Repair ship

A repair ship is a naval auxiliary ship designed to provide maintenance support to warships. Repair ships provide similar services to destroyer, submarine and seaplane tenders or depot ships, but may offer a broader range of repair capability including equipment and personnel for repair of more significant machinery failures or battle damage.[1]

USS Medusa (AR-1) at Pearl Harbor February 1942
USS Medusa was the first United States Navy ship built as a repair ship.

United States Navy

USS Vulcan AR-5 Norfolk 1992.jpeg
With a capable crew of qualified repairmen, USS Vulcan was kept in good repair for a long service life.

The United States Navy became aware of the need for repair ships to maintain Asiatic Fleet ships stationed in the Philippines. Two colliers were converted to USS Prometheus and Vestal in 1913 before the purpose-built USS Medusa was completed at the Puget Sound Navy Yard in 1923.

United Kingdom

HMS Artifex
HMS Artifex

HMS Resource was built in 1928 and remained the sole Royal Navy repair ship at the outbreak of World War II.[1] The following ships were converted to meet wartime needs:

Lend/Lease

HMSDiligenceAR-18F-174
HMS Diligence

These Xanthus-class repair ships were built to Royal Navy specifications by Bethlehem Fairfield Shipyard in 1944, but only the first two were temporarily loaned to the United Kingdom while the others were retained for use by the United States Navy:[6]

  • AR-17 became HMS Assistance (F173)
  • AR-18 became HMS Diligence (F174)
  • USS Xanthus was intended to be HMS Hecla (F175)
  • USS Laertes was intended to be HMS Dutiful (F176)
  • USS Dionysus was intended to be HMS Faithful (F177)

Japan

Japan found repair ships valuable for Pacific island bases. The pre-dreadnought battleship Asahi was modified and recommissioned as a repair ship in 1938. The 9,000-ton purpose-designed repair ship Akashi was launched in 1938 as the intended prototype for a class of five ships, but the remaining four ships were cancelled as other wartime shipbuilding projects assumed higher priority.[7]

Sources

  • Lenton, H.T.; Colledge, J.J. (1964). British and Dominion Warships of World War II. Doubleday & Company.
  • Silverstone, Paul H. (1968). U.S. Warships of World War II. Doubleday & Company.
  • Watts, Anthony J. (1966). Japanese Warships of World War II. Doubleday & Company.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Lenton & Colledge, p.333
  2. ^ a b c Lenton & Colledge, p.341
  3. ^ a b c d Lenton & Colledge, p.342
  4. ^ a b Lenton & Colledge, p.348
  5. ^ a b Lenton & Colledge, p.346
  6. ^ Lenton & Colledge, p.352
  7. ^ Watts, pp.324&325
Achelous-class repair ship

The Achelous-class repair ship was a class of ship built by the US Navy during World War II.

As the United States gained experience in amphibious operations, it was realized that some sort of mobile repair facility would be useful for repairing the damage that frequently occurred to smaller vessels such as LCVP's (Landing Craft Vehicle/Personnel). The Auxiliary Repair Light (ARL) ship was designed to meet this need, and the Achelous class was the only class to receive this designation.

Aditya-class auxiliary ship

The Aditya-class auxiliary ship is a class of replenishment and repair ships currently in service with the Indian Navy. The class is a modified and lengthened version of the original Deepak class. INS Aditya is the only ship in this class.

Cable layer

A cable layer or cable ship is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electric power transmission, or other purposes. Cable ships are distinguished by large cable sheaves for guiding cable over bow or stern or both. Bow sheaves, some very large, were characteristic of all cable ships in the past, but newer ships are tending toward having stern sheaves only, as seen in the photo of CS Cable Innovator at the Port of Astoria on this page. The names of cable ships are often preceded by "C.S." as in CS Long Lines.The first transatlantic telegraph cable was laid by cable layers in 1857–58. It briefly enabled telecommunication between Europe and North America before misuse resulted in failure of the line. In 1866 the SS Great Eastern successfully laid two transatlantic cables, securing future communication between the continents.

German auxiliary cruiser Widder

Widder (HSK 3) was an auxiliary cruiser (Hilfskreuzer) of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine that was used as a merchant raider in the Second World War. Her Kriegsmarine designation was Schiff 21, to the Royal Navy she was Raider D. The name Widder (Ram) represents the constellation Aries in German.

HMS Artifex (F28)

HMS Artifex was a repair ship of the Royal Navy from late in the Second World War and into the Cold War.

Launched as the Cunard liner RMS Aurania she was requisitioned on the outbreak of war to serve as an armed merchant cruiser. Damaged by a U-boat while sailing with an Atlantic convoy, she was purchased outright and converted to a floating workshop, spending the rest of her life as a support ship for the navy.

Japanese repair ship Akashi

Akashi was a Japanese repair ship, serving during World War II. She was the only specifically designed repair ship operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The navy based her design on the US Navy's USS Medusa.

Type 648 repair ship

The Type 648 repair ship is a Chinese submarine repair ship currently in service with the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). It was one of the two units consisting the proposed mobile repair flotilla, but the floating dry dock with lifting capacity of 2000 tons was never built, and Type 648 repair ship was the one only completed. Type 648 has received with NATO reporting name Dadao class (大岛, meaning Great Island).The Type 648 is designed by the 3rd Directorate of the 708th Institute of China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC), which is also more commonly known as China Shipbuilding and Oceanic Engineering Design Academy (中国船舶及海洋工程设计研究) nowadays, after receiving the assignment from PLAN in October 1975. Construction begun in July 1980 and completed in December 1984, and the ship was formally handed over to PLAN in January 1985 with name as Dong-Xiu (东修, meaning East Repair in Chinese) 911. Type 648 was specially designed to repair submarines and has elaborate repair facilities on board. After decades of service and numerous upgrades, the ship remain in active service in the early 2010s.

Specifications:

Length (m): 84

Waterline (m): 78.7

Depth (m): 5.8

Draft (m): 4

Beam (m): 12.4

Displacement (t): 1962

Speed (kn): 15.1

Range (nmi): 2000

Endurance (day): 20

Crew: 105

Armament: 4 Type 61 twin 25 mm gun

Propulsion: 2 D39 diesel engines @ 1360 kW (1850 hp)

USS Achelous

USS Achelous (ARL-1) was one of 39 tank landing ships converted into landing craft repair ships for service in the United States Navy during World War II. The lead ship in her class, she was named for the Greek god Achelous, the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

She was laid down as the unnamed LST-10 on 15 August 1942, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by the Dravo Corporation; launched on 25 November 1942; sponsored by Mrs. George F. Wolfe, the wife of the chief engineer of Dravo; named Achelous and redesignated ARL-1 on 13 January 1943; and commissioned on 2 April 1943, at Baltimore, Maryland, Captain B. N. Ward, in temporary command. Later that day, command of the landing craft repair ship passed to Lieutenant Walter Ringies.

USS Achilles (ARL-41)

USS LST-455 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship used in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during World War II. She was converted at Sydney, Australia, into an Achelous-class repair ship, shortly after commissioning, and used in the repairing of landing craft. Named after the Greek hero Achilles, she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name.

USS Adonis

USS Adonis (ARL-4) was one of 39 Achelous-class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Adonis (a handsome youth in Greek mythology who was loved by Aphrodite), she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

Originally laid down as LST-83 at Jeffersonville, Indiana on 31 March 1943 by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Company; launched on 14 June 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Frank R. Akhurst; commissioned on 6 August 1943 at Algiers, Louisiana for transportation to Baltimore, Maryland; decommissioned on 21 August 1943 for conversion by the Bethlehem Steel Company for service as a landing craft repair ship; redesignated ARL-4 on 26 August 1943 and simultaneously named Adonis; and placed in commission on 12 November 1943, Lieutenant Matthew E. Thompson in command.

USS Aeolus (ARC-3)

USS Aeolus (ARC-3) began service as USS Turandot (AKA-47), an Artemis-class attack cargo ship built by the Walsh-Kaiser Co., Inc. of Providence, Rhode Island. In the mid-1950s, she was converted into a cable repair ship to support the SOSUS program, as the lead ship of the Aeolus-class cable repair ship, and she performed cable duties for nearly thirty years.

USS Agenor

USS Agenor (ARL-3) was one of 39 Achelous-class repair ship landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Agenor (in history and Greek mythology, a king of Tyre), she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

USS Atlas (ARL-7)

USS Atlas (ARL-7) was one of 39 Achelous-class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Atlas (in Greek mythology, the son of the Titan Iapetus and Clymene and the brother of Prometheus), she was the second U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

Originally laid down as LST-231 on 3 June 1943 at Seneca, Illinois by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Company; launched on 19 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Nettie Singer; named Atlas and redesignated a landing craft repair ship ARL-7 on 3 November 1943; and commissioned on 15 November 1943 for the voyage to the conversion yard. She arrived in Baltimore, Maryland on 14 December 1943; entered the Bethlehem Steel Key Highway Shipyard; and was placed out of commission for her conversion to a landing craft repair ship. Her modifications completed early in February, 1944 Atlas was recommissioned at Baltimore on 8 February 1944, Lieutenant Buell A. Nesbitt in command.

USS Chourre (ARV-1)

USS Chourre (ARV-1) was a Chourre class aircraft repair ship that saw service in the United States Navy during World War II and the Korean war.

Originally authorized as USS Dumaran (ARG-14), an internal combustion engine repair ship, she was renamed and reclassified as an aircraft repair ship 22 February 1944; launched 22 May 1944 by Bethlehem Fairfield Shipyard, Inc., Baltimore, MD, under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. E. A. Forde, Jr., and commissioned 7 December 1944, Captain A. H. Bergeson in command.

Sailing from Norfolk 2 March 1945 Chourre arrived at Pearl Harbor 12 April to embark aviation personnel for Espiritu Santo, where she arrived 29 April. She transferred an aviation repair unit to Saipan, then sailed to San Pedro Bay, Leyte, for duty as station supply ship replenishing carriers from 26 May to 17 July. Except for one trip to Guam to replenish stores (17 July-7 August) she remained at San Pedro Bay until 24 October when she sailed for Tokyo Bay to serve ships taking part in the occupation. On 1 January 1946 Chourre sailed from Yokosuka for San Francisco, arriving 4 May. She was placed out of commission 28 November 1948 at Stockton, CA.

Recommissioned 21 February 1952 during the Korean war, Chourre cleared San Francisco 1 September for the Western Pacific. She operated out of Japan supplying ships off Korea until 28 February 1953, returning to San Francisco 26 March. Local operations off San Diego were followed by another tour in the Far East between 17 August 1953 and 11 April 1954. After her third tour to the western Pacific from 30 August 1954 to 1 March 1955, Chourre returned to San Diego where she remained until placed out of commission in reserve again 13 September 1955. She was struck from the Naval Register in 1961 and transferred to the Maritime Commission. After 10 years laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, Chourre was sold to Union Minerals & Alloys for scrapping on 5 February 1971.

The ship was named for my grandfather Commander Emile Chourre, a distinguished naval aviator who was killed in service.

Chourre received 3 battle stars for service in the Korean war.

USS Coronis (ARL-10)

USS Coronis (ARL-10) was one of 39 Achelous-class repair ship landing craft built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Coronis (one of several characters in Greek mythology, including the mother of Asclepius, god of medicine and healing), she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name.

Originally laid down as USS LST-1003, an LST-542-class tank landing ship, she was launched 8 June 1944 by the Boston Navy Yard and sponsored by Mrs. V. M. Rines. Renamed and reclassified USS Coronis (ARL-10) on 12 June 1944 she was placed in partial commission 29 June 1944 and sailed to Baltimore, Maryland for conversion to a landing craft repair ship. Coronis was commissioned in full 28 November 1944 with Lieutenant J. J. Ready, Jr., USNR, in command.

USS Luzon (ARG-2)

USS Luzon (ARG-2) was an internal combustion engine repair ship that saw service in the United States Navy during World War II. She was the lead ship in her class and was named for the Island of Luzon, the chief island in the northern Philippines and site of the capital city of Manila. She is the second US Naval vessel to bear the name.

USS Medusa (AR-1)

USS Medusa (AR-1) was the United States Navy's first purpose-built repair ship. She served in the U.S. Navy from 1924 to 1946.

USS Remus (ARL-40)

USS LST-453 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship used in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during World War II. She was converted at Brisbane, Australia, into an Achelous-class repair ship, shortly after commissioning, and used in the repairing of landing craft. She was later renamed for Remus (along with Romulus, one of the legendary twin sons of Mars and the Vestal Rhea Silvia), she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name.

Xanthus-class repair ship

The Xanthus-class repair ships were a class of five auxiliary ships built for the United States Navy and Royal Navy. Ships of the class served in a diverse range of environments in varying capacities during both World War II and the Korean War. Xanthus-class ships were in commission between 1945–1955.

Aircraft carriers
Battleships
Cruisers
Escort
Transport
Patrol craft
Fast attack craft
Mine warfare
Command and support
Submarines
Miscellaneous

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