Reykjavík

Reykjavík (/ˈreɪkjəvɪk, -viːk/ RAY-kyə-vik, -⁠veek;[4][5] Icelandic: [ˈreiːcaˌviːk] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Iceland. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxa Bay. Its latitude is 64°08' N, making it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. With a population of around 128,793 (and 228,231 in the Capital Region),[6][3] it is the heart of Iceland's cultural, economic and governmental activity, and is a popular tourist destination.

Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which, according to Ingólfr Arnarson, was established in AD 874. Until the 19th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the following decades, as it transformed into a regional and later national centre of commerce, population, and governmental activities. It is among the cleanest, greenest, and safest cities in the world.[7][8][9]

Reykjavík
Reykjavik Main Image
From upper left: Reykjavik from Perlan, rooftops from Hallgrímskirkja, Reykjavik from Hallgrímskirkja, Fríkirkjan, panorama from Perlan
ISL Reykjavik COA
Coat of arms of Reykjavík
Reykjavikurborg map
Location of Reykjavík
RegionCapital Region
ConstituencyReykjavík Constituency North
Reykjavík Constituency South
Market rightAugust 18, 1786[1]
MayorDagur Bergþóruson Eggertsson (SDA)
CouncilReykjavík City Council
Area273 km2 (105 sq mi)[2]
Population128,793 (2019)[3]
Density471.77/km2 (1,221.9/sq mi)
Municipal number0000
Postal code(s)101–155
Websitereykjavik.is

History

Ingolf by Raadsig
A painting by Johan Peter Raadsig of Ingólfur commanding his high seat pillars to be erected
Reykjavik 1860s
Reykjavík in the 1860s

The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen is believed to have been established at Reykjavík by Ingólfr Arnarson around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók, or the Book of Settlement. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Norse method; he cast his high seat pillars (Öndvegissúlur) into the ocean when he saw the coastline, then settled where the pillars came to shore. The story about the pillars is dubious to many people. He obviously settled near the hot springs to keep warm in the winter and would not have determined it by happenstance. Furthermore the probability of the pillars drifting to that location from where they were said to have been thrown from the boat seems improbable. Nevertheless that is what the Landnamabok says and says furthermore that Ingolf's pillars are still to be found in a house there in town. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove (the city is sometimes referred to as Bay of Smoke or Smoky Bay in English language travel guides).[10][11] In the modern language, as in English, the word for 'smoke' and the word for fog or steamy vapour are not commonly confused but this is believed to have been the case in the old language. The original name was Reykjarvík with an additional "r" that had vanished around 1800.[12]

The Reykjavík area was farmland until the 18th century. In 1752, the King of Denmark, Frederik V, donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from the Danish language word indretninger, meaning institution. The leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon. In the 1750s, several houses were built to house the wool industry, which was Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other industries were undertaken by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries, sulphur mining, agriculture, and shipbuilding.[13]

The Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter. Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. 1786 is thus regarded as the date of the city's founding. Trading rights were limited to subjects of the Danish Crown, and Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities, and the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow.

Rise of nationalism

Pg107 Main street of Reykjavik and Governors house
Reykjavík in 1881

Icelandic nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century, and the idea of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was central to such ideas. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental to that objective. All the important events in the history of the independence struggle were important to Reykjavík as well. In 1845 Alþingi, the general assembly formed in 930 AD, was re-established in Reykjavík; it had been suspended a few decades earlier when it was located at Þingvellir. At the time it functioned only as an advisory assembly, advising the King about Icelandic affairs. The location of Alþingi in Reykjavík effectively established the city as the capital of Iceland.

In 1874, Iceland was given a constitution; with it, Alþingi gained some limited legislative powers and in essence became the institution that it is today. The next step was to move most of the executive power to Iceland: Home Rule was granted in 1904 when the office of Minister For Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken on 1 December 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland.

By the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík; cod production was its main industry, but the Great Depression hit Reykjavík hard with unemployment, and labour union struggles sometimes became violent.

World War II

On the morning of 10 May 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark and Norway on 9 April 1940, four British warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. In a few hours, the allied occupation of Reykjavík was complete. There was no armed resistance, and taxi and truck drivers even assisted the invasion force, which initially had no motor vehicles. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government to consent to the occupation, but it always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy. For the remaining years of World War II, British and later American soldiers occupied camps in Reykjavík, and the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city. The Royal Regiment of Canada formed part of the garrison in Iceland during the early part of the war.

The economic effects of the occupation were positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the Depression years vanished, and construction work began. The British built Reykjavík Airport, which is still in service today, mostly serving domestic flights. The Americans, meanwhile, built Keflavík Airport, situated 50 km (31 mi) west of Reykjavík, which became Iceland's primary international airport. In 1944, the Republic of Iceland was founded and a president, elected by the people, replaced the King; the office of the president was placed in Reykjavík.

Post-war development

In the post-war years, the growth of Reykjavík accelerated. An exodus from the rural countryside began, largely because improved technology in agriculture reduced the need for manpower, and because of a population boom resulting from better living conditions in the country. A once primitive village was rapidly transformed into a modern city. Private cars became common, and modern apartment complexes rose in the expanding suburbs.

In 1972, Reykjavík hosted the world chess championship between Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky. The 1986 Reykjavík Summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev underlined Reykjavík's international status. Deregulation in the financial sector and the computer revolution of the 1990s again transformed Reykjavík. The financial and IT sectors are now significant employers in the city. The city has fostered some world-famous talents in recent decades, such as Björk, Ólafur Arnalds and bands Múm, Sigur Rós and Of Monsters and Men, poet Sjón and visual artist Ragnar Kjartansson.

Geography

Reykjavikfromabove
Reykjavík seen from above
Reykjavik Esja
Esja, the mountain range to the north of Reykjavík

Reykjavík is located in the southwest of Iceland. The Reykjavík area coastline is characterized by peninsulas, coves, straits, and islands.

During the Ice Age (up to 10,000 years ago) a large glacier covered parts of the city area, reaching as far out as Álftanes. Other parts of the city area were covered by sea water. In the warm periods and at the end of the Ice Age, some hills like Öskjuhlíð were islands. The former sea level is indicated by sediments (with clams) reaching (at Öskjuhlíð, for example) as far as 43 m (141 ft) above the current sea level. The hills of Öskjuhlíð and Skólavörðuholt appear to be the remains of former shield volcanoes which were active during the warm periods of the Ice Age. After the Ice Age, the land rose as the heavy load of the glaciers fell away, and began to look as it does today.

The capital city area continued to be shaped by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, like the one 4,500 years ago in the mountain range Bláfjöll, when the lava coming down the Elliðaá valley reached the sea at the bay of Elliðavogur.

The largest river to run through Reykjavík is the Elliðaá River, which is non-navigable. It is one of the best salmon fishing rivers in the country. Mount Esja, at 914 m (2,999 ft), is the highest mountain in the vicinity of Reykjavík.

The city of Reykjavík is mostly located on the Seltjarnarnes peninsula, but the suburbs reach far out to the south and east. Reykjavík is a spread-out city: most of its urban area consists of low-density suburbs, and houses are usually widely spaced. The outer residential neighbourhoods are also widely spaced from each other; in between them are the main traffic arteries and a lot of empty space.

Panorama of Reykjavík seen from Perlan with the mountains Akrafjall (middle) and Esja (right) in the background
Panorama of Reykjavík seen from Perlan with the mountains Akrafjall (middle) and Esja (right) in the background
Panorama of Reykjavík seen from Perlan at sunset in summer. As seen in the picture, Reykjavík is mild enough for trees to grow.
Panorama of Reykjavík seen from Perlan at sunset in summer. As seen in the picture, Reykjavík is mild enough for trees to grow.

Climate

Reykjavík has a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfc).[14] While not much different from a tundra climate, the city has its present climate classification since the beginning of the twentieth century.[15][16]

Despite its northern latitude, temperatures very rarely drop below −15 °C (5 °F) in the winter. The proximity to the Arctic Circle and the strong moderation of the Atlantic Ocean in the Icelandic coast (influence of North Atlantic Current, an extension of the Gulf Stream) shape a very cool but not rigorous winter without a real summer. The city's coastal location does make it prone to wind, however, and gales are common in winter. Summers are cool, with temperatures fluctuating between 10 and 15 °C (50 and 59 °F), rarely exceeding 20 °C (68 °F). Reykjavík averages 147 days[17] at the threshold of 1 mm per year. Droughts are uncommon, although they occur in some summers. In the summer of 2007, no rain was measured for one month. Summer tends to be the sunniest season, although May receives the most sunshine of any individual month. Overall, the city receives around 1,300 annual hours of sunshine,[18] which is comparable with other places in Northern and North-Western Europe such as Ireland and Scotland, but substantially less than equally Northern regions with a more continental climate, including Finland. Nonetheless, Reykjavik is one of the cloudiest and coolest capitals of any nation in the world. The highest ever recorded temperature in Reykjavík was 25.7 °C (78 °F), recorded on July 30, 2008,[19] while the lowest ever recorded temperature was −19.7 °C (−3 °F), recorded on January 30, 1971.[20]

Cityscape

Reykjavik rooftops

Colourful rooftops line Reykjavík.

View from Hallgrímskirkja 11

Looking southeast from Hallgrímskirkja.

View from Hallgrímskirkja 2

Another view of Reykjavík from Hallgrímskirkja.

Skólavörðustígur

View from Skólavörðustígur.

The pond

Tjörnin (The Pond) in Central Reykjavík.

Austurvöllur - a sunny day

Austurvöllur on a sunny day.

Vista de Reikiavik desde Perlan, Distrito de la Capital, Islandia, 2014-08-13, DD 118-120 HDR

View from Perlan.

Reykjavik from Hallgrimskikrja
Reykjavik from Hallgrimskirkja
Panorama of the northern seashore of Reykjavík, as seen from Örfirisey.
Panorama of the northern seashore of Reykjavík, as seen from Örfirisey.

City administration

The Reykjavík City Council governs the city of Reykjavík[24] and is directly elected by those aged over 18 domiciled in the city. The council has 15 members who are elected using the open list method for four year terms.

The council selects members of boards, and each board controls a different field under the city council's authority. The most important board is the City Board that wields the executive rights along with the City Mayor. The City Mayor is the senior public official and also the director of city operations. Other public officials control city institutions under the mayor's authority. Thus, the administration consists of two different parts:

  • The political power of City Council cascading down to other boards
  • Public officials under the authority of the city mayor who administer and manage implementation of policy.

Political control

The Independence Party was historically the city's ruling party; it had an overall majority from its establishment in 1929 until 1978, when it narrowly lost. From 1978 until 1982, there was a three-party coalition composed of the People's Alliance, the Social Democratic Party, and the Progressive Party. In 1982, the Independence Party regained an overall majority, which it held for three consecutive terms. The 1994 election was won by Reykjavíkurlistinn (the R-list), an alliance of Icelandic socialist parties, led by Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir. This alliance won a majority in three consecutive elections, but was dissolved for the 2006 election when five different parties were on the ballot. The Independence Party won seven seats, and together with the one Progressive Party they were able to form a new majority in the council which took over in June 2006.

In October 2007 a new majority was formed on the council, consisting of members of the Progressive Party, the Social Democratic Alliance, the Left-Greens and the F-list (liberals and independents), after controversy regarding REI, a subsidiary of OR, the city's energy company. However three months later the F-list formed a new majority together with the Independence Party. Ólafur F. Magnússon, the leader of the F-list, was elected mayor on 24 January 2008, and in March 2009 the Independence Party was due to appoint a new mayor. This changed once again on 14 August 2008 when the fourth coalition of the term was formed, by the Independence Party and the Social Democratic Alliance, with Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir becoming mayor.

The City Council election in May 2010 saw a new political party, The Best Party, win six of 15 seats, and they formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Alliance; comedian Jón Gnarr became mayor.[25] At the 2014 election, the Social Democratic Alliance had its best showing yet, gaining five seats in the council, while Bright Future (successor to the Best Party) received two seats and the two parties formed a coalition with the Left-Green movement and the Pirate party, which won one seat each. The Independence Party had its worst election ever, with only four seats.

Reykjavik northeast aerial panorama
Reykjavik: northeast aerial panorama

Mayor

The mayor is appointed by the city council; usually one of the council members is chosen, but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a member of the council.

The post was created in 1907 and advertised in 1908. Two applications were received, from Páll Einarsson, sheriff and town mayor of Hafnarfjörður and from Knud Zimsen, town councillor in Reykjavík. Páll was appointed on 7 May and was mayor for six years. At that time the city mayor received a salary of 4500 ISK per year and 1500 ISK for office expenses. The current mayor is Dagur B. Eggertsson.[26]

Demographics

Reykjavík is the largest and most populous settlement in Iceland. Icelanders consist of 92% of the present-day Reykjavík population.[27] The most common ethnic minorities are Poles, Lithuanians, and Danes. In 2009, foreign-born individuals made up 8% of the total population.[28] Children of foreign origin form a more considerable minority in the city's schools: as many as a third in places.[29] The city is also visited by thousands of tourists, students, and other temporary residents, at times outnumbering natives in the city centre.[30]

Reykjavik population graph 1889-2016
Historical population of Reykjavík.

Districts

Administrative map of Reykjavík
Districts of Reykjavík

Reykjavík is divided into 10 districts:

In addition there are hinterland areas (lightly shaded on the map) which are not assigned to any district.

Economy

Borgartún is the financial centre of Reykjavík, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks.

Hvalur 6, 7, 8 and 9
Old whaling ships Hvalur 6, 7, 8 and 9

Reykjavík has been at the centre of Iceland's economic growth and subsequent economic contraction over the 2000s, a period referred to in foreign media as the "Nordic Tiger" years,[31][32] or "Iceland's Boom Years".[33] The economic boom led to a sharp increase in construction, with large redevelopment projects such as Harpa concert hall and conference centre and others. Many of these projects came to a screeching halt in the following economic crash of 2008.

Infrastructure

Roads

Per capita car ownership in Iceland is among the highest in the world at roughly 522 vehicles per 1,000 residents,[34] though Reykjavík is not severely affected by congestion. Several multi-lane highways (mainly dual carriageways) run between the most heavily populated areas and most frequently driven routes. Parking spaces are also plentiful in most areas. Public transportation consists of a bus system called Strætó bs. Route 1 (the Ring Road) runs through the city outskirts and connects the city to the rest of Iceland.

Airports and seaports

Reykjavík Airport, the second largest airport in the country (after Keflavík International Airport), is positioned inside the city, just south of the city centre. It is mainly used for domestic flights, as well as flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Since 1962, there has been some controversy regarding the location of the airport, since it takes up a lot of valuable space in central Reykjavík.

Reykjavík has two seaports, the old harbour near the city centre which is mainly used by fishermen and cruise ships, and Sundahöfn in the east city which is the largest cargo port in the country.

Reykjavík Old Harbor
Old Harbour

Railways

RHR-Minor
Two steam locomotives were used to build the harbour Reykjavík Docks railway; both are now on display in Reykjavík.

There are no public railways in Iceland, because of its sparse population, but the locomotives used to build the docks are on display. Proposals have been made for a high speed rail link between the city and Keflavík.

District heating

Volcanic activity provides Reykjavík with geothermal heating systems for both residential and industrial districts. In 2008, natural hot water was used to heat roughly 90% of all buildings in Iceland.[35] Of total annual use of geothermal energy of 39 PJ, space heating accounted for 48%.

Most of the district heating in Iceland comes from three main geothermal power plants:[36]

Cultural heritage

Safnahúsið (the Culture House) was opened in 1909 and has a number of important exhibits. Originally built to house the National Library and National Archives and also previously the location of the National Museum and Natural History Museum, in 2000 it was re-modeled to promote the Icelandic national heritage. Many of Iceland's national treasures are on display, such as the Poetic Edda, and the Sagas in their original manuscripts. There are also changing exhibitions of various topics.[37]

Lifestyle

Nightlife

Laugarvegur01
Laugavegur main street in downtown Reykjavík

Reykjavík is famous for its weekend nightlife. Icelanders tend to go out late, so bars that look rather quiet can fill up suddenly—usually after midnight on a weekend.

Alcohol is expensive at bars. People tend to drink at home before going out. Beer was banned in Iceland until 1 March 1989 but has since become popular among many Icelanders as their alcoholic drink of choice.[38]

There are over 100 different bars and clubs in Reykjavík; most of them are located on Laugavegur and its side streets. It is very common for an establishment that is a café before dinner to turn into a bar in the evening. Closing time is usually around 4:30 am on weekends and 1 am during the week at the most well known hospitality venues.

Live music

The Iceland Airwaves music festival is annually staged in November. This festival takes place all over the city, and the concert venue Harpa is one of the main locations. Other venues that frequently organise live music events are Kex, Húrra, Gaukurinn (grunge, metal, punk), Mengi (centre for contemporary music, avant-garde music and experimental music), the Icelandic Opera and the National Theatre of Iceland for classical music.

New Year's Eve

The arrival of the new year is a particular cause for celebration to the people of Reykjavík. Icelandic law states that anyone may purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's Eve. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with fireworks displays.

Street Art

Reykjavik has a street art scene featuring works from artists such as Selur, Siggi Odds, INO, Elle, Sara Riel, and Guideo Van Helten.

Main sights

Austurstræti 1
Austurstræti street

Recreation

Reykjavik Golf Club was established in 1934. It is the oldest and largest golf club in Iceland. It consists of two 18-hole courses - one at Grafarholt and the other at Korpa. The Grafarholt golf course opened in 1963, which makes it the oldest 18-hole golf course in Iceland. The Korpa golf course opened in 1997.[39]

Education

Secondary schools

Universities

International schools

Sports teams

Football

Úrvalsdeild

1. deild karla

Other

  • Skylmingafélagið Væringjar (fencing)
  • Skotfélag Reykjavíkur (shooting)
  • Íþróttafélag fatlaðra í Reykjavík (sports club for the disabled in Reykjavik)

Twin towns and sister cities

Reykjavík is twinned with:

In July 2013, mayor Jón Gnarr filed a motion before the city council to terminate the city's relationship with Moscow, in response to a trend of anti-gay legislation in Russia.[46]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Vísindavefurinn: Af hverju varð Reykjavík höfuðstaður Íslands?". Vísindavefurinn.
  2. ^ "Vísindavefurinn: Hvað er Reykjavík margir metrar?". Vísindavefurinn.
  3. ^ a b "Mannfjöldi eftir sveitarfélögum, kyni, ríkisfangi og ársfjórðungum 2010-2016". Hagstofa Íslands. Hagstofa Íslands. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  4. ^ "Reykjavik - definition of Reykjavik in English from the Oxford dictionary". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  5. ^ "How to say or pronounce Reykjavik - PronounceNames.com". www.pronouncenames.com. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  6. ^ "Iceland: Major Urban Settlements - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2019-03-25.
  7. ^ Yunlong, Sun (2007-12-23). "Reykjavík rated cleanest city in Nordic and Baltic countries". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  8. ^ "15 Green Cities". Grist. 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  9. ^ "Iceland among Top 10 safest countries and Reykjavík is the winner of Tripadvisor Awards". TRAVELIO.net. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
  10. ^ "Google.com". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  11. ^ "Google.com". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  12. ^ Er eitthvert örnefni á höfuðborgarsvæðinu eða vík eða vogur, sem heitir Reykjavík?. Vísindavefur. (in Icelandic)
  13. ^ Hvaðan kemur nafnið "Innréttingarnar" á fyrirtækinu sem starfaði hér á á 18. öld?. Vísindavefur. (in Icelandic)
  14. ^ "Reykjavik, Iceland Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  15. ^ "Köppen Climate Classification of 1900-2100".
  16. ^ "Shifts climate".
  17. ^ "Weather statistics for Reykjavik". yr.no.
  18. ^ The weather of 2010 in Iceland Icelandic Met Office
  19. ^ "Reykjavik sees record summer temperature". Agence France-Presse. July 31, 2008.
  20. ^ "Nokkur íslensk veðurmet". Archived from the original on 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
  21. ^ "Montly Averages for Reykjavík". Icelandic Meteorological Office. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Annual Averages for Reykjavík". Icelandic Met Office. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  23. ^ "Reykjavík 1961-1990 Averages". Icelandic Meteorological Office. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  24. ^ "1998 nr. 45 3. júní/ Sveitarstjórnarlög". Althingi.is. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
  25. ^ "Best Party wins polls in Iceland's Reykjavík". BBC News Online. 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
  26. ^ Jón Glarr is no longer mayor of Reykjavík. Reykjavík Grapevine.
  27. ^ Foreign citizens in Reykjavík by districts 2002-2010 Reference Icelandic Statistical Bureau
  28. ^ Foreign citizens in Reykjavík by districts 2002-2010 Reference Icelandic Statistical Bureau
  29. ^ "Reykjavík – fjölmenningarborg barna" (PDF). 18 January 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  30. ^ "Vísir - Breskir ferðamenn fjölmennastir sem fyrr". Visir.is. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  31. ^ Surowiecki, James (2008-04-21). "Iceland's Deep Freeze". The New Yorker.
  32. ^ Kvam, Berit (2009-06-19). "Iceland: light at the end of the tunnel?". Nordic Labour Journal.
  33. ^ "Iceland: the boom years". The Telegraph. 2009-08-18.
  34. ^ "Motor vehicles (most recent) by country". United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook. nationmaster.com. Retrieved 2010-03-29.
  35. ^ "NEA.is". NEA.is. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  36. ^ "Mannvit". Mannvit. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  37. ^ Guide leaflet to the Culture House 2008, published by the National Centre for Cultural Heritage.
  38. ^ "The Dynamics of Shifts in Alcoholic Beverage Preference: Effects of the Legalization of Beer in Iceland". Questia.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
  39. ^ "Reykjavik Golf Club".
  40. ^ "Christmas around the world". Hull in print. Hull City Council. December 2006.
  41. ^ "Convenio de amistad entre Ciudad de México y Reykjavík" (in Spanish). SEGOB. Archived from the original on 2014-08-04.
  42. ^ Irvine, Chris (2013-07-15). "Reykjavik mayor proposes cutting ties with Moscow over gay law". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
  43. ^ "Reykjavík, Iceland - Sister Cities". Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  44. ^ "Vinarbýir - Tórshavnar kommuna". torshavn.fo.
  45. ^ "Wrocław będzie miał nowe miasto partnerskie". tuwroclaw.com.
  46. ^ "Sister Cities Ramp Up Russia Boycott Over Antigay Law". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 30 April 2014.

References

External links

Coordinates: 64°08′00″N 21°56′00″W / 64.13333°N 21.93333°W

1. deild karla (football)

1. deild karla, known as Inkasso-deild karla (English: The Inkasso League) for sponsorship reasons, is a football league in Iceland. It is the second division in the Icelandic football league system. The league was founded in 1955 and current champions are ÍA.

The league was expanded to 12 teams for the 2007 season, after having only 10 teams for many years. Since 2008 the top three divisions have all had 12 teams.

2008 Úrvalsdeild

The 2008 season of Úrvalsdeild was the 97th season of top-tier football in Iceland. The league, also known as Landsbankadeild for sponsoring reasons, has been expanded from 10 teams to 12 teams in 2008.

2014 Icelandic Cup

The 2014 Icelandic Cup, also known as Borgunarbikar for sponsorship reasons, was the 55th edition of the Icelandic national football cup.

2016 Icelandic Cup

The 2016 Icelandic Cup, also known as Borgunarbikar for sponsorship reasons, was the 57th edition of the Icelandic national football cup.

2016 Úrvalsdeild

The 2016 Úrvalsdeild karla, also known as Pepsi-deild karla for sponsorship reasons, was the 105th season of top-flight Icelandic football. Twelve teams contested the league, including the defending champions FH, who won their seventh league title in 2015.The season started on 1 May 2016 and concluded on 1 October 2016.On 19 September 2016, Breiðablik drew 1–1 with ÍBV. This result meant FH clinched their 8th Icelandic title.

2017 Deildabikar

The 2017 Deildabikar was the 22nd season of the Icelandic League Cup, a pre-season professional football competition in Iceland. The tournament involves twenty-four clubs from the top two leagues in Iceland, Úrvalsdeild karla and 1. deild karla, and uses a combination of group and knockout rounds to determine which team is the winner of the tournament.

The tournament began on 17 February and concluded with the final on 17 April 2017. KR were champions of the tournament.

Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe

The Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe (ACRE), formerly known as the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (AECR), is a conservative Eurosceptic European political party with a main focus on reforming the European Union (EU) on the basis of Eurorealism, as opposed to total rejection of the EU (anti-EU-ism). It currently has twenty-four member parties and three further independent members from twenty-one countries, in addition to seven regional partners worldwide.The political movement was founded on 1 October 2009, after the creation of the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) political group in the European Parliament. It was officially recognised by the European Parliament in January 2010.

ACRE is governed by a Board of Directors who are elected by the Council, which represents all ACRE member parties. The ACRE's President is Jan Zahradil MEP, and its Secretary-General is Daniel Hannan MEP. The Vice-Presidents are Guðlaugur Þór Þórðarson MP from Iceland, Anna Fotyga MEP from Poland, Geoffrey Clifton-Brown MP from the United Kingdom and Zafer Sırakaya from Turkey.

The party is affiliated with the European Conservatives and Reformists Group in the European Parliament, the pan-European think tank New Direction – The Foundation for European Reform, and the youth organisation the European Young Conservatives. It is also formally associated with the European Conservatives and Reformists Group in the Committee of the Regions, in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, in the Congress of the Council of Europe, and in the NATO Parliamentary Assembly.

Capital Region (Iceland)

Greater Reykjavík (Icelandic: Höfuðborgarsvæðið, meaning "The Capital Region") is a region in southwestern Iceland that comprises the national capital Reykjavík and six municipalities around it. Each municipality has its own elected council. Municipal governments cooperate extensively in various fields: for example waste policy, shared public transport and a joint fire brigade.

The area is by far the largest urban area in Iceland. Greater Reykjavík's population of 216 940 is over 60% of the population of Iceland, in an area that is only just over 1% of the total size of the country. The size of the greater Reykjavík area is calculated from the area of its constituent municipalities, including large areas of hinterland, not the much smaller urban core of about 200 km2 (77 sq mi)

Iceland

Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 357,050 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, and many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate.

According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, Norwegians, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls (i.e., slaves or serfs) of Gaelic origin. The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century. The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway's integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden's secession from the union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence. In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944. Until the 20th century, Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world. In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance, biotechnology, and manufacturing.

Iceland has a market economy with relatively low taxes, compared to other OECD countries. It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. Iceland ranks high in economic, democratic, social stability, and equality, currently ranking first in the world by median wealth per adult. In 2018, it was ranked as the sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, and it ranks first on the Global Peace Index. Iceland runs almost completely on renewable energy. Hit hard by the worldwide financial crisis, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed in October 2008, leading to a severe depression, substantial political unrest, the Icesave dispute, and the institution of capital controls. Some bankers were jailed. Since then, the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism. A law that took effect in 2018 makes it illegal in Iceland for women to be paid less than men.Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norse and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is closely related to Faroese and West Norwegian dialects. The country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, and medieval sagas. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a lightly armed coast guard.

Keflavík International Airport

Keflavík Airport (Icelandic: Keflavíkurflugvöllur) (IATA: KEF, ICAO: BIKF), also known as Reykjavík–Keflavík Airport, is the largest airport in Iceland and the country's main hub for international transportation. The airport is 1.7 nautical miles (3.1 km; 2.0 mi) west of Keflavík and 50 km (31 mi) southwest of Reykjavík. The airport has three runways, two of which are in use, and the airport area is about 25 km2 (9.7 sq mi). Most international journeys to or from Iceland pass through this airport.

The main carrier at Keflavík is Icelandair, which has the airport as its main hub. The airport is almost exclusively used for international flights; most domestic flights use Reykjavík Airport, which lies 3 km (1.9 mi) from Reykjavík's city centre, although seasonal flights from Akureyri fly to Keflavík. Keflavík Airport is operated by Isavia, a government enterprise.

Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur

Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur (Reykjavík Football Club), often shortened to KR or KR Reykjavík, is an Icelandic football club based in the capital, Reykjavík.

KR is the oldest and most successful club in Icelandic football, having won the Úrvalsdeild karla championship 26 times, including the first season in 1912. It is also the most successful club in the Icelandic men's Cup, with 14 titles including the first in 1960 and most recent in 2014. In 1964, KR was also the first Icelandic representative in the European Cup.

Knattspyrnufélagið Fram

Knattspyrnufélagið Fram (English: Fram Football Club) is an Icelandic sports club, best known for its football and handball teams. It was founded on 1 May 1908 in Reykjavík. It is based at Safamýri, in the Háaleiti og Bústaðir district near Reykjavík city centre.

The football team currently plays in the second division, the 1. deild karla after being relegated in the 2014 season.

The club also has strong handball teams; the men's team won the Icelandic championship in 2013.

Other sports offered by the club include basketball, taekwondo and skiing.

Knattspyrnufélagið Þróttur

Knattspyrnufélagið Þróttur, also referred to as Þróttur Reykjavík or Throttur FC, is a sports club from Reykjavík in Iceland. The club runs a football department as well as handball, volleyball and tennis departments. The club has enjoyed tremendous success in men's volleyball, winning a total of 14 Icelandic Championships since 1974. The handball department enjoyed great success in the early 1980s, winning its major honour, the Icelandic handball cup, in 1981. Football has been played by the club from start, and is the biggest of the four departments.

List of Icelandic films

The following is a list of notable films produced in Iceland by Icelanders. Star marked films are films in coproduction with Iceland. Although Arne Mattsson is Swedish, his film is included because it is based on a book by the Icelandic Nobel Prize-winning author Halldór Laxness.

List of football clubs in Iceland

The following list contains the 77 football clubs playing in the Icelandic football league system.

Reykjavík Summit

The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in Reykjavík, Iceland, on 11–12 October 1986. The talks collapsed at the last minute, but the progress that had been achieved eventually resulted in the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir

Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir, commonly known as Fjölnir, is a multi-sport club from Iceland. The club is located in Grafarvogur, Reykjavík. The club was founded in 1988 under the original name Ungmennafélagið Grafarvogur however because another team already had the abbreviation UMFG the name was changed to Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir, commonly referred to as Fjölnir. A total of nine sports are practised at the club, these are football, basketball, handball, teakwondo, karate, tennis, swimming, athletics and gymnastics. Chess is also played at the club. Each one of these sports has their own department with their own board but all are under the main board and the club office.

Valur

Knattspyrnufélagið Valur is an Icelandic athletic club based in Reykjavík, Iceland. The club is situated close to the city centre, in the east side of town, on the former farmland of Hlíðarendi. The club was originally formed as part of the local YMCA to play association football, but later incorporated handball and basketball. Valur's handball section reached the EHF Champions League final in 1980. It has won the Icelandic league 22 times, more than any other N1 deildin team.

Úrvalsdeild karla (football)

The Úrvalsdeild karla (Icelandic pronunciation: ​[ˈurvalsˌteilt ˈkʰartla], Men's Select Division) is the highest football league in Iceland. It has been played since 1912. Because of the harsh winters in Iceland, it is generally played in the spring and summer (May to September). It is administered by the Football Association of Iceland (KSI) and is contested by 12 teams. At the end of the 2015–2016 season, the UEFA ranked the league 35th in Europe. From 27 April 2009, the league has been known as Pepsi deildin (i.e. The Pepsi League) due to a three-year sponsorship deal with Ölgerðin (the Icelandic franchisee for Pepsi).The league includes 12 clubs who play each other two times, once at home and once away. The two teams with the fewest points at the end of the season are relegated to 1. deild karla (First Division) and replaced by the top two teams of that division. Internationally, the winner of the Úrvalsdeild enters the UEFA Champions League in the second qualifying round. Second, third and fourth placed teams qualify for the UEFA Europa League in the first qualifying round.For the first time in the competition's history, the 2008 season saw 12 teams compete in the premier division, a part of KSI's attempt to strengthen Icelandic football.

Therefore, only one team was relegated in the 2007 season and three clubs were promoted from the First Division.

KR hold the most titles, with 26, Valur is next with 22, while ÍA and Fram Reykjavík follow with 18 each. FH holds 8 and Víkingur has retained 5 championship titles. The current champions of Iceland are Valur.

Climate data for Reykjavík, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1949–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
10.2
(50.4)
13.0
(55.4)
14.7
(58.5)
20.6
(69.1)
22.4
(72.3)
25.7
(78.3)
24.8
(76.6)
18.5
(65.3)
15.7
(60.3)
12.6
(54.7)
12.0
(53.6)
25.7
(78.3)
Average high °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
2.8
(37.0)
3.4
(38.1)
6.1
(43.0)
9.7
(49.5)
12.4
(54.3)
14.2
(57.6)
13.6
(56.5)
10.9
(51.6)
7.0
(44.6)
4.2
(39.6)
3.1
(37.6)
7.5
(45.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
0.1
(32.2)
0.6
(33.1)
3.0
(37.4)
6.6
(43.9)
9.5
(49.1)
11.2
(52.2)
10.7
(51.3)
8.0
(46.4)
4.4
(39.9)
1.9
(35.4)
0.6
(33.1)
4.7
(40.5)
Average low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
0.5
(32.9)
3.8
(38.8)
7.0
(44.6)
8.8
(47.8)
8.4
(47.1)
5.7
(42.3)
2.2
(36.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.3
(36.1)
Record low °C (°F) −19.7
(−3.5)
−17.6
(0.3)
−16.4
(2.5)
−16.4
(2.5)
−7.7
(18.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
1.4
(34.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
−4.4
(24.1)
−10.6
(12.9)
−15.1
(4.8)
−16.8
(1.8)
−19.7
(−3.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 83.0
(3.27)
85.9
(3.38)
81.4
(3.20)
56.0
(2.20)
52.8
(2.08)
43.8
(1.72)
52.3
(2.06)
67.3
(2.65)
73.5
(2.89)
74.4
(2.93)
78.8
(3.10)
94.1
(3.70)
843.3
(33.20)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.3 12.5 14.4 12.2 9.8 10.7 10.0 11.7 12.4 14.5 12.5 13.9 148.3
Average relative humidity (%) 78.1 77.1 76.2 74.4 74.9 77.9 80.3 81.6 79.0 78.0 77.7 77.7 77.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 20 60 109 164 201 174 168 155 120 93 41 22 1,326
Source: Icelandic Met Office (precipitation days 1961–1990)[21][22][23]
Capital Region
Southern Peninsula
Western Region
Westfjords
Northwestern Region
Northeastern Region
Eastern Region
Southern Region
Capitals of European states and territories

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