Revised Romanization of Korean

The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法; gugeoui romaja pyogibeop. op; lit. "Roman-letter notation of the national language") is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system. The new system eliminates diacritics and apostrophes in favor of digraphs.

The Revised Romanization limits itself to the ISO basic Latin alphabet, apart from limited, often optional use of the hyphen. It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. 2000-8, which cites these reasons for the new system:[1]

  • It reduces the confusion caused by the frequent omission of apostrophes and diacritics that plagued the McCune–Reischauer system.
  • It is compatible with the plain ASCII text of internet domain names.

Like McCune–Reischauer, it transcribes some sounds as English-speakers are apt to hear them, rather than following Korean phonology. Unlike McCune–Reischauer, vowels are not written consistently.


Revised Romanization of Korean
Revised Romanizationgugeoui romaja pyogibeop
McCune–Reischauerkugŏŭi romaja p'yogibŏp

Basic principles of romanization are:[2]

  • Romanization is based on standard Korean pronunciation.
  • Symbols other than Roman letters are avoided to the greatest extent possible.

These are notable features of the Revised Romanization system:

  • Vowels /ʌ/ and /ɯ/ are written as digraphs, with two vowel letters, eo and eu, respectively (replacing the ŏ and ŭ of the McCune–Reischauer system).
    • However, /wʌ/ is written as wo (not weo), and /ɰi/ is written as ui (not eui).
  • Unlike McCune–Reischauer, aspirated consonants (/kʰ/, /tʰ/, /pʰ/, /tɕʰ/) have no apostrophe: k, t, p, ch. Their unaspirated counterparts (/k/, /t/, /p/, /tɕ/) are written with letters that are voiced in English: g, d, b, j.
    • However, all of the consonants (except sonorants m, n, ng, and l) are written as k, t, p when followed by another consonant or when the consonant is in final position, as they are neutralized to unreleased stops: [pjʌk̚]byeok, [pak̚]bak, 부엌[pu.ʌk̚]bueok (but 벽에[pjʌ.ɡe̞]byeoge, 밖에[pa.k͈e̞]bakke, 부엌에[pu.ʌ.kʰe̞]bueoke).
  • /s/ is written as s regardless of the following vowels and semivowels; there is no sh: [sa]sa, [ɕi]si.
    • When followed by another consonant or when in final position, it is written as t: [ot̚]ot (but 옷에[̞]ose).
  • /l/ is r before a vowel or a semivowel and l everywhere else: 리을[ɾi.ɯl]rieul, 철원[tɕʰʌ.ɾwʌn]Cheorwon, 울릉도[ul.lɯŋ.do]Ulleungdo, 발해[pal.ɦɛ̝]Balhae. Like in McCune–Reischauer, /n/ is written l whenever pronounced as a lateral rather than as a nasal consonant: 전라북도[tɕʌ̚.do]Jeollabuk-do

In addition, special provisions are for regular phonological rules in exceptions to transliteration (see Korean phonology).

Other rules and recommendations include the following:

  • A hyphen optionally disambiguates syllables: 가을ga-eul (fall; autumn) versus 개울gae-ul (stream). However, few official publications make use of this provision since actual instances of ambiguity among names are rare.
    • A hyphen must be used in linguistic transliterations to denote syllable-initial except at the beginning of a word: 없었습니다eops-eoss-seumnida, 외국어oegug-eo, 애오개Ae-ogae
  • It is permitted to hyphenate syllables in the given name, following common practice. Certain phonological changes, ordinarily indicated in other contexts, are ignored in names, for better disambiguating between names: 강홍립Gang Hongrip or Gang Hong-rip (not *Hongnip), 한복남Han Boknam or Han Bok-nam (not *Bongnam or "Bong-nam")
  • Administrative units (such as the do) are hyphenated from the placename proper: 강원도Gangwon-do
    • One may omit terms "such as 시, 군, 읍": 평창군Pyeongchang-gun or Pyeongchang, 평창읍Pyeongchang-eup or Pyeongchang.
  • However, names for geographic features and artificial structures are not hyphenated: 설악산Seoraksan, 해인사Haeinsa
  • Proper nouns are capitalized.


In Korea

Like several European languages that have undergone spelling simplifications (such as Portuguese, German or Swedish), the Revised Romanization is not expected to be adopted as the official romanization of Korean family names, and few people have voluntarily adopted it. According to a 2009 study by the National Institute of the Korean Language based on 63,351 applications for South Korean passports in 2007, for each of the three most common surnames Kim (), Lee (), and Park (), less than 2% of applicants asked for their surname to be romanized in their passport by using the respective Revised Romanization spelling Gim, I, or Bak.[3] Given names and commercial names are encouraged to change, but it is not required.

All Korean textbooks were required to comply with the new system by February 28, 2002. English-language newspapers in South Korea initially resisted the new system by citing its flaws, but all later gave in to government pressure. The Korea Times was the last major English-language newspaper to do so and switched only in May 2006.

North Korea continues to use a version of the McCune–Reischauer system of Romanization, a different version of which was in official use in South Korea from 1984 to 2000.

Outside Korea

Textbooks and dictionaries intended for students of the Korean language tend to include this Romanization. However, some publishers have acknowledged the difficulties or confusion it can cause for non-native Korean speakers who are unused to the conventions of this style of Romanization.[4]

Transcription rules

Vowel letters

Romanization a ae ya yae eo e yeo ye o wa wae oe yo u wo we wi yu eu ui i

Consonant letters

Romanization Initial g kk n d tt r m b pp s ss j jj ch k t p h
Final k k n t l m p t t ng t t k t p t

, , , and are usually transcribed as g, d, b, and r when appearing before a vowel, and as k, t, p, and l when followed by another consonant or when appearing at the end of a word.[2]

Special provisions

The revised romanization transcribes certain phonetic changes that occur with combinations of the ending consonant of a character and the initial consonant of the next like HangukHangugeo. These significant changes occur (highlighted in yellow):

g n d r m b s j ch k t p h
k g kg ngn kd ngn ngm kb ks kj kch k-k kt kp kh, k
n n n-g nn nd ll, nn nm nb ns nj nch nk nt np nh
t d, j tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch
l r lg ll, nn ld ll lm lb ls lj lch lk lt lp lh
m m mg mn md mn mm mb ms mj mch mk mt mp mh
p b pg mn pd mn mm pb ps pj pch pk pt p-p ph, p
t s tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch
ng ng- ngg ngn ngd ngn ngm ngb ngs ngj ngch ngk ngt ngp ngh
t j tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch
t ch tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch
t t, ch tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch
t h k nn t nn nm p hs ch tch tk tt tp t

Phonetic changes between syllables in given names are not transcribed: 정석민Jeong Seokmin or Jeong Seok-min, 최빛나Choe Bitna or Choe Bit-na.

Phonological changes are reflected where , , , and are adjacent to : 좋고joko, 놓다nota, 잡혀japyeo, 낳지 → nachi. However, aspirated sounds are not reflected in case of nouns where follows , , and : 묵호Mukho, 집현전Jiphyeonjeon.[2]

See also


  1. ^ "Romanization of Korean". Ministry of Culture & Tourism. July 2000. Archived from the original on 16 September 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
  2. ^ a b c "Romanization of Korean". National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  3. ^ 성씨 로마자 표기 방안: 마련을 위한 토론회 [Plan for romanisation of surnames: a preparatory discussion]. National Institute of the Korean Language. 25 June 2009. pp. 57–62. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  4. ^ Tuttle Publishing: "In addition, easy-to-use phonetic spellings of all Korean words and phrases are given. For example, "How are you?"—annyeonghaseyo? is also written as anh-nyawng-hah-seyo?", blurb for two Korean phrasebooks: Making Out in Korean ISBN 9780804843546 and More Making Out in Korean Archived 2016-03-06 at the Wayback Machine ISBN 9780804838498. All accessed 2016-03-02.

External links

BGN/PCGN romanization

BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization (transliteration into the Latin script) and Roman-script spelling conventions adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN).

The systems have been approved by the BGN and the PCGN for application to geographic names, but they have also been used for personal names and text in the US and the UK.

Details of all the jointly approved systems are outlined in the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency publication Romanization Systems and Policies (2012), which superseded the BGN 1994 publication Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions. Romanization systems and spelling conventions for different languages have been gradually introduced over the course of several years. An incomplete list of BGN/PCGN systems and agreements covering the following languages is given below (the date of adoption is given in the parentheses).

BGN/PCGN romanization of Korean

Currently, BGN and PCGN romanize the Korean language using two systems:

McCune–Reischauer in North Korea (BGN 1943, with PCGN soon to follow);

Revised Romanization of Korean in South Korea (2011 agreement).


Cheongha may refer to:

Chungha (singer), whose name is rendered as Cheong-ha in revised romanization of Korean

Cheongha-myeon, an administrative township division in Buk-gu, Pohang

Cheongha Bridge, an bridge on National Route 29 (South Korea) in North Jeolla Province

Several intersections and interchanges in the South Korean highway system:

Two intersections of National Route 7 (South Korea) near Cheongha-myeon

An under construction interchange of the Donghae Expressway with National Route 7

An intersection of National Route 43 (South Korea) in Gangwon Province

Cheongha, a brand of Cheongju from the South Korean company Lotte Chilsung

Comparative military ranks of Korea

The Comparative military ranks of Korea are the military insignia used by the two nations on the Korean Peninsula, those being the Republic of Korea Armed Forces (South Korea) and the Korean People's Army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The United States Forces Korea personnel wear the ranks and insignia used by other service personnel of the United States Armed Forces in the territories of the United States.

In the South Korean armed forces, ranks fall into one of four categories: commissioned officer, warrant officer, non-commissioned officer, and enlisted, in decreasing order of authority. Commissioned officer ranks are subdivided into "Janggwan"-level (general) officers, "Yeonggwan"-level (field-grade) officers, and "Wi-gwan"-level (company-grade) officers. The ranks of all three branches (the Army, Navy, and Air Force) of the South Korean Armed Forces share the same titles in Hangul. Most ranks of South and North Korea are identical, with some exceptions such as the supreme North Korean ranks.

The following table lists the comparative ranks of the militaries in Korea, including their rank titles and insignia. In this table, the North Korean military rank insignia shown is that of their Army field uniform shoulder boards; their parade uniforms and uniforms of other branches use alternative color schemes with the same basic design. The South Korean likewise have subdued versions of their insignia in each of their branches.

(Note on romanization: In the article, all South Korean ranks are spelled accordingly with the Revised Romanization of Korean system; all North Korean ranks use the McCune-Reischauer system.)

Daegu (disambiguation)

Daegu or Taegu may refer to:

Daegu, a metropolitan city in South Korea

Daegu International Airport

Battle of Taegu, an invasion and battle during the Korean War

Daegu Catholic University

Daegu FC

Gwangju Airport

Gwangju Airport (Hangul: 광주공항, Hanja: 光州空港, Revised Romanization of Korean: Gwangju Gonghang, McCune-Reischauer: Kwangju Konghang) (IATA: KWJ, ICAO: RKJJ) is an airport in the city of Gwangju, South Korea and is managed by the Korea Airports Corporation. In 2014, 1,470,096 passengers used the airport. This airport is planned to close when Muan International Airport becomes more established.

Im (Korean surname)

Im or Rim, sometimes Lim, is a common Korean family name equivalent either to the Chinese surname Lin or Ren depending on the clan branch.

Index of Korea-related articles (R)

This is a partial list of Korea-related topics beginning with R. For Korean words starting with ㄹ, see also under N.

Jecheon AIDS scandal

Jecheon AIDS Scandal (Korean: 제천 에이즈 스캔들, Hanja: 堤川 AIDS 醜聞) and Jecheon AIDS Crime (Korean: 제천 에이즈 사건, Hanja: 堤川 AIDS 事件, Revised Romanization of Korean: Jecheon AIDS Sageon) was a sex scandal in South Korea that lasted from 2003 to April 2009. It is also known as the Jecheon Crisis.

Since 2003, hundreds of sexually active men and women around Jecheon, Chungcheong province, have become infected with HIV. The suspect was found to be a 27-year-old taxi driver, arrested on March 11, 2009, on suspicions of stealing women's underwear. Police raided his apartment and found a stash of 400 pairs of women's underwear and several amateur pornographic movies filmed on a mobile phone.

The suspect was later revealed to be HIV positive, having been turned away from military service in 2003.

Jeju International Airport

Jeju International Airport (Hangul: 제주국제공항, Hanja: 濟州國際空港, Revised Romanization of Korean: Jeju Gukje Gonghang, McCune-Reischauer: Cheju Kukche Konghang) (IATA: CJU, ICAO: RKPC) is the 2nd largest airport in South Korea, just behind Incheon Airport in Incheon. It is located in the city of Jeju. The airport opened in 1968.

Jeju International Airport serves many mainland destinations in South Korea, as well as international destinations in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Malaysia. In 2015, 26,237,562 passengers used the airport.

Due to the large number of passengers using the airport and its limited capacity it was announced that a second airport would be constructed on the island near the southern city of Seogwipo with an investment of 3.8billion USD. It is expected to open to the public in 2025.

Korean postpositions

Korean postpositions, or particles, are suffixes or short words in Korean grammar that immediately follow a noun or pronoun. This article uses the Revised Romanization of Korean to show pronunciation. The hangul versions in the official orthographic form are given underneath.


McCune–Reischauer romanization () is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer was the official romanization system in South Korea until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer is still used as the official system in North Korea.The system was created in 1937 by George M. McCune and Edwin O. Reischauer. With a few exceptions, it attempts not to transliterate Korean hangul but to represent the phonetic pronunciation. As of September 2004, McCune–Reischauer was widely used outside Korea.


RRK may refer to:

Rahsaan Roland Kirk (1935-1977), American jazz multi-instrumentalist

Revised Romanization of Korean, the Korean language romanization system of South Korea

R. R. Keshavamurthy (1913-2006), Indian violinist

Reinhard Rudolf Karl Hartmann , lexicographer and linguist

Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel theory of chemical reactions, a precursor to RRKM theory

Revised Romanization of Hangeul

The Romanization of Hangeul (Korean: 한글의 로마자 표기법; literally Roman letter notation of Hangeul), also known as RR transliteration (Revised Romanization transliteration), was the official Hangeul romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Education replacing the older International Phonetic Notation of Korean phonology (Korean: 조선어음의 만국 음성부호 표기), from 1959 to 1984.


SNSD may refer to:

Girls' Generation (Revised Romanization of Korean: Sonyeo Sidae, abbreviated SNSD)

Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (Serbian: Savez nezavisnih socijaldemokrata)

Smackover-Norphlet School District

SNSD (netsukuku), Scattered Name Service Disgregation in the distributed hostname management system ANDNA

Yale romanization of Korean

The Yale romanization of Korean was developed by Samuel Elmo Martin and his colleagues at Yale University about half a decade after McCune–Reischauer. It is the standard romanization of the Korean language in linguistics.

The Yale system places primary emphasis on showing a word's morphophonemic structure. This distinguishes it from the other two widely used systems for romanizing Korean, the Revised Romanization of Korean (RR) and McCune–Reischauer. These two usually provide the pronunciation for an entire word, but the morphophonemic elements accounting for that pronunciation often cannot be recovered from the romanizations, which makes them ill-suited for linguistic use. In terms of morphophonemic content, the Yale system's approach can be compared to North Korea's former New Korean Orthography.

The Yale system tries to use a single consistent spelling for each morphophonemic element irrespective of its context. But Yale and Hangul differ in how back vowels are handled.

Yale may be used for both modern Korean and Middle Korean. There are separate rules for Middle Korean. Martin's 1992 Reference Grammar of Korean uses italics for Middle Korean as well as other texts predating the 1933 abandonment of arae a, whereas it shows current language in boldface.


城南 ("the south of a castle/city"; Pinyin Chéngnán; Revised Romanization of Korean Seongnam; Hepburn romanization Jōnan) may refer to:

Seongnam, a city in South Korea

Chengnan, a subdistrict of Qianjiang District, Chongqing, People's Republic of China

Chengnan, a subdistrict of Chaoyang District, Shantou, PRC

Jōnan-ku, Fukuoka, a ward of Fukuoka, Japan

Jōnan, Kumamoto, a former town of Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan

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