Republic of China Armed Forces rank insignia

The Republic of China Armed Forces rank insignia have five schemes among different military branches, including Army[1], Navy[2], and Air Force[3]. The Marine Corps[4], although being a part of the Navy, maintains a different insignia to other naval fleet personnel. The Military Police has insignia very similar to the Army, just with a slightly different green color. Under the current regulations, military ranks contain the following:

  • Officers (軍官) can be classified into three(3) levels (generals, colonels, captains), and to ten(10) ranks,
  • Non-commissioned officers (士官) can be classified into six(6) ranks, and
  • Enlisted soldiers (士兵) can be classified into three(3) ranks.

The official military rank names in Chinese are identical across all different military branches, but their English translations may be different.

History

General Special Class rank insignia (ROC) - V
Insignia of
Generalissimo

The rank system of the Republic of China Armed Forces was originally based on that of the Wehrmacht of Germany (Weimar Republic and early era of Nazi Germany) during the era of Sino-German cooperation in the 1930s. Due to the German influence, the rank of one-star general or admiral does not use the French-style title of Brigadier General, but the German-style title of Major General (Army, Air force and Marines) or Rear Admiral (Navy).

After the government of the Republic of China relocated to Taiwan in December 1949, the military rank system had a large reform in 1956. The rank structure is getting closer to the one used by the United States Armed Forces.

Before 2000, Generalissimo (Chinese: 特級上將; pinyin: Tèjí Shàngjiàng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Te̍k-kip Siōng-chiòng) was the highest military rank of the Armed Forces. It was bestowed only once, to Chiang Kai-shek in 1935. This rank was abolished since 2000.

The rank of Full general (Chinese: 一級上將; pinyin: Yījí Shàngjiàng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: It-kip Siōng-chiòng) was designed for the Chief of the General Staff and some senior military strategy advisors in the Office of the President. Since 2013, the new regulations have all these positions shall be with lower rank generals. The rank of Full general will be granted only in wartime.

Officers

Level Generals Colonels Captains
Rank 一級上將 二級上將 中將 少將 上校 中校 少校 上尉 中尉 少尉
Mandarin Yījí Shàngjiàng Èrjí Shàngjiàng Zhōngjiàng Shaojiàng Shàngxiào Zhōngxiào Shàoxiào Shàngwèi Zhōngwèi Shàowèi
Taiwanese It-kip Siōng-chiòng Jī-kip Siōng-chiòng Tiong-chiòng Siáu-chiòng Siōng-hāu Tiong-hāu Siáu-hāu Siōng-ùi Tiong-ùi Siáu-ùi
Hakka Yit-khi̍p Song-chiông Ngi-khi̍p Song-chiông Chûng-chiông Seu-chiông Song-káu Chûng-káu Seu-káu Song-ví Chûng-ví Seu-ví
Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
Republic of China Army
Rank Full
general
General Lieutenant
general
Major
general
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Insignia Taiwan-army-OF-9b.svg Taiwan-army-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-army-OF-8.svg Taiwan-army-OF-7.svg Taiwan-army-OF-5.svg Taiwan-army-OF-4.svg Taiwan-army-OF-3.svg Taiwan-army-OF-2.svg Taiwan-army-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-army-OF-1a.svg
Republic of China Navy
Rank Full
admiral
Admiral Vice
admiral
Rear
admiral
Captain Commander Lieutenant
commander
Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign
Insignia Taiwan-navy-OF-9b Taiwan-navy-OF-9a Taiwan-navy-OF-8 Taiwan-navy-OF-7 Taiwan-navy-OF-5 Taiwan-navy-OF-4 Taiwan-navy-OF-3 Taiwan-navy-OF-2 Taiwan-navy-OF-1b Taiwan-navy-OF-1a
Republic of China Marine Corps
Rank General Lieutenant
general
Major
general
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Insignia Taiwan-Marine-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-8.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-7.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-5.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-4.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-3.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-2.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-1a.svg
Republic of China Air Force
Rank Full
general
General Lieutenant
general
Major
general
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Insignia Taiwan-airforce-OF-9b.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-8.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-7.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-5.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-4.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-3.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-2.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-1a.svg

Enlisted

Level Non-commissioned officers Enlisted soldiers
Rank 一等士官長 二等士官長 三等士官長 上士 中士 下士 上等兵 一等兵 二等兵
Mandarin Yīděng Shìguānzhǎng Èrděng Shìguānzhǎng Sānděng Shìguānzhǎng Shàngshi Zhōngshi Xiàshi Shàngděng Bīng Yīděng Bīng Èrděng Bīng
Taiwanese It-téng Sū-koaⁿ-tiúⁿ Jī-téng Sū-koaⁿ-tiúⁿ Sàm-téng Sū-koaⁿ-tiúⁿ Siōng-sū Tiong-sū Hā-sū Siōng-téng Peng It-téng Peng Jī-téng Peng
Hakka Yit-tén Sṳ-kôn-chóng Ngi-tén Sṳ-kôn-chóng Sâm-tén Sṳ-kôn-chóng Song-sṳ Chûng-sṳ Ha-sṳ Song-tén Pîn Yit-tén Pîn Ngi-tén Pîn
Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Republic of China Army
Rank First class
master sergeant
Second class
master sergeant
Third class
master sergeant
Sergeant Staff sergeant Corporal Private
specialist
Private
first class
Private
Insignia Taiwan-army-OR-9.svg Taiwan-army-OR-8.svg Taiwan-army-OR-7.svg Taiwan-army-OR-6.svg Taiwan-army-OR-5.svg Taiwan-army-OR-4.svg Taiwan-army-OR-3 Taiwan-army-OR-2 Taiwan-army-OR-1
Republic of China Navy
Rank First class
chief petty officer
Second class
chief petty officer
Third class
chief petty officer
Petty officer
first class
Petty officer
second class
Petty officer
third class
Seaman
specialist
Seaman
first class
Seaman
Insignia Taiwan-Navy-OR-9 Taiwan-Navy-OR-8 Taiwan-Navy-OR-7 Taiwan-Navy-OR-6 Taiwan-Navy-OR-5 Taiwan-Navy-OR-4 Taiwan-Navy-OR-3 Taiwan-Navy-OR-2 Taiwan-Navy-OR-1
Republic of China Marine Corps
Rank First class
master sergeant
Second class
master sergeant
Third class
master sergeant
Sergeant Staff sergeant Corporal Lance
corporal
Private
first class
Private
Insignia Taiwan-Marine-OR-9.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-8.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-7.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-6.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-5.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-4.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-3 Taiwan-Marine-OR-2 Taiwan-Marine-OR-1
Republic of China Air Force
Rank First class
master sergeant
Second class
master sergeant
Third class
master sergeant
Sergeant Staff sergeant Corporal Senior
airman
Airman
first class
Airman
Insignia Taiwan-airforce-OR-9.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-8.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-7.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-6.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-5.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-4.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-3 Taiwan-airforce-OR-2 Taiwan-airforce-OR-1

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Rank of flotilla (區艦隊) commanders
  2. ^ a b Rank of wing (聯隊) commanders

References

  1. ^ Republic of China Army (Since 1981)
  2. ^ Republic of China Navy (Since 1981)
  3. ^ Republic of China Air Force (Since 1981)
  4. ^ Republic of China Marine Corps (Since 1981)

External links

Jiang (rank)

Jiang (simplified Chinese: 将; traditional Chinese: 將; pinyin: jiàng; Wade–Giles: chiang) is the rank held by general officers in the militaries of both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan. The People's Liberation Army and the People's Armed Police use three levels at present while the Republic of China Armed Forces use four.

The same rank names are used for all services, prefixed by haijun (simplified Chinese: 海军; traditional Chinese: 海軍; literally: 'naval force') or kongjun (simplified Chinese: 空军; traditional Chinese: 空軍; literally: 'air force').

Lin Chen-yi

Lin Chen-yi (Chinese: 林鎮夷; pinyin: Lín Zhènyí) is an admiral of the Republic of China Navy in Taiwan. He was the Chief of the General Staff of the Republic of China Armed Forces between 2009 and 2013, and also the last senior admiral/general in the military after the new law that claims "to promoted as the senior general/admiral must have been in wartime".

Wei (rank)

Wei (Chinese: 尉) is the rank held by company-grade officers in the militaries of China and Taiwan. It currently exists in three grades, shao wei (少尉), zhong wei (中尉) (chung wei using Wade–Giles), and shang wei (上尉). An additional grade, da wei (大尉), formerly existed in the Chinese military (PLA) from 1955 to 1965. However, when the use of rank and insignia was restored in 1988, this rank was not re-established. As opposed to the Western tradition of using different names for equivalent ranks in the army and navy, the Chinese armed forces use the same rank names for all services, prefixed in the case of the PLA by hai jun (海军, naval force) or kong jun (空军, air force).

Xiao (rank)

Xiao (Chinese: 校, Wade–Giles: Hsiao) is the rank held by field officers in the militaries of China and Taiwan. The Chinese military (PLA) uses four grades while the Taiwanese military uses only three, with the rank equivalent to the fourth being treated as a general officer rank. This difference is found in other militaries as well: in the British Army a brigadier is considered a field officer, while the equivalent rank in the United States Army, brigadier general, is considered a general officer. The Chinese use the same rank names for all services, prefixed by hai jun (海军, Naval Force) or kong jun (空军, Air Force). While the Taiwanese military (ROC) does the same for enlisted ranks and company-grade officers, it has distinct names for the higher naval ranks.

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