Rhadamanthus

In Greek mythology, Rhadamanthus (/ˌrædəˈmænθəs/) or Rhadamanthys (Ancient Greek: Ῥαδάμανθυς) was a wise king of Crete. In later accounts he is said to be one of the judges of the dead.

Tomb of the Judgement Radamanthys
Depiction of Rhadamanthys in the Tomb of Judgement, Lefkadia, c.300-250 BCE

Etymology

Rhadamanthus' name might mean 'rod diviner' derived from two Greek words mantis "soothsayer, seer" and rhabdos "rod, wand". It could also be etymologically related to Greek adámas "invincible, untamed", damázo "to overpower, to tame, to conquer."

Family

Rhadamanthus was the son of Zeus and Europa and brother to Sarpedon and Minos (also a king and later a judge of the dead).[1] Together with his brothers, Rhadamanthus was raised by Asterion, their stepfather. He had two sons, Gortys (associated with Gortyn, Crete) and Erythrus (founder of Erythrae).

Other sources (e.g. Plutarch, Theseus 20) credit Rhadamanthys rather than Dionysus as the husband of Ariadne, and the father of Oenopion, Staphylus and Thoas. In this account, Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, Rhadamanthys' brother; another Ariadne was the daughter of Minos' grandson and namesake, who features in the Theseus legend, and was rescued by Dionysus.

Mythology

Legislation

Although he was frequently considered one of the judges of the dead in the underworld, he was known for few legislative activities. There is a reference to a law of Rhadamanthus ordering the Cretans to swear oaths by animals[2] and to another law of Rhadamanthus saying if a person defends themselves against another who initiated violence then they should suffer no penalty.[3]

Exile from Crete

Driven out of Crete by Minos, who was jealous of his popularity, he fled to Boeotia, where he wedded Alcmene, widow of Amphitryon and mother of Heracles. Also, according to some traditions, he was a tutor to Heracles.[4] This is also mentioned by Tzetzes, a medieval historian.

In general, the particular sphere of activity of Rhadamanthus tends to be the Aegean islands, apart from Crete itself, where Minos was active. He is also often connected by ancient authors with central Greece.[4]

Afterlife

According to later legends (c. 400 BC), on account of his inflexible integrity he was made one of the judges of the dead in the lower world, together with Aeacus and Minos. He was supposed to judge the souls of easterners, Aeacus those of westerners, while Minos had the casting vote (Plato, Gorgias 524A). He is portrayed in Books 4 and 7 of Homer's Odyssey. Virgil (69–18 BC) makes Rhadamanthus one of the judges and punishers of the unworthy in the Underworld (Tartarus) section of the Aeneid.

Homer represents him as dwelling in the Elysian Fields (Odyssey iv. 564), the paradise for the immortal sons of Zeus. Pindar says that he is the right-hand man of Cronus (now ruling Elysium) and was the sole judge of the dead. Lucian depicts Rhadamanthus as presiding over the company of heroes on the Isles of the Blest in True History.

Argive Genealogy

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology
InachusMelia
ZeusIoPhoroneus
EpaphusMemphis
LibyaPoseidon
BelusAchiroëAgenorTelephassa
DanausPieriaAegyptusCadmusCilixEuropaPhoenix
MantineusHypermnestraLynceusHarmoniaZeus
Polydorus
SpartaLacedaemonOcaleaAbasAgaveSarpedonRhadamanthus
Autonoë
EurydiceAcrisiusInoMinos
ZeusDanaëSemeleZeus
PerseusDionysus
Colour key:

     Male
     Female
     Deity

References

  1. ^ Bulfinch, Thomas; Scott, J. Loughran (John Loughran) (24 January 1898). "The age of fable; or, Beauties of mythology". Philadelphia, D. McKay – via Internet Archive.
  2. ^ Porphyry, De Abstinentia III.16.6, on which see Jean Bouffartigue, Porphyre, De l'abstinence, (Paris) 1979, p. 171 n. 2.
  3. ^ Apollodorus Library of Greek Mythology, II.4
  4. ^ a b John Davidson, Rhadamanthys and the Family of Herakles. L'antiquité classique, 1999, Vol 68, pp. 247-252

External links

Media related to Rhadamanthus at Wikimedia Commons

38083 Rhadamanthus

38083 Rhadamanthus is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO). It was discovered in 1999 by the Deep Ecliptic Survey. It was originally thought to be a plutino but no longer is.

Aeacus

Aeacus (; also spelled Eacus; Ancient Greek: Αἰακός Aiakos or Aiacos) was a mythological king of the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.

Aphaenops

Aphaenops is a genus of beetles in the family Carabidae, containing the following species:

All species in the genus are obligate troglobites, and each species is usually endemic to a single cave system; they are unpigmented, and have no functional eyes.

Aphaenops abodiensis Dupre, 1988

Aphaenops alberti Jeannel, 1939

Aphaenops bessoni Cabidoche, 1962

Aphaenops bonneti Foures, 1948

Aphaenops bouilloni Coiffait, 1955

Aphaenops bourdeaui Coiffait, 1976

Aphaenops bucephalus Dieck, 1869

Aphaenops carrerei Coiffait, 1953

Aphaenops catalonicus Escola & Cancio, 1983

Aphaenops cerberus Dieck, 1869

Aphaenops chappuisi Coiffait, 1955

Aphaenops cissauguensis Faille & Bourdeau, 2008

Aphaenops coiffaitianus A. Gaudin, 1947

Aphaenops crypticola Linder, 1859

Aphaenops delbreili Genest, 1983

Aphaenops eskualduna Coiffait, 1959

Aphaenops fresnedai Faille & Bourdeau, 2011

Aphaenops hidalgoi Espanol & Camas, 1985

Aphaenops hustachei Jeannel, 1917

Aphaenops jauzioni Faille, Deliot & Queinnec, 2007

Aphaenops jeanneli Abeille da Perris, 1905

Aphaenops laurenti Genest, 1983

Aphaenops leschenaulti Bonvouloir, 1862

Aphaenops linderi Jeannel, 1938

Aphaenops loubensi Jeannel, 1953

Aphaenops ludovici A. Gaudin, 1935

Aphaenops mariaerosae Genest, 1983

Aphaenops mensioni Mascaro, 1976

Aphaenops michaeli Foures, 1954

Aphaenops ochsi L. Gaudin, 1925

Aphaenops orionis Fagniez, 1913

Aphaenops parallelus Coiffait, 1955

Aphaenops parvulus Faille, Bourdeau & Fresneda, 2010

Aphaenops pluto Dieck, 1869

Aphaenops queffelici Cabidoche, 1966

Aphaenops rebereti A. Gaudin, 1947

Aphaenops rhadamanthus Linden, 1860

Aphaenops sioberae Foures, 1954

Aphaenops tiresias Piochard de la Brulerie, 1872

Aphaenops valleti Casale & Genest, 1986

Aphaenops vandeli Foures, 1954

Arae

In Greek mythology, the were female spirits of curses, particularly of the curses placed by the dead upon those guilty of their death; they were associated with the underworld.They are sometimes identified with the Erinyes.

Ceuthonymus

Ceuthonymus or Keuthonymos (Ancient Greek: Κευθώνυμος) is a spirit in mythology who is the father of Menoites (or Menoetes, Menoetius). Ceuthonymus is a mysterious daimon or spirit of the underworld, who lives in the realm of Hades. Ceuthonymus is possibly the same as Iapetos, a Titan, and father of a certain Menoitios.

Daedalus (horse)

Daedalus (1791 – after 1794) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a brief career that lasted from April to October 1794 he ran three times and won once. He won the Derby on his racecourse debut, beating the smallest field in the history of the race. He was beaten in two races later that year and was retired.

Drimia

Drimia is a genus of flowering plants. In the APG IV classification system, it is placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae (formerly the family Hyacinthaceae). When broadly circumscribed, the genus includes a number of other genera previously treated separately, including Litanthus, Rhodocodon, Schizobasis and Urginea.One of the best-known species is the sea squill, Drimia maritima (formerly Urginea maritima). Drimia intricata (formerly Schizobasis intricata) is sometimes cultivated as a bulbous or succulent plant.

Drimia namibensis

Drimia namibensis (syn. Rhadamanthus namibensis) is a species of plant that is endemic to Namibia. Its natural habitat is cold desert.

Drimia secunda

Drimia secunda (syn. Rhadamanthus secundus) is a species of plant that is endemic to Namibia. Its natural habitats are rocky areas and cold desert.

Elysium

Elysium or the Elysian Fields (Ancient Greek: Ἠλύσιον πεδίον, Ēlýsion pedíon) is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was maintained by some Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults. Initially separate from the realm of Hades, admission was reserved for mortals related to the gods and other heroes. Later, it expanded to include those chosen by the gods, the righteous, and the heroic, where they would remain after death, to live a blessed and happy life, and indulging in whatever employment they had enjoyed in life.The Elysian Fields were, according to Homer, located on the western edge of the Earth by the stream of Okeanos. In the time of the Greek oral poet Hesiod, Elysium would also be known as the Fortunate Isles or the Isles (or Islands) of the Blessed, located in the western ocean at the end of the earth. The Isles of the Blessed would be reduced to a single island by the Thebean poet Pindar, describing it as having shady parks, with residents indulging in athletic and musical pastimes.The ruler of Elysium varies from author to author: Pindar and Hesiod name Cronus as the ruler, while the poet Homer in the Odyssey describes fair-haired Rhadamanthus dwelling there.

Minos

In Greek mythology, Minos (; Greek: Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa. Every nine years, he made King Aegeus pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to Daedalus's creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by the Minotaur. After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in the underworld.

The Minoan civilization of Crete has been named after him by the archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans.

Platymeris rhadamanthus

Platymeris rhadamanthus, the red spot assassin bug, is a species of true bugs belonging to the family Reduviidae.

Rhadamanthus (disambiguation)

Rhadamanthus was a just ruler in Greek mythology, son of Zeus and Europa.

Rhadamanthus may also refer to:

38083 Rhadamanthus, a trans-Neptunian object

Rhadamanthus, a genus of plants included in the genus Drimia

Rhadamanthus (horse), a British Thoroughbred racehorse

Rhadamanthus (horse)

Rhadamanthus (1787 – after 1795) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a career that lasted from April 1790 to 1793 he ran nine times and won five races. In the summer of 1790 he proved himself one of the best British colts of his generation, winning The Derby while still undefeated. He raced until the age of six, winning three further races. All of his runs apart from the Derby were at Newmarket.

Rhadamantus-Klänge

Rhadamantus-Klänge (Echoes of Rhadamantus), Op. 94, is a waltz composed by Johann Strauss II. It was written for the 1851 Vienna Carnival. The title of the work was named after Rhadamanthus, one of the judges of the underworld in Greek mythology. Eduard Strauss, the composer's youngest brother, included the waltz's opening number in his potpourri Bluthenkranz Johann Strauss'scher Walzer (Garland of Strauss Waltzes), opus 292.

Sarpedon

Sarpedon (; Ancient Greek: Σαρπηδών) is the name of several figures in Greek mythology

Sarpedon, a son of Zeus, who fought on the side of Troy in the Trojan War. Although in the Iliad, he was the son of Zeus and Laodamia, the daughter of Bellerophon, in the later standard tradition, he was the son of Zeus and Europa, and the brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, while in other accounts the Sarpedon who fought at Troy was the grandson of the Sarpedon who was the brother of Minos.

Sarpedon, a Thracian son of Poseidon, eponym of Cape Sarpedon near the outlet of the River Hebrus, and brother to Poltys, King of Aenus. Unlike the other two Sarpedons, this Thracian Sarpedon was not a hero, but an insolent individual who was shot to death by Heracles as the latter was sailing away from Aenus.

Sarpedon, son of Zeus and Lardane and brother of Argus.

Sarpedon (Trojan War hero)

In Greek mythology, Sarpedon ( or ; Ancient Greek: Σαρπηδών), was a son of Zeus, who fought on the side of Troy in the Trojan War. Although in the Iliad, he was the son of Zeus and Laodamia, the daughter of Bellerophon, in the later standard tradition, he was the son of Zeus and Europa, and the brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, while in other accounts the Sarpedon who fought at Troy was the grandson of the Sarpedon who was the brother of Minos.

Tartarus

In Greek mythology, Tartarus (; Ancient Greek: Τάρταρος, Tartaros) is the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans. Tartarus is the place where, according to Plato's Gorgias (c. 400 BC), souls are judged after death and where the wicked received divine punishment. Like other primal entities (such as the Earth, Night and Time), Tartarus is also considered to be a primordial force or deity.

Zygaena rhadamanthus

Zygaena rhadamanthus is a species of moth in the Zygaenidae family. It is found in France, Spain, Portugal and Italy.The larvae feed on Onobrychis, Dorycnium pentaphyllum and Lotus species. The species overwinters in the larval stage.

Ancient Greek deities by affiliation
Primordial
deities
Titan
deities
Olympian
deities
Aquatic
deities
Chthonic
deities
Personifications
Other deities

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.