René Grousset (5 September 1885 – 12 September 1952) was a French historian, curator of both the Cernuschi and Guimet Museums in Paris, and a member of the prestigious Académie française. He wrote several major works on Asiatic and Oriental civilizations, with his two most important works being History of the Crusades (1934–1936) and The Empire of the Steppes, a History of Central Asia (1939), both of which were considered standard references on the subject.
Grousset was born in Aubais, Gard in 1885. Having graduated from the University of Montpellier with a degree in history, he began his distinguished career soon afterward. He served in the French army during World War I. In 1925, Grousset was appointed adjunct conservator of the Musée Guimet in Paris and secretary of the Journal asiatique. By 1930 he had published five major works on Asiatic and Oriental civilizations. In 1933 he was appointed director of the Cernuschi Museum in Paris and curator of its Asiatic art collections. He wrote a major work on the Chinese buddhist medieval pilgrim Xuanzang, particularly emphasising the importance of his visit to the northern Indian Buddhist university of Nalanda.
Before the outbreak of World War II, Grousset had published his two most important works, Histoire des Croisades (1934-1936) and L'Empire des Steppes (1939). Dismissed from his museum posts by the Vichy government, he continued his research privately and published three volumes on China and the Mongols during the war. Following the liberation of France, he resumed his curatorship of the Cernuschi Museum and in addition was appointed curator of the Guimet Museum. In 1946, Grousset was made a member of the Académie française. Between 1946 and 1949, he published four final works, concentrating on Asia Minor and the Near East.
In 1952, Grousset died at the age of 67 in Paris.
Aubais is a commune in the Gard department in southern France.
The little town is in an about 20 km distance from Nîmes and Aigues-Mortes. The recreation area of La Grande-Motte is reachable also in a distance of about 20 km.Four Oirat
The Four Oirat (Dorben Oirad), also known as the Alliance of the Four Oirat tribes or the Oirat confederation (Oirads; Mongolian: Дөрвөн Ойрад; in the past, also Eleuths), was the confederation of the Oirat tribes, which marked the rise of the Western Mongols in Mongolian history.
Despite the universal currency of the term "Four Oirat" among Eastern Mongols and Oirats and numerous explanations by historians, no consensus has been reached on the identity of the original four tribes. While it is believed that the term Four Oirats refers to the Choros, Torghut, Dorbet and Khoid tribes, there is a theory that the Oirats were not consanguineous units but political-ethnic units, composed of many patrilineages.Grigoris (catholicos)
Grigoris (early fourth century AD, Caesaria Mazaca, Roman Empire – ca. 330 AD, Vatnik Valley, near present-day Derbent, Russia) was the Catholicos of the Church of Caucasian Albania ca. 325–330 AD. He is considered a saint martyr by the Armenian Apostolic Church.Grousset
Grousset may refer to:
Paschal Grousset (1844–1909), French politician, journalist, and writer
René Grousset (1885–1952), French historianKadan
Kadan (also Qadan) was the son of the second Great Khan of the Mongols Ögedei and a concubine. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Güyük Khan. During the Mongol invasion of Europe, Kadan, along with Baidar (son of Chagatai Khan) and Orda Khan (the eldest brother of Batu Khan and khan of the White Horde), led the Mongol diversionary force that attacked Poland, while the main Mongol force struck the Kingdom of Hungary.
In early 1241, Kadan's forces sacked the Polish towns of Lublin, Zawichost and Sandomierz. Kadan then attacked Masovia, while Baidar burned the evacuated Polish capital, Kraków and then Bytom, and Orda Khan assaulted the southwestern border of Lithuania. The three leaders were then to attack the Silesian capital Breslau. Baidar began to besiege the town, but marched north with Kadan and Orda to Liegnitz to defeat the forces of Henry II the Pious, Duke of Silesia, before the Polish duke could join King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia. After defeating some forces of Konrad I of Masovia, Kadan's forces joined with Baidar's and Orda's at Liegnitz. The Christian army was crushed in the ensuing Battle of Liegnitz of April 9, 1241.
Mongol casualties were heavier than expected in the battle, however, and Kadan was reluctant to directly attack Wenceslaus' Bohemian forces. Kadan and Baidar skirmished against the Bohemians and were able to prevent the Bohemian king from helping King Béla IV of Hungary. After raiding Moravia, the Mongol diversionary force went to Hungary.
During the winter of 1241-1242, Kadan sacked Buda on the way to Győr. While besieging Italian mercenaries defending Székesfehérvár, Kadan was forced to withdraw his troops after an early thaw flooded the land around the town. The Mongol prince was then sent south with one tumen to search for Béla in Croatia. Kadan first sought the Hungarian king at Zagreb, which he sacked, and then pursued him into Dalmatia. While Béla hid at Trogir, Mongols under the leadership of Kadan, in March 1242 at Klis Fortress in Croatia, experienced their first European military failure, while in pursuit for the head of Béla IV of Hungary. Kadan had his Hungarian prisoners executed as supplies began to run out. To the king's surprise, Kadan headed south past Trogir toward Dubrovnik (Ragusa). While he was nearing Scutari, Kadan heard of the death of his father, Ögedei Khan. Kadan's raids through Bulgaria on his retreat from Central Europe induced the young Kaliman I of Bulgaria to pay tribute and accept Batu Khan as his liege.
In 1251 Kadan accepted the election of Möngke Khan as Khagan. According to René Grousset, he probably helped the latter to capture Eljigidei, the chief general of Güyük. Kadan was loyal to Kublai Khan and supported his army against Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War. He commanded Mongol army at the first engagement with Ariq Böke and killed his general Alandar.
In many medieval sources, Kadan was mistranslated by chroniclers as Kaidu, leading to confusion about who participated in the European campaign. He is also confused with another brother, Köden, who was influential in Tibet.Kebek
Kebek (died 1325/1326) was khan of the Chagatai Khanate from 1309 until 1310, and again from c. 1318 until his death.Khorchin Mongols
The Khorchin (Хорчин, Horçin; ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ Qorčin) is a subgroup of the Mongols that speak the Khorchin dialect of Mongolian and predominantly live in northeastern Inner Mongolia of China.Kitbuqa
Kitbuqa Noyan (Mongolian: Хитбуха; died 1260) was a Nestorian Christian of the Mongolian Naiman tribe, a group that was subservient to the Mongol Empire. He was a lieutenant and confidant of the Mongol Ilkhan Hulagu, assisting him in his conquests in the Middle East. When Hulagu took the bulk of his forces back with him to attend a ceremony in Mongolia, Kitbuqa was left in control of Syria, and was responsible for further Mongol raids southwards towards Egypt. He was killed at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.Mongol invasion of India (1306)
In 1306, the Chagatai Khanate ruler Duwa sent an expedition to India, to avenge the Mongol defeat in 1305. The invading army included three contingents led by Kopek, Iqbalmand, and Tai-Bu. To the check the invaders' advance, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji dispatched an army led by Malik Kafur, and supported by other generals such as Malik Tughluq. The Delhi army achieved a decisive victory, killing tens of thousands of the invaders. The Mongol captives were brought to Delhi, where they were either killed or sold into slavery.
After this defeat, the Mongols did not invade the Delhi Sultanate during Alauddin's reign. The victory greatly emboldened Alauddin's general Tughluq, who launched several punitive raids in the Mongol territories of present-day Afghanistan.Naimans
The Naiman (Kazakh: Найман; Uzbek: Nayman; Khalkha-Mongolian: Найман/Naiman, "eight") is a tribe originating in Mongolia, one of the tribes in middle juz of Kazakh nation.Ninth Crusade
The Ninth Crusade was a military expedition to the Holy Land under the command of Prince Edward, the future King Edward I of England, in 1271–1272. It was an extension of the Eighth Crusade and is commonly considered the last of the Crusades to reach Holy Land before the fall of Acre in 1291.
The Ninth Crusade saw several impressive victories for Edward over Baibars. Ultimately the Crusaders were forced to withdraw, since Edward had pressing concerns at home and felt unable to resolve the internal conflicts within the remnant Outremer territories. It is arguable that the Crusading spirit was nearly "extinct" by this period as well. It also foreshadowed the imminent collapse of the last remaining crusader strongholds along the Mediterranean coast.Oghul Qaimish
Oghul Qaimish (died 1251) was the principal wife of Güyük Khan and ruled as regent over the Mongol Empire after the death of her husband in 1248. She was a descendant of the Mergid tribe. However, H.H. Howorth believed that she was an Oirat.Orghana
Orghana (Orakina or Ergene Khatun) was an Oirat princess of the Mongol Empire and Empress of the Chagatai Khanate. She was a daughter of Torolchi, chief of the Oirats and Checheyikhen, daughter of Genghis Khan.Political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire
This article discusses the political divisions and vassals of the Mongol Empire. Through invasions and conquests the Mongols established a vast empire that included many political divisions, vassals and tributary states. It was the largest contiguous land empire in history. However, after the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War and subsequent wars had led to the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. By 1294, the empire had fractured into four autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire.Rouran Khaganate
The Rouran Khaganate (Chinese: 柔然; pinyin: Róurán), Ruanruan (Chinese: 蠕蠕; pinyin: Ruǎnruǎn/Rúrú; Wade–Giles: Juan-juan/Ju-ju), Ruru (Chinese: 茹茹; pinyin: Rúrú; Wade–Giles: Ju-ju), or Tantan (Chinese: 檀檀; pinyin: Tántán) was the name of a state of uncertain origin (Proto-Mongols, Turkic, or non-Altaic), from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.
Rouran is a Classical Chinese transcription of the endonym of the confederacy. Ruanruan and Ruru remained in usage despite being derogatory. They derived from orders given by the Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, who waged war against the Rouran and intended to intimidate the confederacy. According to René Grousset, Ju-juan – an alternate Chinese name for the Rouran – was a "disparaging pun" derived from Juan-Juan: "unpleasantly wriggling insects".The power of the Rouran was broken in 555 by an alliance of Göktürks, the states of Northern Qi and Northern Zhou, and tribes in Central Asia.
It is occasionally hypothesized that the Rouran are identical with the Pannonian Avars – also known by names such as Varchonites and "Pseudo Avars" – who invaded the territory of modern Hungary around the 6th century.Second Invasion of the Kazakh Khanate (1509)
In the year 1509, Shaybani Khan proceeded against the Kazakhs. At that time, although the Khan of the Kazakhs was, Baranduk Khan, yet all the business of government was conducted by Qasim Khan Qasim Beg, son of the late Khan, Jani Beg Khan. In spite of his great power, Shaybani Khan had not force enough to withstand Qasim Khan. At that period, the numbers of his army exceeded 20,000. In winter time every one stayed in some place where there was fodder for the cattle. In the middle of the winter, Shaybani Khan was engaged in plundering Kazakh territories, but he soon returned, his object being not to remain too far from his own country. Shaybani Khan made his last expedition into Kazakh territory, but the strength of his horses and soldiers was quite exhausted; he himself remained in the district of Kuk Kashana, and having detached a force, whose horses had some strength left, sent them forward. This party fell in with a few men, whom they despoiled and made prisoners. One day this same party had halted for the sake of feeding their horses, when news came that Qasim Khan, Qasim Beg was close at hand. This news alarmed them. Buyun Pir Hasan, one of Qasim Khan's Amirs, having heard of the invasion of the Uzbeks, advanced against them with his own army; he spread the report that Qasim Khan was approaching and had let himself be seen in the distance. The Uzbeks being fully persuaded that Qasim Khan was really upon them, abandoned all they had seized, even all they had brought with them and retreated, in the utmost disorder and confusion, to Shaybani Khan, bearing the news of Qasim Khan's approach. Shaybani Khan at once ordered them to sound the drum of retreat, without paying attention to anything but getting away. The Uzbek army retreated in disorder for the first time in their military career since the advent of Shaybani Khan and reached Samarkand at the end of the winter. Shaybani Khan himself went on to Khorasan, where he spent the spring.Si River
The Si River is a river in Shandong Province, China. It also ran through the area of modern Jiangsu Province until floods in 1194.Tan-Shapur
Tan-Shapur was a Sasanian nobleman who served as Marzban of Persian Armenia from 552/554 to 560.Temür Khan
Temür Öljeytü Khan (Mongolian: Өлзийт Төмөр, translit. Ölziit Tömör; Middle Mongolian: ᠥᠯᠵᠡᠶᠢᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ, Öljeyitü Temür), born Temür (also spelled Timur, Mongolian: Төмөр, October 15, 1265 – February 10, 1307), also known by the temple name Chengzong (Emperor Chengzong of Yuan; Chinese: 元成宗; pinyin: Yuán Chéngzōng; Wade–Giles: Yüan2 Ch'eng2-tsung1) was the second emperor of the Yuan dynasty, ruling from May 10, 1294 to February 10, 1307. Apart from Emperor of China, he is considered as the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire. He was an able ruler of the Yuan, and his reign established the patterns of power for the next few decades. His name means "blessed iron Khan" in the Mongolian language.
Temür was a son of the Crown Prince Zhenjin (真金) and the grandson of Kublai Khan. During his rule, the Tran, Pagan, and Champa dynasties and western khanates of the Mongol Empire accepted his supremacy.