Rhamphorhynchidae

Rhamphorhynchidae is a group of early "rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaurs named after Rhamphorhynchus, that lived in the Late Jurassic. The family Rhamphorhynchidae was named in 1870 by Harry Govier Seeley.[9]

Rhamphorhynchidae
Temporal range: Early-Late Jurassic, 180–148.5 Ma
Rhamphorhynchus muensteri cast
Fossil specimen of Rhamphorhynchus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Pterosauria
Clade: Breviquartossa
Superfamily: Rhamphorhynchoidea
Seeley, 1870
Family: Rhamphorhynchidae
Seeley, 1870
Type species
Pterodactylus longicaudus
Münster, 1839
Subgroups[8]
Synonyms

Scaphognathidae Hooley, 1913

Classification

The cladogram (family tree) of rhamphorhynchids below is the result of a large phylogenetic analysis published by Andres & Myers in 2013.[8]

 Breviquartossa 
 Rhamphorhynchidae 

Scaphognathus crassirostris

 Rhamphorhynchinae 

Dorygnathus banthensis

Cacibupteryx caribensis

Nesodactylus hesperius

Rhamphorhynchus muensteri

Harpactognathus gentryii

Angustinaripterus longicephalus

Sericipterus wucaiwanensis

References

  1. ^ Hone, D. W. E.; Tischlinger, H.; Frey, E.; Röper, M. (2012). Claessens, Leon (ed.). "A New Non-Pterodactyloid Pterosaur from the Late Jurassic of Southern Germany". PLoS ONE. 7 (7): e39312. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039312. PMC 3390345. PMID 22792168.
  2. ^ Lü, J., Pu, H., Xu, L., Wei, X., ChanG, H., & Kundrát, M. (2015). "A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China." Zootaxa, 3911(1), 119-129.
  3. ^ Lü, J., Unwin, D.M., Zhao, B., Gao, C. and Shen, C. (2012). "A new rhamphorhynchid (Pterosauria: Rhamphorhynchidae) from the Middle/Upper Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3158: 1–19.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Unwin, David M. (2006). The Pterosaurs: From Deep Time. New York: Pi Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-13-146308-0.
  5. ^ Lü Junchang, Fucha, X. and Chen, J. (2010). "A new scaphognathine pterosaur from the Middle Jurassic of western Liaoning, China." Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 31(2): 263-266.
  6. ^ Xin Cheng, Xiaolin Wang, Shunxing Jiang and Alexander W.A. Kellner (2012). "A new scaphognathid pterosaur from western Liaoning, China". Historical Biology. 24: 101–111. doi:10.1080/08912963.2011.635423.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Lü Junchang & Bo Xue (2011). "A New Rhamphorhynchid Pterosaur (Pterosauria) from the Middle Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of Western Liaoning, China". Acta Geologica Sinica. 85 (5): 977–983. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2011.00531.x.
  8. ^ a b Andres, B.; Myers, T. S. (2013). "Lone Star Pterosaurs". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 103 (3–4): 383–398. doi:10.1017/S1755691013000303.
  9. ^ Seeley, H.G. (1870). "The Orithosauria: An Elementary Study of the Bones of Pterodactyles." Cambridge, 135 p.
Angustinaripterus

Angustinaripterus was a basal pterosaur, belonging to the Breviquartossa, and discovered at Dashanpu near Zigong in the Szechuan province of China.

Angustinaripterus was named in 1983 by He Xinlu.

The type species is Angustinaripterus longicephalus. The genus name is derived from Latin angustus, "narrow" and naris, "nostril", combined with Latinized Greek pteron, "wing". The specific name is derived from Latin longus, "long", and Greek kephale, "head".

The holotype, ZDM T8001, is a single skull with lower jaws, found in 1981 by researchers from the Zigong Historical Museum of the Salt Industry, in the Xiashaximiao Formation (Bathonian).

The skull, of which the left side is severely damaged, is very elongated and flat. The back part is missing; in its preserved state it has a length of 192 millimetres; the total length in a complete state was estimated at 201 millimetres. On its top is a low crest, two to three millimetres high. The nares are long, slit-like and positioned above and in front of the large skull openings, the fenestrae antorbitales, with which they are not confluent. Of the jaws, which are very straight, the front part is lacking. There are six pairs of teeth in the maxillae and three pairs in the praemaxillae. In the mandible there are at least ten pairs of teeth, perhaps twelve. The back teeth are small, the front teeth are very long, robust and curved, pointing moderately forwards. At the front they form a large, intermeshing "prey grab", that may have been used to snatch fish from the water surface. The teeth of Angustinaripterus resemble those of Dorygnathus.

He placed Angustinaripterus into the Rhamphorhynchidae. Because of the derived morphology and the large geographical distance with comparable European forms He also created a special subfamily Angustinaripterinae, of which Angustinaripterus itself is the only known member; because of this redundancy the concept is rarely used. He concluded that Angustinaripterus was directly related to the Scaphognathinae. David Unwin however, considers it a member of the other rhamphorhynchid subgroup: the Rhamphorhynchinae.

Peter Wellnhofer in 1991, assuming the skull length was 16.5 centimetres (6.5 inches), estimated the wingspan at 1.6 metres (5.25 ft).

Averostra

Averostra, or "bird snouts", is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs that have a promaxillary fenestra (fenestra promaxillaris), an extra opening in the front outer side of the maxilla, the bone that makes up the upper jaw. Two groups of averostrans, the Ceratosauria and the Orionides, survived into the Cretaceous period. When the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event occurred, ceratosaurians and two groups of orionideans within the clade Coelurosauria, the Tyrannosauroidea and Maniraptoriformes, were still extant. Only one subgroup of maniraptoriformes, Aves, survived the extinction event and persisted to the present day.

Avetheropoda

Avetheropoda, or "bird theropods", is a clade that includes carnosaurians and coelurosaurs to the exclusion of other dinosaurs.

Bellubrunnus

Bellubrunnus (meaning "the beautiful one of Brunn" in Latin) is an extinct genus of rhamphorhynchid pterosaur from the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian stage) of southern Germany. It contains a single species, Bellubrunnus rothgaengeri. Bellubrunnus is distinguished from other rhamphorhynchids by its lack of long projections on the vertebrae of the tail, fewer teeth in the jaws, and wingtips that curve forward rather than sweep backward as in other pterosaurs.

Cacibupteryx

Cacibupteryx is a genus of rhamphorhynchid "rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaur from the middle-late Oxfordian-age Upper Jurassic Jagua Formation of Pinar del Río, Cuba.

The genus was named in 2004 by Zulma Gasparini, Marta Fernández and Marcelo de la Fuente. The type species is Cacibupteryx caribensis. The genus name is derived from Cacibu, the "Lord of the Sky" in Taíno and Greek pteryx, "wing". The specific name refers to the Caribbean, Caribe in Spanish.

The genus is based on holotype IGO-V 208, a partial but well-preserved uncrushed skull — missing the tip of the snout, teeth, and lower jaws — and fragmentary left wing: the distal end of the ulna, fragments of the radius, and the first and fourth phalanx of the wing finger. The partial skull is seventeen centimeters long (6.7 inches), is preserved in three dimensions, and has a broad roof. The wingspan and length were not estimated by the describers, but it was indicated to be a relatively large form.The describers assigned Cacibupteryx to the Rhamphorhynchidae. Although there is little overlapping material with contemporaneous Nesodactylus from the same location, the two are clearly different as proven by details of the elbow and quadrate. Cacibupteryx is one of the most complete Oxfordian pterosaurs, and demonstrates additional Oxfordian pterosaur diversity. Phylogenetic analyses have found it to be a member of the subfamily Rhamphorhynchinae, closely related to Rhamphorhynchus and Nesodactylus.

Campylognathoides

Campylognathoides ("curved jaw", Strand 1928) is a genus of pterosaur, discovered in the Württemberg Lias deposits (dated to the early Toarcian age) of Germany; this first specimen consisted however only of wing fragments. Further better preserved specimens were found in the Holzmaden shale: basing on these specimens Felix Plieninger erected a new genus.

Changchengopterus

Changchengopterus is a genus of non-pterodactyloid pterosaur from China, Qinglong County, Hebei Province.

The fossil specimen, holotype CYGB-0036, of the type and only species, Changchengopterus pani, was found in the Tiaojishan Formation dating from the Callovian and named and described by Lü Junchang in 2009. The generic name combines the Changcheng, the Great Wall of China, with a Latinised Greek pteron, "wing". The specific name honours Pan Lijun, who collected the fossil and donated it to science. The holotype, a skeleton lacking the skull, represents a young juvenile, of which the combined paired wing elements measure just seventeen centimetres. In 2011, a second specimen was described, PMOL-AP00010, acquired in 2008 by the Paleontological Museum of Liaoning. It consists of a skeleton with lower jaws, of an adult individual.The wingspan of the referred specimen was in 2011 estimated at seventy centimetres. Already in 2010, some estimates for the genus had risen to 475 millimetres (18.7 in).In his original description, Lü's phylogenetic analysis concluded that Changchengopterus was a primitive pterosaur closely related to the earlier European pterosaur Dorygnathus, and he placed it in Rhamphorhynchidae. However, a subsequent study by Wang and colleagues (2010) noted some similarities with the wukongopterids, and they tentatively placed it in that family. Andres & Myers (2013) found it to be outside Wukongopteridae and slightly more closely related to the pterodactyloids within the larger group Monofenestrata.

Harpactognathus

Harpactognathus (meaning "seizing/grasping jaw") was a genus of pterosaur found in the Late Jurassic-age Morrison Formation of Albany County, Wyoming, United States. It is based on NAMAL 101, a partial skull consisting of the snout, recovered from near Bone Cabin Quarry in 1996. The species name honors the discoverer, Joe Gentry, a volunteer for the Western Paleontological Laboratories, in Lehi, Utah.Its describers found it to be most similar to Scaphognathus among pterosaurs, albeit substantially larger (estimated skull length of 280–300 mm (11–12 in), estimated wingspan of at least 2.5 m (8.2 ft)). Because of the similarity, Harpactognathus was assigned to the subfamily Scaphognathinae of the family Rhamphorhynchidae. This genus is also notable for having a low bony crest running all the way to the tip of the beak (pterosaur bone crests usually do not reach the tip) and for being the oldest known Morrison Formation pterosaur, having been found in the Salt Wash Member (Kimmeridgian).

Jianchangnathus

Jianchangnathus is an extinct genus of basal pterosaur from the Middle Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of northeastern China.

Jianchangopterus

Jianchangopterus is a genus of scaphognathine rhamphorhynchid pterosaur from the Middle Jurassic of western Liaoning, China. Jianchangopterus is known from a nearly complete skeleton with skull preserved. It was collected from the Tiaojishan Formation. It was first named (after Jianchang County) by Lü Junchang and Bo Xue in 2011 and the type species is Jianchangopterus zhaoianus.

Klobiodon

Klobiodon is a genus of rhamphorhynchid pterosaur from the Middle Jurassic Taynton Limestone Formation of Oxfordshire, England.

Novialoidea

Novialoidea (meaning "new wings") is an extinct clade of macronychopteran pterosaurs that lived from the latest Early Jurassic to the latest Late Cretaceous (early Toarcian to late Maastrichtian age), their fossils having been found on all continents except Antarctica. It was named by Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner in 2003 as a node-based taxon consisting of the last common ancestor of Campylognathoides, Quetzalcoatlus and all its descendants. This name was derived from Latin novus "new", and ala, "wing", in reference to the wing synapomorphies that the members of the clade possess. Unwin (2003) named Lonchognatha in the same issue of the journal that published Novialoidea (Geological Society of London, Special Publications 217) and defined it as Eudimorphodon ranzii, Rhamphorhynchus muensteri, their most recent common ancestor and all its descendants (as a node-based taxon). Under Unwin's and Kellner's phylogenetic analyses (where Eudimorphodon and Campylognathoides form a family that basal to both Rhamphorhynchus and Quetzalcoatlus), and because Novialoidea was named first (in pages 105-137, while Lonchognatha was named in pages 139-190), Lonchognatha is an objective junior synonym of the former. However, other analyses find Lonchognatha to be valid (Andres et al., 2010) or synonymous with the Pterosauria (Andres, 2010 and Andres, in press).

Orientognathus

Orientognathus is a genus of rhamphorhynchid pterosaur from the Middle Jurassic of China. It is known from a single specimen which includes most of the skeleton and skull, and was first named and described in 2015 by Lü Junchang et al.. The taxon was found in the Tuchengzi Formation of China, which is slightly younger than the Tiaojishan Formation that most other Middle Jurassic pterosaurs from the region have been found in. The description study produced a phylogenetic analysis, which determined that Orientognathus was a basal member of Rhamphorhynchidae, possibly within Rhamphorhynchinae.

Parapsicephalus

Parapsicephalus (meaning "beside arch head") is a genus of long-tailed rhamphorhynchid pterosaurs from the Lower Jurassic Whitby, Yorkshire, England. It contains a single species, P. purdoni, named initially as a species of the related rhamphorhynchid Scaphognathus in 1888 but moved to its own genus in 1919 on account of a unique combination of characteristics. In particular, the top surface of the skull of Parapsicephalus is convex, which is otherwise only seen in dimorphodontians. This has been the basis of its referral to the Dimorphodontia by some researchers, but it is generally agreed upon that Parapsicephalus probably represents a rhamphorhynchid. Within the Rhamphorhynchidae, Parapsicephalus has been synonymized with the roughly contemporary Dorygnathus; this, however, is not likely given a large number of differences between the two taxa, including the aforementioned convex top surface of the skull. Parapsicephalus has been tentatively referred to the Rhamphorhynchinae subgrouping of rhamphorhynchids, but it may represent a basal member of the group instead.

Preondactylus

Preondactylus is a genus of long-tailed pterosaurs from the Late Triassic (late Carnian or early Norian age, about 228 million years ago) that inhabited what is now Italy. It contains a single known species, Preondactylus buffarinii, which was discovered by Nando Buffarini in 1982 at the Forni Dolostone near Udine in the Preone valley of the Italian Alps.

Qinglongopterus

Qinglongopterus is a genus of rhamphorhynchine rhamphorhynchid pterosaur from the Middle/Upper Jurassic of Mutoudeng, Qinglong County, Hebei Province, China. Qinglongopterus is known from only one specimen; D3080/3081, collected from the Tiaojishan Formation, a skeleton with a skull. It was first named by Lü Junchang et al. in 2012 and the type species is Qinglongopterus guoi.

Rhamphorhynchus

Rhamphorhynchus (, "beak snout") is a genus of long-tailed pterosaurs in the Jurassic period. Less specialized than contemporary, short-tailed pterodactyloid pterosaurs such as Pterodactylus, it had a long tail, stiffened with ligaments, which ended in a characteristic diamond-shaped vane. The jaws of Rhamphorhynchus housed needle-like teeth, which were angled forward, with a curved, sharp, beak-like tip lacking teeth, indicating a diet mainly of fish; indeed, fish and cephalopod remains are frequently found in Rhamphorhynchus' abdominal contents, as well as in their coprolites.Although fragmentary fossil remains possibly belonging to Rhamphorhynchus have been found in England, Tanzania, and Spain, the best preserved specimens come from the Solnhofen limestone of Bavaria, Germany. Many of these fossils preserve not only the bones but impressions of soft tissues, such as wing membranes. Scattered teeth believed to belong to Rhamphorhynchus have been found in Portugal as well.

Scaphognathus

Scaphognathus was a pterosaur that lived around Germany during the Late Jurassic. It had a wingspan of 0.9 m (3 ft).

Sordes

Sordes was a small pterosaur from the late Jurassic (Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian) Karabastau Svita of Kazakhstan.

The genus was named in 1971 by Aleksandr Grigorevich Sharov. The type species is Sordes pilosus. The genus name is Latin for "filth" or "scum", a reference to evil spirits in local folklore. The specific name is Latin for "hairy"; despite sordes being feminine, it has not yet been amended to pilosa.

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