A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic research or may be oriented to applied research. Although the term often implies natural science research, there are also many research institutes in the social science as well, especially for sociological and historical research purposes.
In the early medieval period, several astronomical observatories were built in the Islamic world. The first of these was the 9th-century Baghdad observatory built during the time of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun, though the most famous were the 13th-century Maragheh observatory, and the 15th-century Ulugh Beg Observatory.
The earliest research institute in Europe was Tycho Brahe's Uraniborg complex on the island of Hven, a 16th-century astronomical laboratory set up to make highly accurate measurements of the stars. In the United States there are numerous notable research institutes including Bell Labs, Xerox Parc, The Scripps Research Institute, Beckman Institute, and SRI International. Hughes Aircraft used a research institute structure for its organizational model.
Thomas Edison, dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention in the late 1800s, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.
From the throes of the Scientific Revolution came the 17th century scientific academy. In London, the Royal Society was founded in 1660, and in France Louis XIV founded the Académie royale des sciences in 1666 which came after private academic assemblies had been created earlier in the seventeenth century to foster research. .
In the early 18th century Peter the Great established an educational-research institute to be built in his newly created imperial capital, St Petersburg. His plan combined provisions for linguistic, philosophical and scientific instruction with a separate academy in which graduates could pursue further scientific research. It was the first institution of its kind in Europe to conduct scientific research within the structure of a university. The St Petersburg Academy was established by decree on 28 January 1724.
Research institutes came to emerge at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1900, at least in Europe and the United States, the scientific profession had only evolved so far as to include the theoretical implications of science and not its application. Research scientists had yet to establish a leadership in expertise. Outside scientific circles it was generally assumed that a person in an occupation related to the sciences carried out work which was necessarily "scientific" and that the skill of the scientist did not hold any more merit than the skill of a labourer. A philosophical position on science was not thought by all researchers to be intellectually superior to applied methods. However any research on scientific application was limited by comparison. A loose definition attributed all naturally occurring phenomena to "science". The growth of scientific study stimulated a desire to reinvigorate the scientific discipline by robust research in order to extract "pure" science from such broad categorisation.
This began with research conducted autonomously away from public utility and governmental supervision. Enclaves for industrial investigations became established. These included the Rockefeller Institute, Carnegie Institution of Washington and the Institute for Advanced Study. Research was advanced in both theory and application. This was aided by substantial private donation.
The expansion of universities into the faculty of research fed into these developments as mass education produced mass scientific communities. A growing public consciousness of scientific research brought public perception to the fore in driving specific research developments. After the Second World War and the atom bomb specific research threads were followed: environmental pollution and national defense.
The Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ; Arabic: معهد الابحاث التطبيقية - القدس) is a Palestinian NGO founded in 1990 with its main office in Bethlehem in the West Bank. ARIJ is actively working on research projects in the fields of management of natural resources, water management, sustainable agriculture and political dynamics of development in the Palestinian Territories.Central Leather Research Institute
Central Leather Research Institute or CLRI is the world's largest leather research institute in terms of research papers and patents. The institute located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu was founded on 24 April 1948 as a constituent laboratory under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute
Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute is an institution deemed to be university located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It received its deemed to be university status in 2003.Esri
Esri (, a.k.a. Environmental Systems Research Institute) is an international supplier of geographic information system (GIS) software, web GIS and geodatabase management applications. The company is headquartered in Redlands, California.
The company was founded as Environmental Systems Research Institute in 1969 as a land-use consulting firm. Esri products (particularly ArcGIS Desktop) have 40.7% of the global market share. In 2014, Esri had approximately a 43 percent share of the GIS software market worldwide, more than any other vendor.The company has 10 regional offices in the U.S. and a network of 80+ international distributors, with about a million users in 200 countries. The firm has 3,800 employees globally, and is privately held by its founders. In 2006, revenues were about $660 million. In a 2016 Investor's Business Daily article, Esri's annual revenues were indicated to be $1.1 Billion, from 300,000 customers ($4000/customer/year).The company hosts an annual International User's Conference, which was first held on the Redlands campus in 1981 with 16 attendees. The User's Conference has been held in San Diego at the San Diego Convention Center since 1997. An estimated 15,000 users from 131 countries attended in 2012.Forest Research Institute Malaysia
The Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM; Malay: Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia) is a statutory agency of the Government of Malaysia, under the Ministry of Land, Water and Natural Resources (KATS). FRIM promotes sustainable management and optimal use of forest resources in Malaysia by generating knowledge and technology through research, development and application in tropical forestry. FRIM is located in Kepong, near Kuala Lumpur.FRIM is the world’s oldest and largest re-created tropical rain forest.Fortis Healthcare
Fortis Healthcare Limited (FHL) is a chain of hospitals, headquartered in India. Fortis started its health care operations from Mohali where first Fortis hopsital was started. Later on, the hospital chain purchased the healthcare branch of Escorts group and increased its strength in various parts of the country. The Escorts Heart and research Center, Okhla, Delhi became a major operating unit of the chain which was headed by Naresh Trehan until he started his own chain by the name Medanta. The Fortis health care also operates its hospital in Vasant Kunj, faridabad, Gurgaon. The FMRI hospital at gurgaon is the headquarter of Fortis healthcare with all the major facilities at the hospital.
Fortis Healthcare was initially founded by Shivinder Mohan Singh and Malvinder Mohan Singh before the controversies and transferring of controlling share to Malaysia's IHH.
Malaysia’s IHH Healthcare Bhd has become the controlling shareholder of Fortis Healthcare Ltd by acquiring a 31.1% stake in the company. Fortis Healthcare also appointed four persons from IHH Healthcare to its board in a meeting held at Mohali on Tuesday. The board approved the allotment of over 230 million shares through preferential issue to Northern TK Venture Pte Ltd, a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of IHH Healthcare, at ₹170 per share of ₹10 face value..
In 2019, Fortis Healthcare announced that it has completed the acquisition of RHT Health Trust (RHT) assets for an enterprise value of Rs 4,650 crores.Fortis Healthcare is acquired by Manipal Hospitals and TPG Capital with a deal of ₹3900 crore along with approved sale of its 20 percent stake in SRL to Manipal Hospitals.Getty Research Institute
The Getty Research Institute (GRI), located at the Getty Center in Los Angeles, California, is "dedicated to furthering knowledge and advancing understanding of the visual arts".A program of the J. Paul Getty Trust, GRI maintains a research library, organizes exhibitions and other events, sponsors a residential scholars program, publishes books, and produces electronic databases (Getty Publications).Indian Council of Agricultural Research
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous body responsible for co-ordinating agricultural education and research in India. It reports to the Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture. The Union Minister of Agriculture serves as its president. It is the largest network of agricultural research and education institutes in the world.The Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education (Yashpal Committee, 2009) has recommended setting up of a constitutional body — the National Commission for Higher Education and Research — which would be a unified supreme body to regulate all branches of higher education including agricultural education. Presently, regulation of agricultural education is the mandate of ICAR, Veterinary Council of India (Veterinary sub-discipline) and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (Forestry sub-discipline). The UPA government has included Yashpal Committee recommendations in its '100 days agenda'. premier institute of agriculture in IndiaJawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute
"Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute", (formerly Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute) () renamed in the fond memory of visionary Prime Minister of India Shri Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru is an autonomous Institute established by the Government of Kerala on 17 November 1979 at Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala. It functions under the umbrella of the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment (KSCSTE), Government of Kerala. The Royal Botanic Gardens (RBG), Kew played an exemplary and significant role in shaping and designing the lay out of the JNTBGRI garden in its formative stages.
The Institute undertakes research in conservation biology, Biotechnology, plant taxonomy, microbiology, phytochemistry, ethnomedicine and ethnophamacology, which are the main areas considered to have immediate relevance to the development of the garden. While taxonomists prepared a flora of the garden documenting the native plant wealth before mass introduction and face lift which subsequently followed, the bio-technologists mass multiplied plants of commercial importance, especially orchids for cultivation and distribution to the public.
JNTBGRI makes a comprehensive survey of the economic plant wealth of Kerala, to conserve, preserve and sustainably utilize the plant wealth. The institute carries out botanical, horticultural and chemical research for plant improvement and utilization; and offers facilities for the improvement of ornamental plants and propagation in the larger context of the establishment of nursery and flower trade. The cultivation and culturing of plants of India/other countries with comparable climatic condition for the economic benefit of Kerala/India is also taken care. Activities to help botanical teaching and to create public understanding of the value of plant research is initiated by JNTBGRI. JNTBGRI gardens medicinal plants, ornamental plants and various introduced plants of economic or aesthetic value. JNTBGRI also serves as a source of supply of improved plants which are not readily available from other agencies.
Scientific researches on plant wealth are pursued through the following Divisions:
1. Garden Management, Education, Information and Training
2. Plant Genetic Resources
3. Biotechnology and Bioinformatics
4. Conservation Biology
5. Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology
6. Phytochemistry and Phytopharmacology
7. Plant Systematics and Evolutionary Sciences
8. MicrobiologyKerala Forest Research Institute
The Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) is an organisation based in Peechi, in Thrissur, India. It was established in 1975 by the Government of Kerala as part of its Science and Technology Department, and in 2003 became part of the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment.
The institute carries out research, training and extension on a range of disciplines related to tropical forests and forestry. Besides its main campus at Peechi in Thrissur District, a sub-centre has been established at Nilambur and a field research centre at Palapilly, in the Thrissur district. The main campus situated on the Thrissur-Peechi road has the main administrative offices, research divisions, laboratories, nurseries, greenhouses, museums, guest houses and the Kerala Forest Seed Centre. The sub-centre at Nilambur has the Teak Museum and the Bio-resources Nature Trail that attracts a large number of visitors. The field research center has the "Bambusetum" with a collection of 65 species of tropical bamboo, an arboretum and the Bamboo Primary Processing Centre.
The institute also hosts the following international/national offices:
Teaknet – the International Teak Information Network supported by the FAO, Rome
Bamboo Technical Support Group supported by National Bamboo Mission, New Delhi
Journal of Bamboo and Rattan
Bamboo Information Centre – IndiaMassachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the third oldest general hospital in the United States. With Brigham and Women's Hospital, it is one of the two founding members of Partners HealthCare, the largest healthcare provider in Massachusetts. Massachusetts General Hospital conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the world, with an annual research budget of more than $900 million. It is currently ranked as the #4 hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.In November 2017, The Boston Globe ranked MGH 5th place of top workplaces, of Massachusetts companies with over 1,000 employees; this was up from 6th place in 2016.Middle East Media Research Institute
The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) is a nonprofit press monitoring and analysis organization with headquarters in Washington, D.C. MEMRI publishes and distributes free English language translations of Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, and Turkish media reports.MEMRI states that its goal is to "bridge the language gap between the Middle East and the West." It has been praised as an "invaluable" resource and for helping to "shine a spotlight on hate speech wherever it appears". Critics charge that despite portraying itself as neutral, it aims to portray the Arab and Muslim world in a negative light through the production and dissemination of incomplete or inaccurate translations and by selectively translating views of extremists while deemphasizing or ignoring mainstream opinions.Needham Research Institute
The Needham Research Institute or NRI (Chinese: 李約瑟研究所), located on the grounds of Robinson College, in Cambridge, England, is a centre for research into the history of science, technology and medicine in East Asia. The institute is named after the biochemist and historian Joseph Needham, who initiated the Science and Civilisation in China series. The current director is Mei Jianjun, a noted archaeo-metallurgist.
The organization was founded as the East Asian History of Science Trust in August 1968. In June 1983 the trustees conferred the title Needham Research Institute. The Trustees of the NRI is a registered charity.The institute grew out of Needham's research collection, which was originally housed in Gonville and Caius College, where he was Master until his retirement in 1976. After several moves, it moved into its current purpose-built structure in Robinson College in 1991. The building was designed in the Chinese style, and has been described by its architect as "East Anglian Asian".Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute
Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute, formerly Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University or simply Vivekananda University, is a deemed university headquartered at Belur, West Bengal, with campuses spanning multiple states in India. Established with the idea of actualizing Swami Vivekananda's vision of education, the Institute is administered by the Ramakrishna Mission.
The university provides courses on subjects as varied as rural and tribal development, disability management and special education, fundamental science education and Indian cultural and spiritual heritage. These courses are conducted through specialized faculty centers housed in the various campuses. Some of the unconventional areas of study and research covered by the faculty centers of the university include disability management and special education at Coimbatore and integrated rural development including tribal development and management at its centers in Ranchi and Narendrapur.Scripps Research
Scripps Research, previously known as The Scripps Research Institute (or TSRI) is a nonprofit American medical research facility that focuses on research and education in the biomedical sciences. Headquartered in La Jolla, California with a sister facility in Jupiter, Florida, the institute has 250 laboratories employing 2,400 scientists, technicians, graduate students, and administrative and other staff, making it the largest private, non-profit biomedical research organization in the United States and among the largest in the world.
The institute holds nearly 1,000 patents, produced 8 FDA-approved therapeutics, and has generated over 70 spin-off companies. According to the 2017 Nature Innovation Index, Scripps Research is the #1 most influential research institution in the world. The Scripps Research graduate program is ranked 10th nationally in the biological sciences, 5th for organic chemistry, and 2nd for biochemistry.Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute
Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (SRIHER), formerly Sri Ramachandra University (SRU), is an institute deemed to be university located in Porur, Chennai, India. SRIHER consists of nine constituent colleges and faculties with more than 6000 students. SRIHER was founded by Sri Ramachandra Education & Health Trust on September 11, 1985 by N. P. V. Ramasamy Udayar. It was founded as a medical college, and was awarded the deemed to be university status in September 1994.Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public. SIPRI is based in Stockholm.SIPRI was ranked among the top three non-US world-wide think tanks in 2014 by the University of Pennsylvania Lauder Institute's Global Go To Think Tanks Report. In 2016 it ranked SIPRI in the top twenty eight among think tanks globally.Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) is an agricultural university located in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS) is a veterinary university founded in 1989 in Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai, India. It is composed of the Madras Veterinary College, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tirunelveli ; Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orathanadu and the Institute of Food and Dairy Technology, Koduvalli, Chennai-52. Research farms are for leprosy bacteria, for prawn and edible fish culture, and for animal feed safety.