The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法; gugeoui romaja pyogibeop. op; lit. "Roman-letter notation of the national language") is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system. The new system eliminates diacritics and apostrophes in favor of digraphs.
The Revised Romanization limits itself to the ISO basic Latin alphabet, apart from limited, often optional use of the hyphen. It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. 2000-8, which cites these reasons for the new system:
Like McCune–Reischauer, it transcribes some sounds as English-speakers are apt to hear them, rather than following Korean phonology. Unlike McCune–Reischauer, vowels are not written consistently.
|Revised Romanization of Korean|
|Revised Romanization||gugeoui romaja pyogibeop|
|McCune–Reischauer||kugŏŭi romaja p'yogibŏp|
Basic principles of romanization are:
These are notable features of the Revised Romanization system:
In addition, special provisions are for regular phonological rules in exceptions to transliteration (see Korean phonology).
Other rules and recommendations include the following:
Like several European languages that have undergone spelling simplifications (such as Portuguese, German or Swedish), the Revised Romanization is not expected to be adopted as the official romanization of Korean family names, and few people have voluntarily adopted it. According to a 2009 study by the National Institute of the Korean Language based on 63,351 applications for South Korean passports in 2007, for each of the three most common surnames Kim (김), Lee (이), and Park (박), less than 2% of applicants asked for their surname to be romanized in their passport by using the respective Revised Romanization spelling Gim, I, or Bak. Given names and commercial names are encouraged to change, but it is not required.
All Korean textbooks were required to comply with the new system by February 28, 2002. English-language newspapers in South Korea initially resisted the new system by citing its flaws, but all later gave in to government pressure. The Korea Times was the last major English-language newspaper to do so and switched only in May 2006.
North Korea continues to use a version of the McCune–Reischauer system of Romanization, a different version of which was in official use in South Korea from 1984 to 2000.
Textbooks and dictionaries intended for students of the Korean language tend to include this Romanization. However, some publishers have acknowledged the difficulties or confusion it can cause for non-native Korean speakers who are unused to the conventions of this style of Romanization.
ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㄹ are usually transcribed as g, d, b, and r when appearing before a vowel, and as k, t, p, and l when followed by another consonant or when appearing at the end of a word.
The revised romanization transcribes certain phonetic changes that occur with combinations of the ending consonant of a character and the initial consonant of the next like Hanguk → Hangugeo. These significant changes occur (highlighted in yellow):
|ㄷ||t||d, j||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅅ||t||s||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅈ||t||j||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅊ||t||ch||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅌ||t||t, ch||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
Phonetic changes between syllables in given names are not transcribed: 정석민 → Jeong Seokmin or Jeong Seok-min, 최빛나 → Choe Bitna or Choe Bit-na.
Phonological changes are reflected where ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ: 좋고 → joko, 놓다 → nota, 잡혀 → japyeo, 낳지 → nachi. However, aspirated sounds are not reflected in case of nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ: 묵호 → Mukho, 집현전 → Jiphyeonjeon.
BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization (transliteration into the Latin script) and Roman-script spelling conventions adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN).
The systems have been approved by the BGN and the PCGN for application to geographic names, but they have also been used for personal names and text in the US and the UK.
Details of all the jointly approved systems are outlined in the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency publication Romanization Systems and Policies (2012), which superseded the BGN 1994 publication Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions. Romanization systems and spelling conventions for different languages have been gradually introduced over the course of several years. An incomplete list of BGN/PCGN systems and agreements covering the following languages is given below (the date of adoption is given in the parentheses).BGN/PCGN romanization of Korean
Currently, BGN and PCGN romanize the Korean language using two systems:
McCune–Reischauer in North Korea (BGN 1943, with PCGN soon to follow);
Revised Romanization of Korean in South Korea (2011 agreement).Cheongha
Cheongha may refer to:
Chungha (singer), whose name is rendered as Cheong-ha in revised romanization of Korean
Cheongha-myeon, an administrative township division in Buk-gu, Pohang
Cheongha Bridge, an bridge on National Route 29 (South Korea) in North Jeolla Province
Several intersections and interchanges in the South Korean highway system:
Two intersections of National Route 7 (South Korea) near Cheongha-myeon
An under construction interchange of the Donghae Expressway with National Route 7
An intersection of National Route 43 (South Korea) in Gangwon Province
Cheongha, a brand of Cheongju from the South Korean company Lotte ChilsungComparative military ranks of Korea
The Comparative military ranks of Korea are the military insignia used by the two nations on the Korean Peninsula, those being the Republic of Korea Armed Forces (South Korea) and the Korean People's Army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The United States Forces Korea personnel wear the ranks and insignia used by other service personnel of the United States Armed Forces in the territories of the United States.
In the South Korean armed forces, ranks fall into one of four categories: commissioned officer, warrant officer, non-commissioned officer, and enlisted, in decreasing order of authority. Commissioned officer ranks are subdivided into "Janggwan"-level (general) officers, "Yeonggwan"-level (field-grade) officers, and "Wi-gwan"-level (company-grade) officers. The ranks of all three branches (the Army, Navy, and Air Force) of the South Korean Armed Forces share the same titles in Hangul. Most ranks of South and North Korea are identical, with some exceptions such as the supreme North Korean ranks.
The following table lists the comparative ranks of the militaries in Korea, including their rank titles and insignia. In this table, the North Korean military rank insignia shown is that of their Army field uniform shoulder boards; their parade uniforms and uniforms of other branches use alternative color schemes with the same basic design. The South Korean likewise have subdued versions of their insignia in each of their branches.
(Note on romanization: In the article, all South Korean ranks are spelled accordingly with the Revised Romanization of Korean system; all North Korean ranks use the McCune-Reischauer system.)Daegu (disambiguation)
Daegu or Taegu may refer to:
Daegu, a metropolitan city in South Korea
Daegu International Airport
Battle of Taegu, an invasion and battle during the Korean War
Daegu Catholic University
Daegu FCGwangju Airport
Gwangju Airport (Hangul: 광주공항, Hanja: 光州空港, Revised Romanization of Korean: Gwangju Gonghang, McCune-Reischauer: Kwangju Konghang) (IATA: KWJ, ICAO: RKJJ) is an airport in the city of Gwangju, South Korea and is managed by the Korea Airports Corporation. In 2014, 1,470,096 passengers used the airport. This airport is planned to close when Muan International Airport becomes more established.Im (Korean surname)
Im or Rim, sometimes Lim, is a common Korean family name equivalent either to the Chinese surname Lin or Ren depending on the clan branch.Index of Korea-related articles (R)
This is a partial list of Korea-related topics beginning with R. For Korean words starting with ㄹ, see also under N.Jecheon AIDS scandal
Jecheon AIDS Scandal (Korean: 제천 에이즈 스캔들, Hanja: 堤川 AIDS 醜聞) and Jecheon AIDS Crime (Korean: 제천 에이즈 사건, Hanja: 堤川 AIDS 事件, Revised Romanization of Korean: Jecheon AIDS Sageon) was a sex scandal in South Korea that lasted from 2003 to April 2009. It is also known as the Jecheon Crisis.
Since 2003, hundreds of sexually active men and women around Jecheon, Chungcheong province, have become infected with HIV. The suspect was found to be a 27-year-old taxi driver, arrested on March 11, 2009, on suspicions of stealing women's underwear. Police raided his apartment and found a stash of 400 pairs of women's underwear and several amateur pornographic movies filmed on a mobile phone.
The suspect was later revealed to be HIV positive, having been turned away from military service in 2003.Jeju International Airport
Jeju International Airport (Hangul: 제주국제공항, Hanja: 濟州國際空港, Revised Romanization of Korean: Jeju Gukje Gonghang, McCune-Reischauer: Cheju Kukche Konghang) (IATA: CJU, ICAO: RKPC) is the 2nd largest airport in South Korea, just behind Incheon Airport in Incheon. It is located in the city of Jeju. The airport opened in 1968.
Jeju International Airport serves many mainland destinations in South Korea, as well as international destinations in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Malaysia. In 2015, 26,237,562 passengers used the airport.
Due to the large number of passengers using the airport and its limited capacity it was announced that a second airport would be constructed on the island near the southern city of Seogwipo with an investment of 3.8billion USD. It is expected to open to the public in 2025.Korean postpositions
Korean postpositions, or particles, are suffixes or short words in Korean grammar that immediately follow a noun or pronoun. This article uses the Revised Romanization of Korean to show pronunciation. The hangul versions in the official orthographic form are given underneath.McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer romanization () is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer was the official romanization system in South Korea until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer is still used as the official system in North Korea.The system was created in 1937 by George M. McCune and Edwin O. Reischauer. With a few exceptions, it attempts not to transliterate Korean hangul but to represent the phonetic pronunciation. As of September 2004, McCune–Reischauer was widely used outside Korea.RRK
RRK may refer to:
Rahsaan Roland Kirk (1935-1977), American jazz multi-instrumentalist
Revised Romanization of Korean, the Korean language romanization system of South Korea
R. R. Keshavamurthy (1913-2006), Indian violinist
Reinhard Rudolf Karl Hartmann , lexicographer and linguist
Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel theory of chemical reactions, a precursor to RRKM theoryRevised Romanization of Hangeul
The Romanization of Hangeul (Korean: 한글의 로마자 표기법; literally Roman letter notation of Hangeul), also known as RR transliteration (Revised Romanization transliteration), was the official Hangeul romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Education replacing the older International Phonetic Notation of Korean phonology (Korean: 조선어음의 만국 음성부호 표기), from 1959 to 1984.SNSD
SNSD may refer to:
Girls' Generation (Revised Romanization of Korean: Sonyeo Sidae, abbreviated SNSD)
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (Serbian: Savez nezavisnih socijaldemokrata)
Smackover-Norphlet School District
SNSD (netsukuku), Scattered Name Service Disgregation in the distributed hostname management system ANDNAYale romanization of Korean
The Yale romanization of Korean was developed by Samuel Elmo Martin and his colleagues at Yale University about half a decade after McCune–Reischauer. It is the standard romanization of the Korean language in linguistics.
The Yale system places primary emphasis on showing a word's morphophonemic structure. This distinguishes it from the other two widely used systems for romanizing Korean, the Revised Romanization of Korean (RR) and McCune–Reischauer. These two usually provide the pronunciation for an entire word, but the morphophonemic elements accounting for that pronunciation often cannot be recovered from the romanizations, which makes them ill-suited for linguistic use. In terms of morphophonemic content, the Yale system's approach can be compared to North Korea's former New Korean Orthography.
The Yale system tries to use a single consistent spelling for each morphophonemic element irrespective of its context. But Yale and Hangul differ in how back vowels are handled.
Yale may be used for both modern Korean and Middle Korean. There are separate rules for Middle Korean. Martin's 1992 Reference Grammar of Korean uses italics for Middle Korean as well as other texts predating the 1933 abandonment of arae a, whereas it shows current language in boldface.城南
城南 ("the south of a castle/city"; Pinyin Chéngnán; Revised Romanization of Korean Seongnam; Hepburn romanization Jōnan) may refer to:
Seongnam, a city in South Korea
Chengnan, a subdistrict of Qianjiang District, Chongqing, People's Republic of China
Chengnan, a subdistrict of Chaoyang District, Shantou, PRC
Jōnan-ku, Fukuoka, a ward of Fukuoka, Japan
Jōnan, Kumamoto, a former town of Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan