headquartered

in Palazzo Malta in Rome.

The order is led by an elected Prince and Grand Master.

Its motto is Tuitio fidei et obsequium pauperum ('defence of the [Catholic] faith and assistance to the poor'). The order venerates the Virgin Mary as its patroness, under the title of Our Lady of Mount Philermos.

The headquarters of the Order of Saint John had been located in Malta from 1530 until 1798. It was technically a vassal of the Kingdom of Sicily, holding Malta in exchange for a nominal fee, but declared independence in 1753.

It was expelled from Malta under the French occupation in 1798 and, from 1805 to 1812, much of its possessions in Protestant Europe were confiscated, resulting in the fragmentation of the order into a number of Protestant branches, since 1961 united under the umbrella of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem.

The Congress of Vienna of 1815 confirmed the loss of Malta, but the Congress of Verona in 1822 guaranteed the continued existence of the Catholic order as a sovereign entity. The seat of the order was moved to Ferrara in 1826 and to Rome in 1834, the interior of Palazzo Malta being considered extraterritorial sovereign territory of the order. The grand priories of Lombardy-Venetia and of Sicily were restored from 1839 to 1841. The office of Grand Master was restored by Pope Leo XIII in 1879, after a vacancy of 75 years, confirming Giovanni Battista Ceschi a Santa Croce as the first Grand Master of the restored Order of Malta. The Holy See was established as a subject of international law in the Lateran Treaty of 1929. In the following decades, the connection between the Holy See and the Order of Malta was seen as so close as to call into question the actual sovereignty of the order as a separate entity. This has prompted constitutional changes on the part of the Order, which were implemented in 1997. Since then, the Order has been widely recognized as a sovereign subject of international law in its own right.

It maintains diplomatic relations with 107 states, has permanent observer status at the United Nations, enters into treaties and issues its own passports, coins and postage stamps. Its two headquarters buildings in Rome enjoy extraterritoriality, similar to embassies, and it maintains embassies in other countries. The three principal officers are counted as citizens.

The Order has 13,500 Knights, Dames and auxiliary members. A few dozen of these are professed religious. Until the 1990s, the highest classes of membership, including officers, required proof of noble lineage. More recently, a path was created for Knights and Dames of the lowest class (of whom proof of aristocratic lineage is not required) to be specially elevated to the highest class, making them eligible for office in the order.

The order employs about 42,000 doctors, nurses, auxiliaries and paramedics assisted by 80,000 volunteers in more than 120 countries, assisting children, homeless, handicapped, elderly, and terminally ill people, refugees, and lepers around the world without distinction of ethnicity or religion. Through its worldwide relief corps, Malteser International, the order aids victims of natural disasters, epidemics and war. In several countries, including France, Germany and Ireland, local associations of the order are important providers of medical emergency services and training. Its annual budget is on the order of 1.5 billion euros, largely funded by European governments, the United Nations and the European Union, foundations and public donors.

The Legacy (professional wrestling)

The Legacy was a villainous alliance in the professional wrestling promotion World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), that competed on its Smackdown brand from 2008 to 2010. Originally, The Legacy was a group led by Randy Orton that contained the tag team of Cody Rhodes and Ted DiBiase. Two other wrestlers, Manu and Sim Snuka, were briefly members of the stable as well. The concept behind the group was that each member was a multi-generational wrestler. The name The Legacy was a reference to their extensive family histories in wrestling.

In June 2008, Rhodes and DiBiase first formed an alliance after winning the World Tag Team Championship at Night of Champions, when Rhodes betrayed his original partner, Hardcore Holly, to align with DiBiase. Soon after, the pair tried to earn Orton's respect, which they eventually did. Together, the team helped Orton win the 2009 Royal Rumble match, giving Orton an opportunity to compete in the main event at WrestleMania XXV. The team also wrestled together in a tag team match to win the WWE Championship for Orton at Backlash. The team helped Orton win the championship three times over the course of 2009 despite a tumultuous relationship which saw Orton often physically attacking his two students. This led to Orton splitting from the group in early 2010. Rhodes and DiBiase eventually turned on each other in their match with Orton at WrestleMania XXVI.

The only member of the stable who is still currently employed by the WWE is Randy Orton.

War Machine

Lieutenant Colonel James Rupert "Rhodey" Rhodes (War Machine) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Jim Rhodes first appeared in Iron Man #118 (January 1979) by David Michelinie and John Byrne. The War Machine armor, which became his signature armored battlesuit, was created by Len Kaminski and Kevin Hopgood.In 2012, War Machine was ranked 31st in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers". The character has been featured in the Iron Man animated series, the Iron Man: Armored Adventures series, and the animated film The Invincible Iron Man. USAF Lt.Colonel James Rhodes was portrayed by Terrence Howard in Iron Man, which takes place before Rhodes took on the War Machine mantle, and by Don Cheadle as a USAF Colonel in Iron Man 2, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, and will do so in the fourth Avengers film Avengers: Endgame in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

Wilfred Rhodes

Wilfred Rhodes (29 October 1877 – 8 July 1973) was an English professional cricketer who played 58 Test matches for England between 1899 and 1930. In Tests, Rhodes took 127 wickets and scored 2,325 runs, becoming the first Englishman to complete the double of 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in Test matches. He holds the world records both for the most appearances made in first-class cricket (1,110 matches), and for the most wickets taken (4,204). He completed the double of 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in an English cricket season a record 16 times. Rhodes played for Yorkshire and England into his fifties, and in his final Test in 1930 was, at 52 years and 165 days, the oldest player who has appeared in a Test match.

Beginning his career for Yorkshire in 1898 as a slow left arm bowler who was a useful batsman, Rhodes quickly established a reputation as one of the best slow bowlers in the world. However, by the First World War he had developed his batting skills to the extent that he was regarded as one of the leading batsmen in England and had established an effective opening partnership with Jack Hobbs. The improvement in Rhodes's batting was accompanied by a temporary decline in his bowling performances, but the loss of key Yorkshire bowlers after the war led to Rhodes resuming his role as a front-line bowler. He played throughout the 1920s as an all-rounder before retiring after the 1930 cricket season. His first appearance for England was in 1899 and he played regularly in Tests until 1921. Recalled to the team in the final Ashes Test of 1926 aged 48, Rhodes played a significant part in winning the match for England who thus regained the Ashes for the first time since 1912. He ended his Test career in the West Indies in April 1930.

As a bowler, Rhodes was noted for his great accuracy, variations in flight and, in his early days, sharp spin. Throughout his career he was particularly effective on wet, rain affected pitches where he could bowl sides out for very low scores. His batting was regarded as solid and dependable but unspectacular, and critics accused him of excessive caution at times. However, they considered him to be an astute cricket thinker. Following his retirement from playing cricket, he coached at Harrow School but was not a great success. His eyesight began to fail from around 1939 to the point where he was completely blind by 1952. He was given honorary membership of the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in 1949 and remained a respected figure within the game until his death in 1973. On 9 August 2009, Rhodes was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame.

Climate data for Rhodes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
22.0
(71.6)
27.4
(81.3)
30.6
(87.1)
34.8
(94.6)
36.2
(97.2)
39.0
(102.2)
41.2
(106.2)
35.4
(95.7)
33.2
(91.8)
28.4
(83.1)
22.8
(73.0)
41.2
(106.2)
Average high °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
15.2
(59.4)
16.8
(62.2)
20.0
(68.0)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
30.5
(86.9)
30.7
(87.3)
28.2
(82.8)
24.5
(76.1)
20.1
(68.2)
16.6
(61.9)
22.5
(72.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
12.0
(53.6)
13.5
(56.3)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68.0)
24.2
(75.6)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
24.4
(75.9)
20.7
(69.3)
16.7
(62.1)
13.5
(56.3)
18.9
(66.0)
Average low °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
8.8
(47.8)
10.1
(50.2)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
19.9
(67.8)
22.3
(72.1)
22.7
(72.9)
20.5
(68.9)
16.9
(62.4)
13.2
(55.8)
10.4
(50.7)
15.2
(59.3)
Record low °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.2
(32.4)
5.2
(41.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.6
(54.7)
16.8
(62.2)
17.0
(62.6)
10.6
(51.1)
7.2
(45.0)
2.4
(36.3)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 149.6
(5.89)
105.7
(4.16)
75.6
(2.98)
27.8
(1.09)
18.6
(0.73)
2.3
(0.09)
0.4
(0.02)
0.2
(0.01)
5.8
(0.23)
65.5
(2.58)
94.1
(3.70)
157.4
(6.20)
703
(27.68)
Average rainy days 15.5 12.7 10.5 7.6 4.6 1.2 0.2 0.1 1.5 6.7 9.5 15.4 85.5
Average relative humidity (%) 70.1 69.1 68.7 66.5 64.4 58.5 57.6 59.9 61.4 67.5 71.4 72.4 65.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0 14.0 13.0 11.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 9.0
Percent possible sunshine 50 55 58 69 79 87 100 100 92 73 60 50 73
Source #1: Hellinic National Meteorological Service [14]
Source #2: NOAA (Record temperature),[15] Weather Atlas (sunshine data)[16]
Climate data for Rhodes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
17.0
(62.6)
17.1
(62.8)
17.6
(63.7)
20.1
(68.2)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.1)
23.8
(74.8)
20.9
(69.6)
18.8
(65.8)
21.4
(70.5)
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.1
Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 8 10 10 9 7 5 3 2 5.9
Source: Weather Atlas [16]
The 12 major islands
Minor islands
Regional unit of Andros
Regional unit of Kalymnos
Regional unit of Karpathos
Regional unit of Kea-Kythnos
Regional unit of Kos
Regional unit of Milos
Regional unit of Mykonos
Regional unit of Naxos
Regional unit of Paros
Regional unit of Rhodes
Regional unit of Syros
Regional unit of Thira
Regional unit of Tinos
Subdivisions of the municipality of Rhodes
Municipal unit of Afantou
Municipal unit of Archangelos
Municipal unit of Attavyros
Municipal unit of Ialysos
Municipal unit of Kallithea
Municipal unit of Kameiros
Municipal unit of Lindos
Municipal unit of Petaloudes
Municipal unit of Rhodes (city)
Municipal unit of South Rhodes
Landmarks of Rhodes
Rhodes city
Rest of the island
Past
Journeys of Paul the Apostle
First journey
Second journey
Third journey

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