Rennes (French pronunciation: [ʁɛn] (listen); Breton: Roazhon [ˈrwɑːzən]; Gallo: Resnn; Latin: Condate Redonum) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department.
Rennes's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the major cities of the ancient Duchy of Brittany. From the early sixteenth century until the French Revolution, Rennes was a parliamentary, administrative and garrison city of the historic province of Brittany of the Kingdom of France.
Since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through rural flight and its modern industrial development, partly automotive. The city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high technology industry. It is now a significant digital innovation centre in France.
In 2015, the city was the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about 720,000 inhabitants. With more than 66,000 students in 2016, it is also the eighth-largest university campus of France. The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais(e)(es) in French. In 2018, L'Express named Rennes as "the most liveable city in France".
Coat of arms
Vivre en intelligence
(French for "Live in harmony")
Location of Rennes
|Canton||Rennes-1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6|
|• Mayor (2014-2020)||Nathalie Appéré (PS)|
|50.39 km2 (19.46 sq mi)|
|• Density||4,400/km2 (11,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
35238 /35000, 35200, 35700
|Elevation||20–74 m (66–243 ft) |
(avg. 30 m or 98 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Rennes is divided into 12 quarters:
Among previous well-known mayors are:
The mairie (city hall) is right in the centre of Rennes.
Rennes has the distinction of having a significant Green Belt around its ring road. This Green Belt is a protected area between the city proper (rather dense) and the rest of its urban area (rather rural).
Rennes features an oceanic climate. Precipitation in Rennes is considerably less abundant than in the western parts of Brittany, reaching only half of the levels of, e.g., the city of Quimper, which makes rainfall in Rennes comparable to the levels of larger parts of western Germany. Sunshine hours range between 1,700 and 1,850 annually, which is about the amount of sunshine received by the city of Lausanne.
In 2018, the inner population of the city was of 221,272 inhabitants, the Rennes intercommunal structure connecting Rennes with 42 nearby suburbs (named Rennes Métropole) counted 450,593 inhabitants and the metropolitan area counted over 720,000 inhabitants.
Rennes has the second fastest-growing metropolitan area in France after Toulouse and before Montpellier, Bordeaux and Nantes.
The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French.
Rennes is classified as a city of art and history.
The historic centre is located on the former plan of the ramparts. There is a difference between the northern city centre and the southern city centre due to the 1720 fire, which destroyed most of the timber framed houses in the northern part of the city. The rebuilding was done in stone, on a grid plan. The southern part, the poorest at this time, was not rebuilt.
Colourful traditional half-timbered houses are situated primarily along the roads of Saint-Sauveur, Saint-Georges, de Saint-Malo, Saint-Guillaume, des Dames, du Chapitre, Vasselot, Saint-Michel, de la Psallette and around the plazas of Champ-Jacquet, des Lices, Saint-Anne and Rallier-du-Baty.
The Parlement de Bretagne (Administrative and judicial centre of Brittany, Breton: Breujoù Breizh) is the most famous 17th century building in Rennes. It was rebuilt after a terrible fire in 1994 that may have been caused by a flare fired by a protester during a demonstration. It houses the Rennes Court of Appeal. The plaza around is built on the classical architecture.
On the west, the Place de la Mairie (City Hall Plaza, Plasenn Ti Kêr):
On the east, at the end of the Rue Saint-Georges with traditional half-timbered houses:
On the south-east:
The Place des Lices is lined by hôtels particuliers with the place Railler-du-Baty, is the location of the weekly big market, the marché des Lices.
Near the Rennes Cathedral (cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Rennes) is the Rue du Chapitre:
On this era are the former St. Yves chapel, now the tourism office and a museum about the historical development of Rennes and the Basilica Saint-Sauveur
Built from the 3rd to the 12th centuries, the ramparts were largely destroyed between the beginning of the 16th century and the 1860s.
Place Saint-Anne (Plasenn Santez-Anna)
South-western, La Rue Saint-Michel nicknamed Rue de La Soif (Road of Thirst) because there are bars all along this street.
South-eastern, the Champ-Jacquet square, with Renaissance buildings and a statue of mayor Jean Leperdit ripping up a conscription list.
Area of Saint-Melaine square
17th century promenade "la Motte à Madame", and a monumental stairway overlooking the Rue de Paris entrance to the Thabor.
The south city centre is a mix of old buildings and 19th and 20th centuries constructions.
The Fine Arts Museum is situated on Quai Émile Zola, by the Vilaine River.
Les Champs Libres is a building on Esplanade Charles de Gaulle, and was designed by the architect Christian de Portzamparc. It houses the Brittany Museum (Musée de Bretagne), the regional library Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole with six floors, and the Espace des Sciences science centre with a planetarium..
At Place Honoré Commeurec is Les Halles Centrales, a covered market from 1922, with one part converted into contemporary art gallery.
The Mercure Hotel is located in a restored building on Rue du Pré-Botté, which was the prior location of Ouest-Éclair, and then of Ouest-France, a premier daily regional newspaper.
There are large mills at Rue Duhamel, constructed on each side of the south branch of the Vilaine in 1895 and 1902.
There are two halls of the printer, Oberthür, built by Marthenot between 1870 and 1895 on Rue de Paris in the eastern part of the city. Oberthür Park is the second biggest garden in the city.
The 17th century manor of Haute-Chalais, a granite château, is situated to the south of the city in Blosne Quarter (Bréquigny).
Parc du Thabor contains a compact but significant botanical garden, the Jardin botanique du Thabor. The University of Rennes 1, with a campus in the city's eastern section, also contains a botanical garden and collections (the Jardin botanique de l'Université de Rennes).
Local economy include car manufacturing, telecommunications, digital sector and agrofood.
The ITC firm Orange (ex-France Telecom) is the largest private employer with 4,800 people. PSA Peugeot Citroën, is the second largest private employer in the metropolitan area of Rennes, with 4,000 people. PSA opened a manufacturing plant at La Janais in Chartres-de-Bretagne in 1961. Technicolor, one of the biggest firms in TV and cinema broadcasting in the world employs over 500 people.
In a few years, Rennes became one of the main centres in high technology industry and digital. The city hosts one of the first Technopoles established in France: Rennes Atalante which employs over 20,000 people.
Rennes is the 2nd concentration of digital and ITC firms in France after Paris (with well-known companies and startups like Atos, SFR, Neosoft, Orange S.A., France Telecom, Ericsson, Harmonic France, STmicroelectronics, Technicolor R&D, Ubisoft, Regionsjob, Capgemini, OVH, Dassault Systèmes, Delta Dore, Canon, Artefacto, Enensys Technologies, Astellia, Mitsubishi Electric R&D Europe, Digitaleo, Alcatel-Lucent, Kelbillet, Texas Instruments, Sopra Group, Niji, Thales, Nemeus or Logica). Rennes was one of the first French cities to receive the French Tech label in November 2014. Moreover, Rennes hosts the 3rd public research potential in digital and ITC sectors in France, after Paris and Grenoble, with 3,000 people working in 10 laboratories, like well-known IRISA, IETR, IRMAR, DGA-MI (cyberdefense), SATIE, etc. It is also the 3rd innovation potential in agrofood French industry with lots of firms in this field (Lactalis, Triballat Sojasun, Coralis, Panavi, Bridor, Claude Léger, Loïc Raison, Groupe Roullier, Sanders, etc.), an agro campus (Agrocampus Ouest) and a big international and professional expo, the Space (every year in September).
Other large firms located in Rennes include the restaurant conglomerate Groupe Le Duff (owners of Brioche Dorée, Bruegger's, La Madeleine, Mimi's Cafe, Timothy's World Coffee), the first French newspaper Ouest France (800,000 daily copies) and Samsic Service (cleanliness, industrial safety, job search, etc.).
Rennes is known to be one of the most festive cities of France. It invests heavily in arts and culture and a number of its festivals (such as the music festival Les Transmusicales, Les Tombées de la Nuit, Mythos, Stunfest (fighting game competition) and Travelling (a cinematic festival)) are well known throughout France. During the 80's, Rennes was often cited as the French town of rock and new wave music.
Rennes is well equipped in musical facilities:
There are also five museums in Rennes:
In addition to this list, there is art facilities, such as 40mcube exhibition space or the centre for contemporary art La Criée.
There is also miscellaneous cultural places: the dance dedicated place the Triange, two "Art et Essai" - art house cinemas - cinemas called l'Arvor and Cine TNB. Remark that the surrounding cities house many other cultural places.
Rennes was one of the first towns in France to have its own local television channel 'TV Rennes', created in 1987.
Rennes has also local radio stations (Hit West, Radio Campus, Canal B, Radio Caroline, Radio Rennes, Radio Laser) and local newspapers or magazines (Ouest-France, Le Mensuel de Rennes, Place Publique, 20 Minutes Rennes).
In Brittany, two regional languages are spoken: Breton and Gallo. In and around Rennes, Gallo was traditionally spoken as a local language, but Breton has always been spoken by regional migrants coming from the western part of the region.
The municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya d'ar brezhoneg on 24 January 2008.
In 2008, 2.87% of primary school children were enrolled in bilingual primary schools, and the number of pupils enrolled in these schools is steadily growing.
Specialties from Rennes include:
Many other Breton specialties (seafood, milk, vegetables, cheese, meat) are seen at the Marché des Lices, a weekly market held every Saturday morning (one of the most important markets in France).
The Rennes agglomeration has a large student population (around 63,000).
The city has two main universities; Université de Rennes 1, which offers courses in science, technology, medicine, philosophy, law, management and economics and Université Rennes 2, which has courses in the arts, literature, languages, communication, human and social sciences and sport. The official website of Université Rennes 2 identifies that facility as "the largest research and higher learning institution in Arts, Literature, Languages, Social Sciences and Humanities in the West of France."
There are a few École Supérieures in Rennes, like the École Normale Supérieure de Rennes on the Ker Lann campus, just outside Rennes, the Institut d'études politiques de Rennes or the ESC Rennes School of Business.
There is also branches of École Supérieure d'Électricité – Supélec and Telecom Bretagne in the east of the city (Cesson-Sévigné), a campus of the École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies, a campus of the École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées, and the grande école Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, which is next to the "École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes".
The computer science and applied mathematics research institute, IRISA, is located on the campus of the Université des Sciences, nearby Cesson-Sévigné. The Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (defence procurement agency) operates the CELAR research centre, dedicated to electronics and computing, in Bruz, a neighbouring town.
Catholic University of Rennes (Institut Catholique de Rennes) is a Catholic university founded in 1989.
The city is also home to an American study abroad program for high school students, School Year Abroad, in which students are immersed in French culture through five classes in the language and a nine-month home stay.
Rennes has well-developed national road, rail and air links.
Local transport is based primarily on an extensive bus network (65 lines) and a light metro line that was inaugurated in March 2002 and cost €500 million to build. The driverless Rennes Metro (VAL) is 9.4 km (5.8 mi) in length and has 15 stations, including one designed by architect Norman Foster (La Poterie station). A second light metro line is being planned, it should be operational by 2020, and the construction began in 2014.
Rennes provides other modes of local transport: a bike sharing system with 900 bicycles (named vélo STAR). Rennes created the first system of modern French bike sharing (1998).
The city is an important hub of Brittany's motorway network and is surrounded by a ring road: the Rocade (national road 136). The construction of the bypass was started in 1968 and completed in 1999. It is 31 km (18.5 mi) long, it has 2 lanes each way (sometimes 3 lanes) and toll free. Many other expressways are connected to the Rennes ring road for local and regional service. By road, Saint-Malo can be reached in 45 minutes, Nantes in 1 hour, Brest in 2 hours and 30 minutes, Paris in 4 hours, Bordeaux in 5 hours and Bruxelles in 6 hours and 30 minutes.
Rennes has a major French railway station, the Gare de Rennes, opened in 1857. Since July 2, 2017, it is now one hour twenty seven minutes by TGV high speed train from Paris ( after the extension of the High Speed Rail Line). Train service is available to other big cities in France such as Lyon, Marseille, Lille and Strasbourg. Rennes is also an important railway station for regional transport in Brittany. The TER Bretagne provide links to Saint-Malo, Nantes, Redon, Vitré, Saint-Brieuc, Vannes, Laval, Brest and many other regional cities. It is served by Gare station on the VAL Rennes Metro.
It notably operates regular or seasonal flights to Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Toulouse, Barcelona, Palma de Mallorca, Rome-Fiumicino, Southampton, Dublin, Exeter, Manchester, Amsterdam Schiphol, Madrid Barajas, Birmingham, London-City, London-Gatwick and daily flights to London Southend Airport with Flybe.
(by alphabetical order)
Rennes is twinned with:
(These twinned towns save one are inscribed on the bridge over the central canal of Rennes)
Pacts of cooperation
Rennes also has the only Institut Franco-Américain in France.
Brittany (; French: Bretagne [bʁətaɲ] (listen); Breton: Breizh, pronounced [bʁɛjs] or [bʁɛχ]; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced [bəʁtaɛɲ]) is a cultural region in the west of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and then a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown.
Brittany has also been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain (as opposed to Great Britain, with which it shares an etymology). It is bordered by the English Channel to the north, Normandy to the northeast, Pays de la Loire to the southeast, the Bay of Biscay to the south, and the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its land area is 34,023 km² (13,136 sq mi).
Brittany is the site of some of the world's oldest standing architecture, home to the Barnenez, the Tumulus Saint-Michel and others, which date to the early 5th millennium BC. Today, the historical province of Brittany is split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the northeast, Loire-Atlantique in the southeast and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany. The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region.
At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes (897,713 inhabitants), Rennes (690,467 inhabitants), and Brest (314,844 inhabitants). Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic.Brittany (administrative region)
Brittany (Breton: Breizh, French: Bretagne, IPA: [bʁətaɲ] (listen)) is one of the 18 regions of France. It is named after the historic and geographic region of Brittany, of which it constitutes 80%. The capital is Rennes.
Bathed by the English Channel to the north and the Bay of Biscay to the south, it is located in the West of France, bordering the Normandy and Pays de la Loire regions. Bro Gozh ma Zadoù is the anthem of Brittany. It is sung to the same tune as that of the national anthem of Wales, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, and has similar words. As a region of France, Brittany has a Regional Council, which was most recently elected in 2015.ESC Rennes School of Business
Rennes School of Business formerly École Supérieure de Commerce de Rennes is a French business school located in Rennes, the capital of Brittany, founded in 1990 by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Rennes. ESC Rennes is a Grandes Écoles.Rennes School of Business is distinguished by its global outlook, international student body and international faculty. In addition to its Master in Management, the school awards diplomas in management such as: International Bachelor, Master of Arts, 16 Masters of Science, MBA, Executive MBA and PhD (in collaboration with the University College Dublin and the University of Amsterdam (dual-degree PhD). The school also offers the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) degree.Ille-et-Vilaine
Ille-et-Vilaine (French pronunciation: [ilevilɛn]; Breton: Il-ha-Gwilen) is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country.Institut national des sciences appliquées de Rennes
The Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rennes or INSA de Rennes is a Grande École d'Ingénieurs, a School of Engineering, under the authority of the French Ministry of Education and Research and part of the INSA's group.
INSA Rennes was founded in 1966 to train highly qualified engineers, support continuing education, and conduct research and testing. The five-year curriculum aims at training engineers who possess humane qualities and are well versed in the primary areas of science and engineering. The school accommodates 1,400 students in engineering.
The education is divided into two parts:
the first cycle, which is a highly selective part of the studies and which aims at giving the basis for future engineering studies,
the second cycle, for which the students have the choice of 7 specialties. The future engineer chooses here a specialisation, and have then the possibility to pursue a PhD.Some special sections are available:
Sports-with-studies combining a good level of education in sport and science,
Art-with-studiesThe university is located on a campus called Beaulieu in the east of Rennes.Open de Rennes
The Open de Rennes is a tennis tournament held in Rennes, France since 2006. The event is part of the challenger series and is played on indoor hard courts.Ouest-France
Ouest-France (French pronunciation: [wɛst.fʁɑ̃s] ; French for "West-France") is a daily French newspaper known for its emphasis on both local and national news. The paper is produced in 47 different editions covering events in different French départments within the régions of Brittany, Lower Normandy and Pays de la Loire. Its readership has been unaffected by the decline of newspaper reading in France, unlike most other dailies.
With 2.5 million daily readers (and a circulation of almost 800 000 units), it is by far the most read francophone newspaper in the world, ahead of French national newspapers Le Figaro and Le Monde.Ousmane Dembélé
Masour Ousmane Dembélé (born 15 May 1997) is a French professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club Barcelona and the French national team.
Born in Vernon, Dembélé began his career at Rennes before joining Dortmund in 2016. He won the DFB-Pokal with die Borussen in the 2016–17 season, scoring a goal in the final. A year later, he transferred to Barcelona for an initial fee of €105 million, becoming at the time the joint-second most expensive footballer ever alongside compatriot Paul Pogba. Dembélé subsequently won the double of La Liga and Copa del Rey in an injury-riddled first season in Spain.
After winning 20 caps and scoring five goals at youth level, Dembélé made his senior international debut for France in 2016. He was chosen in France's squad for the 2018 World Cup which they won.Rennes-en-Grenouilles
Rennes-en-Grenouilles is a commune in the Mayenne department in north-western France.Rennes-le-Château
Rennes-le-Château (Occitan: Rènnas del Castèl) is a small commune approximately 5 km (3 miles) south of Couiza, in the Aude department in Languedoc in southern France.
This small French hilltop village is known internationally, and receives tens of thousands of visitors per year, because of various conspiracy theories, about an alleged buried treasure discovered by its 19th-century priest Bérenger Saunière, the precise nature of which is disputed by those who believe in its existence.Rennes-les-Bains
Rennes-les-Bains (Occitan: Les Banhs de Rènnas) is a commune in the Aude department in southern France.
Bathers have enjoyed the natural hot spring waters for thousands of years - they are still used today as a cure for rheumatism and certain skin problems. Today, it is a modern thermal spa with the latest equipment. Due to a microbe found in the piping of the old baths they have been closed and a new hospital built which gets its water from another source. Due to its enormous popularity the 'Bains Forts', an old 'lavoir' where young people have bathed for the last 40 years, have been cemented in and closed indefinitely. This event has led some to rename Rennes-les-Bains, Rennes-sans-Bains.Rennes-sur-Loue
Rennes-sur-Loue is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.Rennes–Saint-Jacques Airport
Rennes–Saint-Jacques Airport or Aéroport de Rennes–Saint-Jacques (IATA: RNS, ICAO: LFRN) is a minor international airport about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) southwest of Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, in the region of Brittany, France.Roazhon Park
The Roazhon Park is a football stadium in Rennes, Brittany, France. Roazhon [ˈrwaːzən] is the Breton name of Rennes.
The stadium was inaugurated on 15 September 1912. It is located at 111 route de Lorient, in west-central Rennes. Rebuilt in 2001 and able to seat 29,778, the stadium is currently the home of Stade Rennais.
The stadium has hosted France men's and women's national football team matches. On 19 and 20 June 2016 it hosted the semifinals of the Top 14 rugby union tournament. It has also been selected as a venue for the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup, in which it will host six matches—four in the group stage, one in the round of 16, and one quarter final.The record attendance of 30,519 spectators was set on 7 March 2019 during a match between Stade Rennais and Arsenal in the round of 16 of the Europa League.Stade Rennais F.C.
Stade Rennais Football Club (French pronunciation: [stad ʁɛnɛ]), commonly referred to as Stade Rennais FC, Stade Rennais or simply SRFC, is a French association football club based in Rennes. Competing in Ligue 1, the top tier of French football, the club plays its home matches at the Roazhon Park, located within the city. The team is managed by Julien Stéphan. The team's president is Olivier Létang and its owner is Artémis, the holding company of businessman François Pinault.
Rennes was founded in 1901 under the name Stade Rennais and is one of the founding members of the first division of French football. Alongside Nantes, Rennes is one of the top football clubs in the region and the two are among the main clubs that contest the Derby Breton. The club's best finish in the league has been fourth with the club accomplishing this feat on four occasions, most recently in 2006–07. Rennes has won three Coupe de France titles in 1965, 1971 and 2019. After winning the Coupe de France in 1971, Rennes changed its name to its current version.
Rennes is known for its youth academy, known in English as the Henri Guérin Training Centre, which was formed in 2000. The French Football Federation (FFF) has recognised Rennes as having the best youth academy in the country in 2010. The cornerstone of the academy is the under-19 team, which has won the Coupe Gambardella three times in 1973, 2003 and 2008. The academy has produced several notable talents, such as Sylvain Wiltord, Yoann Gourcuff, Yann M'Vila, Moussa Sow, Yacine Brahimi, Abdoulaye Doucouré, Ousmane Dembélé and Jimmy Briand, among others.University of Rennes 1
The University of Rennes 1 is one of the two main universities in the city of Rennes, France. It is under the Academy of Rennes. It specializes in science, technology, law, economy, management and philosophy. The University of Rennes 1 has been in existence since 1969, but its heritage stems back to the days of the Breton University founded in 1461. There are currently about 26,000 students enrolled, with about 1,800 members of teaching staff and 1,700 other staff members employed by the university.University of Rennes 2
The University of Rennes 2 (Université Rennes 2, UR2) is a university in Upper Brittany, France, one of four in the Academy of Rennes.
The main campus is situated in the northwest section of Rennes in the Villejean neighborhood not far from the other campus, located at La Harpe.Yacine Brahimi
Yacine Nasr Eddine Brahimi (Arabic: ياسين إبراهيمي; born 8 February 1990) is an Algerian professional footballer who plays for the Algeria national team and is currently a free agent. He plays as an attacking midfielder and a winger and is described as a "technically gifted player". His coach, Frédéric Antonetti, declared Brahimi would be the "future play-maker of Stade Rennais". Yacine is also known for his "Brahimi Moments" (in Portuguese, "Momentos Brahimi").
Brahimi began his career throughout various clubs in the Île-de-France region, having trained at ASB Montreuil and CO Vincennois. In 2003, he was selected to attend the Clairefontaine academy. Brahimi spent three years at the academy and, upon leaving, signed with Rennes. While in the club's youth academy, he achieved several club honours. After turning professional, Brahimi was loaned out to second division club Clermont Foot. While at Clermont, he had a successful individual 2009–10 season. After spending the previous season there on loan, he moved to the La Liga club Granada CF in 2013, and then to Porto for €6.5 million one year later.
An Algerian international, Brahimi is a former France youth international having represented the country at all youth levels. In 2009, he played on the under-19 team that reached the semi-finals at the 2009 UEFA European Under-19 Championship. In February 2013, Brahimi switched his international allegiance to Algeria and made his debut for them a month later, also playing at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations.École normale supérieure de Rennes
The École normale supérieure de Rennes, also called ENS Rennes is a French scientific Grande École, belonging to the network of Écoles normales supérieures. Its mission subsequently consists in preparing students "aimed at becoming researchers in fundamental or applied sciences, Professors in universities and classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, as well as in secondary teaching, and, more widely, at serving administrations of the State and local authorities, or their public establishments or enterprises."
Established by a decree of the 17 October 2013 of the Prime Minister, the ENS Rennes is placed under the direct authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, and is a founder of the Université Européenne de Bretagne. Before 2013, it was a branch of the École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay, but the great geographical distance between Cachan and Rennes already led to a bigger autonomy.
The school is divided in five departments, admitting every year 80 to 100 Normaliens, students under the status of paid civil servants. These are selected through highly selective entrance examinations, after at least two years of classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles. There are also auditors, called "magistériens". These two groups of students receive the same formation, during a typical four-year cursus. The ENS Rennes is very efficient in leading its students to research, as albeit a very wide range of possible career paths, more than 80% of a promotion pass the agrégation, and more than 70% continue their formation by a PhD.
|Climate data for Rennes, Brittany|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.8
|Average high °C (°F)||8.7
|Average low °C (°F)||3.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||67.6
|Average precipitation days||11.5||9.4||9.8||9.9||9.8||7.3||7.3||6.4||7.7||11.1||11.7||12.4||114.4|
|Average snowy days||2.1||2.6||1.5||0.6||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.7||1.7||9.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87||83||79||76||77||75||75||76||80||85||87||87||80.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||69.1||87.2||128.4||162.7||191.2||217.3||210.7||205.5||177.8||117.5||81.3||68.6||1,717.1|
|Source #1: Météo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)|
Cities in France by population