Republic of West Papua

The Republic of West Papua is a proposed, former, and unrecognized state consisting of the Western New Guinea region. The region is claimed by Indonesia and has been occupied by Indonesia since 1 May 1963 under several names in the following order West Irian, Irian Jaya and Papua. Today the region comprises two Indonesian provinces: Papua and West Papua.

The proposal is supported by Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands with the Parliament of Vanuatu passing the Wantok Blong Yumi Bill (Our Close Friends) in 2010 officially declaring that Vanuatu's foreign policy is to support the achievement of the independence of West Papua.[1][2][3] Vanuatu's Parliament has proposed requesting that West Papua be granted observer status at the Melanesian Spearhead Group and Pacific Island Forum.[4][5][6]

The Republic of West Papua has been a member state of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) since 2014.

Republic of West Papua

Republik Papua Barat
1961–1969
Motto: Setia, Jujur, Mesra (Indonesian)
(English: "Loyal, Honest, Affectionate")
Anthem: Hai Tanahku Papua (Indonesian)
(English: "Oh My Land Papua")
West Papua
StatusUnrecognized state
CapitalJayapura
Common languagesIndonesian, Dutch, and Papuan languages
Demonym(s)Papuan
GovernmentRepublic
History 
• Established
1961
1 October 1962
1 May 1963
19 November 1969
• Free Papua Movement proclaimed republic
1 July 1971
• Dr. Thomas Wainggai proclaimed republic
14 December 1988
• West Papua National Authority proclaimed federal republic
19 October 2011
• Disestablished
1969
Preceded by
Succeeded by
United Nations Temporary Executive Authority
Netherlands New Guinea
Netherlands
Indonesia

History

The region was formerly a Kingdom of the Netherlands colony part of the Dutch East Indies and in 1949 was known as Dutch New Guinea. The Dutch had planned to withdraw by 1970 and began "Papuanization" to prepare for independence.[7] In February 1961, the Dutch organised elections for the New Guinea Council a Papuan representative body to advise the Governor.[7][8] The Council appointed a National Committee to prepare a political manifesto for the future state.[7][8] On 1 December 1961, an inauguration ceremony was held for the Morning Star flag raised outside the Council building in the presence of the Governor, also the national anthem "Hai Tanahku Papua", the birds of paradise coat of arms, motto and the name of Papua Barat (West Papua) for the proposed new state.[7][8] The Dutch had accepted the Manifesto except the denomination of the flag recognising it as a territorial flag not a national flag.[8]

On 1 July 1971, Brigadier General Seth Jafeth Rumkorem, leader of the militant independence movement Free Papua Movement (Indonesian: Organisasi Papua Merdeka, (OPM)), proclaimed unilaterally Papua Barat or West Papua as an independent democratic republic.[9] The Morning Star flag was declared as a national flag.[8]

On 14 December 1988, Dr. Thomas Wainggai proclaimed the Republic of West Melanesia using the Melanesian identity of the West Papuan people as the name.[10][11] The West Melanesia flag featured 14 stars with three coloured bars of black, red and white.[10]

On 19 October 2011, Forkorus Yaboisembut, the head of the West Papua National Authority (WPNA), proclaimed the Federal Republic of West Papua (Indonesian: Negara Republik Federal Papua Barat, (NRFPB)) with the Mambruk pigeon as the symbol of state.[12]

In December 2014, all West Papuan independence movement groups united under a single umbrella organisation the United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP).[13][14]

On 9 November 2017, the OPM's armed wing, the West Papua National Liberation Army (TPN-OPM), seized control of the villages of Kimberly and Banti near the Grasberg mine, holding these villages until retaken by Indonesian forces 8 days later.[15][16][17]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fiery debate over West Papua at UN General Assembly". Radio New Zealand 2017. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  2. ^ "Indonesia hits back at Melanesian leaders on West Papua". Radio New Zealand. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  3. ^ Manning, Selwyn (22 June 2010). "Vanuatu to seek observer status for West Papua at MSG and PIF leaders summits". Pacific Scoop. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  4. ^ "Indonesia; Vanuatu: Vanuatu Parliament Passes Resolution on West Papua Independence | Global Legal Monitor". www.loc.gov. Buchanan, Kelly. 2010-07-21. Retrieved 2018-05-02.CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ "Vanuatu to seek UN General Assembly support for ICJ opinion on Indonesia's Papua". Radio New Zealand. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  6. ^ "Pacific.scoop.co.nz » Vanuatu to seek observer status for West Papua at MSG and PIF leaders summits". pacific.scoop.co.nz. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  7. ^ a b c d Saltford, John (2003). The United Nations and the Indonesian takeover of West Papua, 1962-1969 : the anatomy of betrayal (PDF). London ; New York: Routledge Curzon. ISBN 0203221877. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e Tanggahma, Leonie (1 December 2012). "A History of the Morning Star Flag of West Papua". West Papua Media. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  9. ^ "West Papua". Unrepresented Nations and People Organization (UNPO). 15 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  10. ^ a b King, Peter (2004). West Papua & Indonesia since Suharto: independence, autonomy or chaos?. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 9780868406763.
  11. ^ "Human Rights in Papua 2010/2011" (PDF). Papua land of peace - faith based network on West Papua. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  12. ^ "Government". Federal State Republic of West Papua. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  13. ^ Ligo, Godwin (10 December 2014). "West Papuans unite under new umbrella group". Vanuatu Daily Post. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  14. ^ Chivers, Danny (10 May 2017). "Morning Star Rising". New Internationalist. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017.
  15. ^ "Armed separatists occupy villages near Freeport's Papua mine". abc.net.au. 10 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Papua separatists dispute Indonesia's claim of taking hostages". abc.net.au. 10 November 2017.
  17. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Detik-detik Menegangkan Operasi Senyap Kopassus dan Kostrad Bebaskan Sandera di Papua - Kompas.com". kompas.com.

Further reading

  • Bertrand, Jaques (1997). "Business as Usual" in Suharto's Indonesia. Asian Survey 37(6):441-452.
  • Brad Simpson. Indonesia's 1969 Takeover of West Papua Not by "Free Choice". The National Security Archive, George Washington University.

External links

Coordinates: 4°16′00″S 136°09′00″E / 4.2667°S 136.1500°E

Act of Free Choice

The Act of Free Choice (Indonesian: Penentuan Pendapat Rakyat, PEPERA, Determination of the People's Opinion), often disparagingly referred to as the "Act of No Choice", was an election held in August 2, 1969 in which 1,025 men and women selected by the Indonesian military in Western New Guinea voted unanimously in favor of Indonesian control.The event was recognized by the United Nations in General Assembly resolution 2504 (XXIV) without determining whether it complied with the authorizing New York Agreement, and without determining whether it was an act of "self-determination" as referred to and described in United Nations General Assembly resolutions 1514 and 1541 (XV) respectively.

Coat of arms of West Papua

The Coat of arms of West Papua was adopted in 1971, when an independent Republic of West Papua was declared. The design on the shield was in the form of the flag of former Netherlands New Guinea, the Morning Star flag. The shield is supported by a Mambruk pigeon, who holds a drum in its dexter claw and a bundle of arrows in its sinister claw also, and surrounded by an arch in chief with the motto "One People, One Soul". The coat of arms is inspired by the frontispiece of a pamphlet entitled "De Papoea’s roepen Nederland" (English: The Papua’s call for the Netherlands) published in 1951.

Foreign relations of Romania

The foreign relations of Romania are conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerul Afacerilor Externe). Romania is a member of NATO and the European Union.

Free Papua Movement

The Free Papua Movement (Indonesian: Organisasi Papua Merdeka – OPM) is an umbrella term for the independence movement established during 1965 in the West Papuan or West New Guinea territory which is currently being administrated by Indonesia as the provinces of Papua and West Papua, also formerly known as Papua, Irian Jaya and West Irian.The movement consists of three elements: a disparate group of armed units each with

limited territorial control with no single commander; several groups in the territory that conduct demonstrations and protests; and a small group of leaders based abroad that raise awareness of issues in the territory whilst striving for international support for independence.Since its inception the OPM has attempted diplomatic dialogue, conducted Morning Star flag-raising ceremonies, and undertaken militant actions as part of the Papua conflict. Supporters routinely display the Morning Star flag and other symbols of Papuan unity, such as the national anthem "Hai Tanahku Papua" and a national coat of arms, which had been adopted in the period 1961 until Indonesian administration began in May 1963 under the New York Agreement. The militant movement is considered as a separatist in Indonesia, and agitating for independence for the provinces has incurred charges of treason.

Hai Tanahku Papua

Hai Tanahku Papua ("Oh My Land Papua") is the national anthem of Republic of West Papua.

Jacob Rumbiak

Jacob Rumbiak is a West Papuan academic and political leader who has been in self-imposed exile in Australia after escaping from detention as a political prisoner for ten years in Indonesian gaols. Rumbiak is the Foreign Affairs representative of the Federated Republic of West Papua declared at the conclusion of the Third Papuan People's Congress on 19 October 2011. Rumbiak's advice from within West Papua to not attend the Congress for security reasons was vindicated in the crack-down which led to six deaths, hundreds of arrests and the sentencing of five of the principal figures to three years gaol each for treason.

Rumbiak was born in Yabon in the highland district of Ayamaru in Dutch New Guinea and was eight years old when the UN handed his country over to Indonesia in 1963. His parents are from Biak-Numfoor Island on the north coast. Both were primary school teachers, his father also a Protestant pastor. His mother died in 1982 when he was studying in West Java.

In 1967 his family fled to the jungle from the Indonesian military which had overtaken West Papua. There they were protected by the Free Papua Organization (OPM). Jacob became involved with the OPM and at a young age became a commander of troops. He finally returned to the towns and was exiled with an education scholarship to Java in 1978. Rumbiak graduated from the Indonesia University of Education in Bandung (where he spent nine years), with a BA (1982 Maths) and Masters (1987 Geography). By 1987 Jacob was an academic at the Indonesian National Scientific Institute; the Physical Geography Research Institute for East Indonesia; and the Environment Resource Institute of Indonesia.

In 1987 he was appointed to teach in Astronomy and Meteorology at Cenderawasih University in Jayapura. Jacob became increasingly politicised, and committed to a non-violent campaign of resistance based on universal concepts like ‘justice, peace and love’ he began educating student activists. Together with Dr Thomas Wainggai he established the West Melanesia Council. In 1988 Dr Wainggai and his wife were arrested, and the next year Jacob took refuge in the PNG Consulate in Jayapura. Despite the Indonesian assurances of his safety, when Jacob left the Consulate he was arrested, and in 1989 then sentenced to life imprisonment for subversion.

Rumbiak was moved through eight military and four civilian prisons, including five years on death row at Kalisosok where he completed a degree in theology. He then spent two and a half years in isolation at the top of a stone tower in Tangerang Prison (West Java); Jacob attests that his survival was only by God’s grace. After intervention by the International Committee of the Red Cross, he was moved to Cipinang Penitentiary Institution, which he described in the foreword of Xanana Gusmao’s autobiography as a ‘first-class Indonesian jail’.

As a student, lecturer, and later in prison, Jacob studied and experimented with ‘non-violence’ and ‘democracy’ on the streets of Jakarta and West Java, helping to inspire the generation of Indonesian students who brought down President Suharto in 1998. With other intellectuals and ex-political prisoners he developed the West Melanesia Council, an indigenous non-violent Melanesian based movement for self- determination and independence which became the philosophical and political foundations of the West Papua National Authority.

In 1998, following the downfall of Suharto, he was released to ‘house arrest’ inside military barracks. The next year he managed to fly to East Timor as an accredited UN observer for the referendum, and escaped on a RAAF Hercules plane to Darwin. Jacob has lived in Australia since his escape in 1999, and has been an Australian citizen since 2006. He was a member of West Papua’s delegation to the Pacific Islands Forum in Fiji in 2002, in New Zealand in 2003, and Fiji in 2006. In 2003 he was a member of West Papua’s delegation to the European Union in Brussels. In 2004 he wrote a briefing paper for the British Government, and represented the West Papua National Authority at the Japanese Foreign Affairs Department in Tokyo. In 2005, he organized the West Papua National Authority delegation to the Melanesian Spearhead Group meeting in PNG, and in 2006 met the United Decolonization Committee in Fiji. In 2006 he attended the First Nation’s International Solidarity meeting in Canada, and in 2007 co-hosted the first Melanesian Cultural Festival in the Netherlands. Rumbiak has dedicated himself to achieving self-determination for the people of West Papua by peaceful means.

On 19 Oct 2011 the Third Papuan People's Congress (Abepura, Jayapura) declared an independent Federal Republic of West Papua (FRWP), with Forkorus Yaboisembut appointed President and Edison Waromi appointed Prime Minister. Both were arrested and incarcerated with sentences of three years. Jacob Rumbiak has been appointed the Republic's Foreign Minister. On 23 June 2014 the Office of FRWP Dept Foreign Affairs, Immigration & Trade was opened in Docklands, Melbourne. In his opening speech Rumbiak stated that , according to State Administration theory, when a political society has established the five pre-requisites of a nation state, they are equal with other nation-states, and should be treated like one, and that West Papua has fulfilled those prerequisites, unlike America and Indonesia when they declared independence.

With a view to a successful application by West Papua to join the Melanesian Spearhead Group, at historic unity meetings in Vanuatu, on 6 Dec 2014 Rumbiak was elected as one of the five international representatives of the newly formed United Liberation Movement for West Papua, a unity body comprising the FRWP, the West Papua Coalition for Liberation and the West Papua National Parliament. On 14 July 2016 at a MSG Special Leader's Summit in Honiara, the ULMWP was admitted with Observer status, the decision on full membership being deferred for technical reasons.

List of active rebel groups

This is a list of active rebel factions around the world whose domains may be subnational, transnational or international. A "rebel group" is defined here as a political group that uses armed conflict in opposition to established government or governments for reasons such as to seek political change or to establish or maintain or to gain independence.

List of active separatist movements in Asia

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Asia. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

They are active movements with current, active members.

They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).

They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and not comes from other country.Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

De facto state: for regions with a de facto polity

Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding or anticipated sovereign state

Proposed autonomous area: for movements toward greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession

De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region

Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control

Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession

Militant organisation(s): for armed organisations or insurgencies

Advocacy group(s): for nonviolent, non-electoral, participatory entities

Ethnic/ethno-religious/racial/regional/religious group(s)

List of active separatist movements in Oceania

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Oceania. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

They are active movements with living, active members.

They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).

They are the citizen/peoples of the contested area.Under each region listed is one or more of the following (except for The United States which only has the last one):

De facto state: for regions with de facto autonomy from the government

Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state

Proposed autonomous area: for movements toward greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession

De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region

Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control

Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession

Militant organisation(s): for armed organisations

Advocacy group(s): for non-belligerent, non-politically participatory entities

Ethnic/ethno-religious/racial/regional/religious group(s)

List of flags by color combination

This is a list of flags of states, territories, and other entities sorted by their combinations of dominant colors. Flags emblazoned with seals, coats of arms, and other multicolored are sorted only by their color fields. The color of text is similarly ignored.

Colors related to the two metals of European heraldry (gold and white) are sorted first. The five major "stains" of European heraldry (black, red, blue, green, and purple) are sorted next. Miscellaneous colors (murrey, tan, grey, and pink) are sorted last.

Similar colors are grouped together to make navigation of this list practical. As such, the dark greens prevalent in the Middle East are sorted together with the brighter greens prevalent in Western Europe. Significantly: yellows, golds, and oranges are grouped together as "gold" due to the lack of discrete divisions within this spectrum and the differing standards of interpretation of "gold", which appears in the legally codified specifications of many flags. Some flags, including a number from South Asia, include both a distinct yellow and a distinct orange; these have been noted accordingly.

List of historical separatist movements

This is a list of historical separatist movements around the world. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. Most separatist movements do not succeed in their goal, therefore only notable ones are listed here; however, not all listed here succeeded in their goal.

Mapenduma hostage crisis

The Mapenduma hostage crisis began on 8 January 1996 after the Free Papua Movement (Indonesian: Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM)) took 26 members of a World Wildlife Fund research mission captive at Mapenduma, Jayawijaya in Irian Jaya (now Papua Province), Indonesia. The hostages were subsequently moved to Geselama. The International Committee of the Red Cross acted as an intermediary between the OPM and the Indonesian authorities. Fifteen hostages, all of Indonesian nationality, were released relatively quickly, but eleven (comprising four Britons, two Dutch, and five Indonesians) remained in OPM hands. After lengthy negotiations the ICRC secured an agreement for the release of the remaining hostages on 8 May. However, the OPM leader, Kelly Kwalik, backed out of the agreement on the day of the intended release. The ICRC removed itself from the negotiations and stated that the Indonesian Army was no longer bound by an agreement not to engage in combat with the hostage takers.

On 9 May Indonesian Army Special Forces (Kopassus) moved into the village but found it unoccupied. Five personnel were killed in a helicopter crash. A small observation force was left behind and, after this confirmed the OPM and their hostages had returned to the site on 15 May, a second assault was made. This was successful and effected the release of nine of the hostages, two being killed by their captors. Eight OPM fighters were killed and two captured versus no loss on the Indonesian side, save for the helicopter crash. There was some international controversy over the use of an unmarked civilian helicopter by the Indonesian forces, which may have misled the OPM.

Morning Star flag

The Morning Star flag (Indonesian: Bendera Bintang Kejora, Dutch: Morgenster vlag) was a flag used in a supplemental fashion on Netherlands New Guinea to the flag of the Netherlands. It was first raised on 1 December 1961 prior to the territory coming under administration of the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) on 1 October 1962.The flag is used by the Free Papua Organization and other independence supporters. Under Papua's Special Autonomy Law, ratified in 2002, the flag may be raised in Papua so long as the flag of Indonesia is also raised and it is higher than the Morning Star flag. The flag consists of a red vertical band along the hoist side, with a white five-pointed star in the center, and thirteen horizontal stripes, alternating blue and white, with seven blue stripes and six white ones.

National Committee for West Papua

The National Committee for West Papua (abbreviated KNPB or Komite Nasional Papua Barat) was established on 19 November 2008 by a number of Papua NGOs. It is a Papuan peoples' organization campaigning, in a non-violent way, for a referendum for the Papuan people of West Papua (i.e. the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua). The right to self-determination was withheld, though this the exercise of this right was provided for in the agreement between the governments of The Netherlands, Indonesia and the UN in 1962.

RWP

RWP can refer to:-

Rana Wickrama Padakkama, Sri Lankan decoration

Radio with Pictures, New Zealand programme

Revolutionary Workers Party (disambiguation)

Republic of West Papua, proposed state

RWP, IATA code for Benazir Bhutto International Airport (defunct)

RWP, IATA code for PAF Base Nur Khan

United Liberation Movement for West Papua

The United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) unites the three main political independence movements seeking independence for Western New Guinea (West Papua) under a single umbrella organisation. The ULMWP was formed on 7 December 2014 in Vanuatu uniting the Federal Republic of West Papua (NRFPB), the West Papua National Coalition for Liberation (WPNCL) and the National Parliament of West Papua (NPWP).

West Papua

West Papua may refer to:

Western New Guinea, the western half of the island of New Guinea annexed by Indonesia in 1962

Republic of West Papua, a state whose independence was claimed in 1961, soon to be annexed and integrated into Indonesia following a contested referendum

West Papua (province), an administrative province of Indonesia created in 2003 (initially West Irian Jaya or Irian Jaya Barat) that includes the Bird's Head Peninsula and adjacent islands

Western New Guinea

Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (ISO code: ID-PP), is the Indonesian part of the island of New Guinea. Since the island is also named as Papua, the region is sometimes called West Papua. Lying to the west of the independent state of Papua New Guinea, it is the only Indonesian territory to be situated in Oceania. The territory is mostly in the Southern Hemisphere and also includes nearby islands, including the Schouten and Raja Ampat archipelagoes. The region is predominantly covered with ancient rainforest where numerous traditional tribes live, such as the Dani of the Baliem Valley, although a large proportion of the population live in or near coastal areas, with the largest city being Jayapura.Following its proclamation of independence in 1945, the Republic of Indonesia took over all the former territories of the Dutch East Indies, including Western New Guinea. However, the Dutch retained sovereignty over the region until the New York Agreement on 15 August 1962, which returned Western New Guinea to Indonesia. The region became the province of Irian Jaya before being renamed Papua in 2002. The following year, the second province in the region, West Papua in Manokwari, was created. Both provinces were granted special autonomous status by the Indonesian legislation.

Western New Guinea has an estimated population of 4,363,869, the majority of whom are Papuan people. The official and most commonly spoken language is Indonesian. Estimates of the number of local languages in the region range from 200 to over 700, with the most widely spoken including Dani, Yali, Ekari and Biak. The predominant religion is Christianity (often combined with traditional practices and beliefs) followed by Islam. The main industries include agriculture, fishing, oil production, and mining.

Africa
North America
South America
Asia
Europe

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.