Resource nationalism

Resource nationalism is the tendency of people and governments to assert control over natural resources located on their territory. The approach of peak oil has led many governments to take ownership or control of fossil fuel reservoirs for strategic and economic reasons, although resource nationalism applies to other resources, such as metals, or in less developed nations, mining investment. Resource nationalism conflicts with the interests of multinational corporations.

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2012 Mongolian legislative election

Legislative elections were held in Mongolia on 28 June 2012 to elect 76 members of the State Great Khural. Also held during the parliamentary elections was the Ulaanbaatar city council election, the first time both have been held at the same time. For the first time, the election used vote counting machines by new legislative election laws to make the election fair.

Brian Menell

Brian Menell is a South African businessman with interests in mining, oil & gas, agriculture & agri industry, and banking.

Economy of Indonesia

Indonesia has the largest economy in Southeast Asia and is one of the emerging market economies of the world. The country is also a member of G20 and classified as a newly industrialised country. It is the 16th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 7th largest in terms of GDP (PPP). Its GDP per capita ranks below the world average. Indonesia still depends on domestic market and government budget spending and its ownership of state-owned enterprises (the central government owns 141 enterprises). The administration of prices of a range of basic goods (including rice and electricity) also plays a significant role in Indonesia's market economy. However, since the 1990s the majority of the economy has been controlled by individual Indonesians and foreign companies.In the aftermath of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the government took custody of a significant portion of private sector assets through acquisition of nonperforming bank loans and corporate assets through the debt restructuring process and the companies in custody were sold for privatization several years later. Since 1999 the economy has recovered and growth has accelerated to over 4–6% in recent years.In 2012, Indonesia replaced India as the second-fastest-growing G-20 economy, behind China. Since then, the annual growth rate slowed down and stagnates at the rate of 5%.

Electric car

An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. The first practical electric cars were produced in the 1880s. Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in internal combustion engines, electric starters in particular, and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric drive vehicles.

From 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, illnesses, and deaths from air pollution, and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Several national and local governments have established government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles|tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles, often depending on battery size, their electric range and purchase price. The current maximum tax credit allowed by the US Government is US$7,500 per car. Compared with internal combustion engine cars, electric cars are quieter, have no tailpipe emissions, and lower emissions in general.Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations, these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas. The two all-time best selling electric cars, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S, have EPA-rated ranges reaching up to 151 mi (243 km) and 370 mi (600 km) respectively. The Leaf is the best-selling highway-capable electric car ever with more than 400,000 units sold, followed by the Tesla Model S with over 400,000 units sold worldwide by June 2019.As of December 2018, there were about 5.3 million light-duty all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use around the world. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the global stock of plug-in electric cars represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles (0.40%) on the world's roads by the end of 2018. The plug-in car market is shifting towards fully electric battery vehicles, as the global ratio between annual sales of battery BEVs and PHEVs went from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, and rose to 69:31 in 2018.

Environmental aspects of the electric car

Electric cars (also known as battery electric cars) have several environmental benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine cars. They have lower operating and maintenance costs, produce little or no local air pollution, reduce dependence on petroleum, and also have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However producing batteries for electric cars requires additional resources and energy, so they may have a larger environmental footprint when new.

Joko Widodo

Joko Widodo (born Mulyono, 21 June 1961), also known as Jokowi, is an Indonesian politician who is the seventh president of Indonesia. Elected in July 2014 as the first Indonesian president to not come from an elite political or military background, he was previously the Mayor of Surakarta from 2005 to 2012, and the Governor of Jakarta from 2012 to 2014.

He achieved national prominence in 2009 for his work as the Mayor of Surakarta. A member of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), he was its candidate for the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election, alongside Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (often known as Ahok) as his running mate. Defeating incumbent Fauzi Bowo, he took office in October 2012 and reinvigorated Jakarta politics, with publicized blusukan visits (unannounced spot checks) and improving the city's bureaucracy, reducing corruption in the process. He also introduced years-late programs to improve quality of life in the city, including universal health-care, dredging the city's main river to reduce flooding, and inaugurating construction of the city's subway system.Seen as a rising star in Indonesian politics, PDI-P nominated Jokowi for the 2014 presidential election. Winning a majority of the popular vote, he was named president-elect on 22 July 2014, to bitter protest from his opponent Prabowo Subianto, who disputed the outcome and withdrew from the race before the count was completed. As president, Jokowi has primarily focused on infrastructure, introducing or restarting long-delayed programs to build highways, high-speed rail, airports and other facilities to improve connectivity in the Indonesian archipelago. On foreign policy, his administration has placed an emphasis on "protecting Indonesia’s sovereignty", with the sinking of illegal foreign fishing vessels and the prescription of capital punishment for drug smugglers, despite intense pressure from foreign powers including Australia and France. After four years in office, Jokowi's approval ratings remained high, in the high-60s to low-70s. He ran for re-election in the April 2019 presidential election, winning for a second time against Prabowo Subianto with 55.5% of the national vote.

Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (2010)

The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP; Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам, Mongol Ardyn Khuvsgalt Nam, МАХН, MAKHN) is a political party in Mongolia which was founded in 2010 by Nambaryn Enkhbayar. The party received approval to use the Mongolian People's Party's old name by the Supreme Court of Mongolia. Enkhbayar, former chairman of the original MPRP and a former President of Mongolia, is the party's leader.

Nationalization of oil supplies

The nationalization of oil supplies refers to the process of confiscation of oil production operations and private property, generally in the purpose of obtaining more revenue from oil for oil-producing countries' governments. This process, which should not be confused with restrictions on crude oil exports, represents a significant turning point in the development of oil policy. Nationalization eliminates private business operations—in which private international companies control oil resources within oil-producing countries—and allows oil-producing countries to gain control of private property. Once these countries become the sole owners of these confiscated resources, they have to decide how to maximize the net present value of their known stock of oil in the ground.

Several key implications can be observed as a result of oil nationalization. "On the home front, national oil companies are often torn between national expectations that they should 'carry the flag' and their own ambitions for commercial success, which might mean a degree of emancipation from the confines of a national agenda."According to consulting firm PFC Energy, only 7% of the world's estimated oil and gas reserves are in countries that allow private international companies free rein. Fully 65% are in the hands of state-owned companies such as Saudi Aramco, with the rest in countries such as Russia and Venezuela, where access by Western companies is difficult. The PFC study implies political groups unfavorable to capitalism in some countries tend to limit oil production increases in Mexico, Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Russia. Saudi Arabia is also limiting capacity expansion, but because of a self-imposed cap, unlike the other countries.

Peter Garretson

Peter Garretson (Lt Col, USAF), is a U.S. Air Force officer. He is a writer on space policy, space strategy, and using Space & Energy. Garretson is also an instructor at Air University's Air Command and Staff College where he leads the Space Horizons Research Task Force. He was previously Division Chief of Irregular Strategy, Plans and Policy. Garretson served as a visiting fellow at India's premier strategic think tank, the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) as a Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) international affairs fellow. His team won the SECDEF/SECSTATE Diplomacy Development Defense D3 Innovation Challenge. He is currently funded by the OSD MINERVA initiative to study contemporary great power attitudes toward space expansionism, territoriality, and resource nationalism.

Plug-in electric vehicle

A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels. PEV is a subset of electric vehicles that includes all-electric, or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). In China, plug-in electric vehicles are called new energy vehicles (NEVs). Sales of the first mass-production PEV by major carmakers began in late December 2010, with the introduction of the all-electric Nissan Leaf and the plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt.

Plug-in cars have several benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. They have lower operating and maintenance costs, and produce little or no local air pollution. They reduce dependence on petroleum and may severally reduce greenhouse gas emissions, depending on the electricity source, as motors are typically much more efficient than ICE. Plug-in hybrids capture most of these benefits when they are operating in all-electric mode.

Cumulative global sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles achieved the 1 million unit mark in September 2015, 2 million in December 2016, 3 million in November 2017, and the 5 million milestone in December 2018. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the plug-in electric car segment represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles on the world's roads by December 2018. As of December 2018, the Nissan Leaf is the world's top selling highway-capable all-electric car in history, with global sales since inception of over 380,000 units, followed by the Tesla Model S with 263,500 units.As of December 2018, China has the world's largest stock of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles with cumulative sales of 2.2 million plug-in electric passenger cars. More than 1 million light-duty plug-in electric passenger cars have been registered in Europe by June 2018, with sales led by Norway with over 296,000 units registered as of December 2018. Cumulative sales in the U.S. totaled over 1.1 million plug-in cars at the end of 2018. In October 2018, Norway became the first country where 1 for every 10 passenger cars registered is a plug-in electric vehicle.

Rafael Caldera

Rafael Antonio Caldera Rodríguez (Spanish pronunciation: [rafaˈel anˈtonjo kalˈdeɾa roˈðɾiɣes]; 24 January 1916 – 24 December 2009), twice elected President of Venezuela, served for two five-year terms (1969-1974 and 1994-1999), becoming the longest serving democratically elected leader to govern the country in the twentieth century.Widely acknowledged as one of the founders of Venezuela’s democratic system, the main architect of the 1961 Constitution, and a pioneer of the Christian Democratic movement in Latin America, Caldera helped forge an unprecedented period of civilian democratic rule in a country beleaguered by a history of political violence and military caudillos.His leadership established Venezuela’s reputation as one of the more stable democracies in Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century.After graduating with a degree in law and political science from Central University of Venezuela in 1939, Caldera embarked on a 70-year long career that combined political, intellectual and academic activities.

Shell to Sea

Shell to Sea (Irish: Shell chun Sáile) is an Irish organisation based in the parish of Kilcommon in Erris, County Mayo.

It opposes the proposed construction of a natural gas pipeline through the parish, as well as the ongoing construction—by Royal Dutch Shell, Statoil and Vermilion Energy Trust—of a refinery at Bellanaboy intended to refine the natural gas from the Corrib gas field. It proposes instead that the gas be refined at sea, rather than inland, as is done with Ireland's only other producing gas field off County Cork. Shell to Sea believes the proximity of a raw natural gas pipeline is a risk to local residents.The three stated aims of the campaign, as cited on its website, are that "Any exploitation of the Corrib gas field be done in a safe way that will not expose the local community in Erris to unnecessary health, safety and environmental risks", "To renegotiate the terms of the Great Oil and Gas Giveaway, which sees Ireland's 10 billion barrels of oil equivalent off the West Coast go directly to the oil companies, with the Irish State retaining a 0% share, no energy security of supply and only 25% tax on profits against which all costs can be deducted" and "To seek justice for the human rights abuses suffered by Shell to Sea campaigners due to their opposition to Shell's proposed inland refinery".Incidents of note include the 2005 jailing of the Rossport Five and the public outcry that followed, the 2007 Goldman Environmental Prize received by Willie Corduff (one of the five), local fisherman Pat O'Donnell's laying of 800 crab pots at sea and Maura Harrington's hunger strike against the Allseas pipe-laying ship Solitaire in 2008, an alleged assault on Corduff in 2009 which was condemned by Desmond Tutu, the 2011 "rape tape" scandal when Gardaí (police) accidentally filmed themselves joking about the imagined rape of two female protestors after arresting them, and the reports of gifts of alcohol worth tens of thousands of euros from Shell to the Gardaí, which broke in 2013.

SouthGobi Resources

SouthGobi Resources is a coal mining company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and Toronto Stock Exchange. The company's primary asset is a coal mine and development projects of coal assets in Mongolia.

A proposed acquisition of the company by a Chinese state owned mining firm in 2012 was thwarted by resource nationalism in Mongolia. The blocked deal led to a chain of events that negatively affected the Mongolian economy for the rest of the decade. Quickly in response to the announced deal, Mongolia passed an investment review law in Mongolia (shortly repealed after enactment) that while only briefly in force stunted for years foreign investor confidence in the country, which had been a darling in emerging markets investment circles before 2012.After the blocked deal, SouthGobi would itself face an equally dramatic fall from grace as the Mongolian economy. By 2015, the company lost 98% of its once sky high $3 billion Canadian dollar market capitalization that had peaked in 2012.

Trans-Mongolian Railway

The Trans-Mongolian Railway follows an ancient tea-caravan route from China to Russia and connects Ulan-Ude, on the Trans-Baikal (Trans-Siberian) railway in Russia, with the Chinese city of Jining, by way of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.Other important stops are Sükhbaatar, Darkhan, Choir, and Zamyn-Üüd/Erenhot (border crossing and gauge-changing station). The line was built between 1949 and 1961. In most of Mongolia, it is single track, and in China double track. The gauge is 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) in Russia and Mongolia and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) in China. There are important branches leading to Erdenet and Baganuur.

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