Republican Fascist Party

The Republican Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) was a political party in Italy led by Benito Mussolini during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy and was the sole legitimate and ruling party of the Italian Social Republic. It was founded as the successor of former National Fascist Party as an anti-monarchist party. It considered King Victor Emmanuel III to be a traitor after he had signed the surrender to the Allies.

Republican Fascist Party

Partito Fascista Repubblicano
DuceBenito Mussolini
SecretaryAlessandro Pavolini
Founded13 September 1943
Dissolved28 April 1945
Preceded byNational Fascist Party
HeadquartersPiazza San Sepolcro, Milan, Italian Social Republic
Paramilitary wingBlack Brigades
Membership (1943)900,000
IdeologyItalian Fascism
Republicanism
Sansepolcrismo
Antisemitism
Political positionFar-right
Colours     Black
Party flag
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF)

History

After the Nazi-engineered Gran Sasso raid liberated Mussolini, the National Fascist Party (PNF) was revived on 13 September 1943 as the Republican Fascist Party (PRF) and as the single party of the Northern and Nazi-protected Italian Social Republic, informally known as the Salò Republic. Its secretary was Alessandro Pavolini.

The PFR did not outlast Mussolini's execution and the disappearance of the Salò state in April 1945. However, it inspired the creation of the Italian Social Movement (MSI)[1] and the MSI has been seen as the successor to the PFR and the PNF.[2] The MSI was formed by former Fascist leaders and veterans of the republic's fascist army.[3] The party tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.[4]

Ideology

Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism, Fascist syndicalism, and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay.[5] Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.[6]

A corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy was advocated by the Fascists.[7] This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.[8]

The Italian Fascists opposed liberalism and capitalism, but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, it had a forward-looking direction.[9] It was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre.[10] It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy.[11]

Fascism was opposed to Marxism because it was viewed as a threat to nationalism.[12] The Fascists were also anti-communists, viewing Bolshevism as the greatest contemporary menace to Western civilization.[13]

Secretary of the Republican Fascist Party

National Congress

References

  1. ^ Davies, Peter; Lynch, Derek (2002). The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-203-99472-6.
  2. ^ Levy, 1996, p. 188.
  3. ^ Ignazi, 1998, p. 157.
  4. ^ Stanley Payne (1992). "Fascism". In Mary E. Hawkesworth; Maurice Kogan (eds.). Encyclopedia of Government and Politics. Psychology Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-415-07224-3.
  5. ^ Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945. London, England, UK; New York City, USA: Routledge, 2000. p. 41.
  6. ^ Kallis, p. 50.
  7. ^ Andrew Vincent. Modern Political Ideologies. Third edition. Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; West Sussex, England, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 2010. p. 160.
  8. ^ John Whittam. Fascist Italy. Manchester, England, UK; New York City, USA: Manchester University Press, 1995. p. 160.
  9. ^ Eugen Weber. The Western Tradition: From the Renaissance to the present. Heath, 1972. p. 791.
  10. ^ Stanley G.Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–45. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. p. 214.
  11. ^ Claudia Lazzaro. "Forging a Visible Fascist Nation: Strategies for Fusing the Past and Present." In Claudia Lazzaro, Roger J. Crum (eds). Donatello Among The Blackshirts: History And Modernity In The Visual Culture Of Fascist Italy. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 2005. p. 13.
  12. ^ Stanislao G. Pugliese. Fascism, anti-fascism, and the resistance in Italy: 1919 to the present. Oxford, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2004. pp. 43–44.
  13. ^ Cannistraro, Philip V., and Edward D. Wynot Jr. "On the Dynamics of Anti-Communism as a Function of Fascist Foreign Policy, 1933-1943." Il Politico (1973): 645–681.
Alessandro Pavolini

Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903 – April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government, during World War II, and also, for his cruelty against the opponents of fascism.

Black Brigades

The Corpo Ausiliario delle Squadre d'azione di Camicie Nere (Italian: Auxiliary Corps of the Black Shirts' Action Squads), most widely known as the Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) was one of the Fascist paramilitary groups, organized and run by the Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. They were officially led by Alessandro Pavolini, former Minister of Culture (MINCULPOP) of the fascist era during the last years of the Kingdom of Italy.

Casa del Fascio

A casa del Fascio, casa Littoria, or casa del Littorio (Italian pronunciation: [ˈkaːza del ˈfaʃʃo]) was a building housing the local branch of the National Fascist Party and later the Republican Fascist Party under the regime of Italian Fascism, in Italy and its colonies. In major urban centers, it was called the palazzo del Littorio or palazzo Littorio. Littorio means lictor, the bearer of the fasces lictorii, the symbol of Roman power adopted by the Fascist party.

Congress of Verona (1943)

The Congress of Verona in November 1943 was the only congress of the Italian Republican Fascist Party, the successor of the National Fascist Party. At the time, the Republican Fascist Party was nominally in charge of the Italian Social Republic, a fascist state set up in Northern Italy after the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies and fled to Southern Italy. The Salò Republic was in fact a German puppet state and most of its internal and external policies were dictated by German military commanders. Nevertheless, Italian fascists were allowed to keep the trappings of sovereignty. It was under these conditions that they organized the Congress of Verona, ostensibly for the purpose of charting a new political course and rejuvenating the Italian fascist movement. The attitude of the Italian Fascists towards Italian Jews also drastically changed after the Congress of Verona, when Fascist authorities declared them to be of "enemy nationality" and begun to actively participate in the prosecution and arrest of Jews.

Duce

Duce (Italian pronunciation: [ˈduːtʃe], "leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and a cognate of duke. National Fascist Party leader Benito Mussolini was identified by Fascists as Il Duce ("The Leader") of the movement. In 1925 it became a reference to the dictatorial position of Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce del Fascismo e Fondatore dell'Impero ("His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism and Founder of the Empire"). Mussolini held this title together with that of President of the Council of Ministers: this was the constitutional position which entitled him to rule Italy on behalf of the King of Italy. Founder of the Empire was added for the exclusive use by Mussolini in recognition of his founding of an official legal entity of the Italian Empire on behalf of the King in 1936 following Italy's victory in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. The position was held by Mussolini until 1943, when he was removed from office by the King and the position of "Duce" was dismantled, while Marshal The 1st Duke of Addis Abeba was appointed Presidente del Consiglio.

This position was the model which other fascist leaders adopted, such as the position of Führer by Adolf Hitler and Caudillo by Francisco Franco. In September 1943, Mussolini styled himself as the "Duce of the Italian Social Republic" (Italian: Duce della Repubblica Sociale Italiana), and held the position until the collapse of the Italian Social Republic and his death in April 1945.

Fascist Italy

Fascist Italy may refer to:

Fascist Italy (1922–1943), the Kingdom of Italy under Fascism, ruled by the National Fascist Party under Benito Mussolini

Italian Social Republic, a puppet state of Nazi Germany, ruled by the Republican Fascist Party under Benito Mussolini from 1943 to 1945

Fascist Manifesto

The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat (Italian: Il manifesto dei fasci italiani di combattimento), commonly known as the Fascist Manifesto, was the initial declaration of the political stance of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento ("Italian League of Combat") the movement founded in Milan by Benito Mussolini in 1919 and an early exponent of Fascism. The Manifesto was authored by national syndicalist Alceste De Ambris and the futurist poet Filippo Marinetti.

Giovanni Orgera

Giovanni Orgera (14 December 1894 – 12 December 1967) was an Italian politician. He was born in Naples, Kingdom of Italy. He was podestà of Naples (1936–1943) as a member of the National Fascist Party. He was governor of Rome from January to June 1944 as a member of the Republican Fascist Party. He later went to Desenzano del Garda, Province of Brescia, Lombardy as a supporter of the Italian Social Republic. He died in Rome, Italy.

Italian Social Movement

The Italian Social Movement (Italian: Movimento Sociale Italiano, MSI), renamed in 1972 Italian Social Movement – National Right (Italian: Movimento Sociale Italiano – Destra Nazionale, MSI–DN), was a neo-fascist and post-fascist political party in Italy.

Formed in 1946 by supporters of the former dictator Benito Mussolini, most of whom took part in the experience of the Italian Social Republic and the Republican Fascist Party, the MSI became the fourth largest party in Italy by the early 1960s. The party gave informal local and eventually national support to the Christian Democrats from the late 1940s and through the 1950s, sharing anti-communist ideologies. In the early 1960s, the party was pushed to the sidelines of Italian politics, and only gradually started to gain some political recognition in the 1980s.

There was internal competition between the party's moderate and radical factions. The radicals led the party in its formative years under Giorgio Almirante, while the moderates gained control in the 1950s and 1960s. Almirante's return as leader in 1969 was characterised by bigger-tent strategy. Finally, in 1987, the reins of the party were taken by Gianfranco Fini, under whom it was transformed into National Alliance (AN) in 1995. On that occasion a small minority, led by Pino Rauti, disagreed with the new course and formed Tricolour Flame instead.

Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana, pronounced [reˈpubblika soˈtʃaːle itaˈljaːna]; RSI), popularly and historically known as the Republic of Salò (Italian: Repubblica di Salò [reˈpubblika di saˈlɔ]), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction. The state declared Rome its capital, but was de facto centered on Salò (hence its colloquial name), a small town on Lake Garda, near Brescia, where Mussolini and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were headquartered. The Italian Social Republic exercised nominal sovereignty in Northern and Central Italy, but was largely dependent on German troops to maintain control.

In July 1943, after the Allies had pushed Italy out of North Africa and subsequently invaded Sicily, the Grand Fascist Council—with the support of King Victor Emmanuel III—overthrew and arrested Mussolini. The new government began secret peace negotiations with the Allied powers. When the Armistice of Cassibile was announced 8 September, Germany was prepared and quickly intervened. Germany seized control of the northern half of Italy, freed Mussolini and brought him to the German-occupied area to establish a satellite regime. The Italian Social Republic was proclaimed on 23 September 1943. Although the RSI claimed sovereignty over most of Italian territory, its de facto jurisdiction only extended to a vastly reduced portion of Italy. The RSI received diplomatic recognition from only Germany, Japan and their puppet states.

Around 25 April 1945–nineteen months after the RSI's founding–it all but collapsed. In Italy, this day is known as Liberation Day (festa della liberazione). On this day a general partisan uprising, alongside the efforts of Allied forces during their final offensive in Italy, managed to oust the Germans from Italy almost entirely. On 27 April, partisans caught Mussolini, his mistress (Clara Petacci), several RSI ministers and several other Italian Fascists while they were attempting to flee. On 28 April, the partisans shot Mussolini and most of the other captives. The RSI Minister of Defense Rodolfo Graziani surrendered what was left of the Italian Social Republic on 1 May, one day after the German forces in Italy capitulated, putting a definitive end to the Italian Social Republic.

List of Secretaries of Italian Fascist parties

This article lists the Secretaries of Italian Fascist parties founded and led by Benito Mussolini between 1919 and 1945, namely Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (FIC), National Fascist Party (PNF) and Republican Fascist Party (PFR).

The Secretaries were effective, day-to-day leaders of parties, while Mussolini was the overall (supreme) leader, as well as Duce of the Fascist-ruled Kingdom of Italy between 1922 and 1943, and the Nazi-dominated Italian Social Republic (RSI) between 1943 and 1945.

List of fascist movements by country

This is a list of political parties, organizations, and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology. Since definitions of fascism vary, entries in this list may be controversial. For a discussion of the various debates surrounding the nature of fascism, see fascism and ideology and definitions of fascism.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of fascist movements by country A–F

List of fascist movements by country G–M

List of fascist movements by country N–T

List of fascist movements by country U–Z

List of mayors of Forlì

The Mayor of Forlì is an elected politician who, along with the Forlì's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Forlì in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. The current Mayor is Gian Luca Zattini, a member of the right-wing populist party Lega Nord, who took office on 11 June 2019.

List of mayors of Verona

The Mayor of Verona (Italian: Sindaco di Verona) is an elected politician who, along with the Verona’s City Council, is accountable for the government of Verona in Veneto, Italy.

The current mayor of Verona is Federico Sboarina, a member of the centre-right party Forza Italia, who took office on 27 June 2017.

National Fascist Party

The National Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci). The party ruled Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome to 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism.

Preceding the PNF, Mussolini's first established political party was known as the Revolutionary Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Rivoluzionario, PFR), which was founded in 1915 according to Mussolini. After poor November 1919 election results, the PFR was eventually renamed the National Fascist Party during the Third Fascist Congress in Rome on 7–10 November 1921.The National Fascist Party was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.Fascists promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.Italian Fascism opposed liberalism, but did not seek a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, and not in line with a forward-looking direction on policy. It was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism, but was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy.The National Fascist Party along with its successor, the Republican Fascist Party, are the only parties whose re-formation is banned by the Constitution of Italy: "It shall be forbidden to reorganize, under any form whatsoever, the dissolved fascist party".

Nicola Bombacci

Nicola Bombacci (24 October 1879 – 28 April 1945), born at Civitella di Romagna, was an Italian Marxist revolutionary, prominent during the first half of the 20th century. He began in the Italian Socialist Party as an opponent of the reformist wing and became a founding member of the Communist Party of Italy in 1921, sitting on the fifteen-man Central Committee. During the latter part of his life, particularly during the Second World War, Bombacci allied with Benito Mussolini and the Italian Social Republic against the Allied invasion of Italy. He met his death after being shot by partisans and his cadaver was subsequently strung up in Piazzale Loreto.

One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.

Pieve Vergonte

Pieve Vergonte is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Piedmont region of Italy. It is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northwest of Verbania and 110 kilometres (68 mi) northeast of Turin.

Pino Romualdi

Giuseppe "Pino" Romualdi' (24 July 1913 – 21 May 1988) was an Italian right-wing politician who served both the Republican Fascist Party (PFR) and the Italian Social Movement (MSI). He was the subject of frequent rumours that he was the biological son of Benito Mussolini although no proof has been given. Romualdi himself, who was from the same village as Mussolini, encouraged the rumour.

Italy Historical political parties and coalitions in Italy

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