Resource (biology)

In Biology and Ecology, a resource is a substance or object in the environment required by an organism for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Resources can be consumed by one organism and, as a result, become unavailable to another organism.[1][2][3] For plants key resources are light, nutrients, water, and place to grow. For animals key resources are food, water, and territory.

Key resources for plants

Terrestrial plants require particular resources for photosynthesis and to complete their life cycle of germination, growth, reproduction, and dispersal:[4][5]

Key resources for animals

Animals resources particular resources for metabolism and to complete their life cycle of gestation, birth, growth, and reproduction:[6]

Resources and ecological processes

Resource availability plays a central role in ecological processes:

See also


  1. ^ Miller, G.; Spoolman, Scott (2012). Living in the Environment Principles, Connections, and Solutions. Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-0-538-73534-6.
  2. ^ Ricklefs, R.E. 2005. The Economy of Nature, 6th edition. WH Freeman, USA.
  3. ^ Chapin, F.S. III, H.A. Mooney, M.C. Chapin, and P. Matson. 2011. Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology. Springer, New York.
  4. ^ Barbour, M.G. J.H. Burk, W.D. Pitts and F.S. Gilliam. 1998. Terrestrial Plant Ecology, 3rd ed. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA.
  5. ^ Craine, J.M. 2009. Resource strategies in wild plants. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  6. ^ Smith, T.M., and R.L. Smith. 2008. Elements of ecology, 7th ed. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA.
Centre of Marine Resource Management

The Centre of Marine Resource Management or MaReMa Centre or simply MaReMa is an interdisciplinary research centre established by the Norwegian College of Fishery Science at University of Tromsø in 2004. The centre performs research within the area of fisheries and coastal zone management issues internationally, covering disciplines as resource biology, harvest technology, bioeconomics and social science.

Clione limacina

Clione limacina, known as the naked sea butterfly, sea angel, and common clione, is a sea angel (pelagic sea slug) found from the surface to greater than 500 m (1,600 ft) depth. It lives in the Arctic Ocean and cold regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. It was first described by Friderich Martens in 1676 and became the first gymnosomatous (without a shell) "pteropod" to be described.

Competition (biology)

Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed. Limited supply of at least one resource (such as food, water, and territory) used by both can be a factor. Competition both within and between species is an important topic in ecology, especially community ecology. Competition is one of many interacting biotic and abiotic factors that affect community structure. Competition among members of the same species is known as intraspecific competition, while competition between individuals of different species is known as interspecific competition. Competition is not always straightforward, and can occur in both a direct and indirect fashion.According to the competitive exclusion principle, species less suited to compete for resources should either adapt or die out, although competitive exclusion is rarely found in natural ecosystems. According to evolutionary theory, this competition within and between species for resources is important in natural selection. However, competition may play less of a role than expansion among larger clades; this is termed the 'Room to Roam' hypothesis.


Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.Treatment of gastrointestinal infection in humans involves fluid rehydration, electrolyte replacement, and management of any pain. As of January 2015, nitazoxanide is the only drug approved for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent hosts. Supplemental zinc may improve symptoms, particularly in recurrent or persistent infections or in others at risk for zinc deficiency. Cryptosporidium oocysts are 4–6 µm in diameter and exhibit partial acid-fast staining. They must be differentiated from other partially acid-fast organisms including Cyclospora cayetanensis.

Limacina helicina

Limacina helicina is a species of small swimming planktonic sea snail in the family Limacinidae, which belong to the group commonly known as sea butterflies (Thecosomata).Limacina helicina is a keystone species of mesozooplankton in Arctic pelagic ecosystems.The first written record of this species was by Friderich Martens from Spitsbergen in 1675. Limacina helicina was also observed during a 1773 expedition to the Arctic led by Constantine John Phipps on the ships HMS Racehorse and on HMS Carcass and the species was described one year later, in 1774.Limacina helicina is the type species of the genus Limacina.In contrast to the traditional view, it was shown in 2010 that the distribution of this species is not bipolar; Arctic and Antarctic individuals belong to two genetically distinct species: Limacina helicina in the Arctic, and Limacina antarctica in the Antarctic.

Limacina retroversa

Limacina retroversa is a species of swimming predatory sea snail in the family Limacinidae, that belong to the group commonly known as sea butterflies (Thecosomata).

There is one subspecies: Limacina retroversa australis (Eydoux & Souleyet, 1840)

Limiting factor

A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system. A factor not limiting over a certain domain of starting conditions may yet be limiting over another domain of starting conditions, including that of the factor.

Resource (disambiguation)

A resource is a source or supply from which benefit is produced, typically of limited availability.

Resource may also refer to:

Natural resources, anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants

Water resources, sources of water that are useful or potentially usefulResource (biology), substances or objects required by a biological organism for normal maintenance, growth, and reproductionResource (economics), commodity, service, or other asset used in production of goods and services, including

Human resources (HR), skills, energies, talents, abilities, and knowledge used for production

Resource (project management), economic resources used in planning of tasksResource (computing), physical or virtual entities of limited availability (e.g., memory, processing capacity, and network speed), including

Computational resource, resource used for solving a computational problem

Web resource, anything identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier which can be found in a certain location

Resource fork, data associated with a Mac OS file

Resource (Windows), data embedded in EXE and DLL files

Resource (Java), application data

Resource (band), a former German electronic dance group

Size-asymmetric competition

Size-asymmetric competition refers to situations in which larger individuals exploit disproportionately greater amounts of resources when competing with smaller individuals. This type of competition is common among plants but also exists among animals. Size-asymmetric competition usually results from large individuals monopolizing the resource by "pre-emption". i.e. exploiting the resource before smaller individuals are able to obtain it. Size-asymmetric competition has major effects on population structure and diversity within ecological communities.

Hierarchy of life


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