René Goupil

René Goupil, S.J. (15 May 1608 – 29 September 1642), was a French Jesuit lay missionary (in French "donné", "given", or "one who offers himself") who became a lay brother of the Society of Jesus shortly before his death. He was the first of the eight North American Martyrs of the Roman Catholic Church to receive the crown of martyrdom and the first canonized Catholic martyr in North America.

Saint René Goupil, S.J.
North American Martyrs
Religious and martyr
BornMay 15, 1608
Saint-Martin-du-Bois, Anjou, Kingdom of France
DiedSeptember 29, 1642 (aged 34)
Ossernenon, New France
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
(Canada and the United States)
BeatifiedJune 21, 1925, Rome, Italy, by Pope Pius XI
CanonizedJune 29, 1930, Vatican City by Pope Pius XI
Major shrineNational Shrine of the North American Martyrs, Auriesville, New York, United States
Feast26 September (Canada), 19 October (United States)
Patronageanesthetists, anesthesiologists

Life

Goupil was baptized in St-Martin-du-Bois, near Angers, in the ancient Province of Anjou, on 15 May 1608, the son of Hipolite and Luce Provost Goupil.[1] He was working as a surgeon in Orléans before entering the novitiate of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Paris on 16 March 1639. He had to leave the novitiate due to deafness.[2]

Goupil volunteered to serve as a lay missionary working to assist the Jesuit Fathers. In 1640 he arrived in New France.[2] From 1640 to 1642 he served at the Saint-Joseph de Sillery Mission, near Quebec, where he was charged with caring for the sick and wounded at the hospital.[2] His work primarily involved wound dressings and bloodlettings.[1]

In 1642 Goupil travelled to the Huron missions with about forty other persons, including several Huron chiefs and Jesuit Father Isaac Jogues.[2] They were captured by the Mohawk, taken to their easternmost village of Ossernenon (about 9 miles west of present-day Auriesville, New York),[3][4] and tortured. After teaching the native children the sign of the cross, Goupil was killed 29 September 1642 by several blows to the head with a tomahawk. Before being martyred, he had professed religious vows as a Jesuit lay brother before Fr. Jogues.[2] Many of the 24 Huron accompanying Goupil were baptized Catholic converts. Traditional enemies of the Mohawk, they were slowly tortured in accordance with Iroquois ritual before being killed.[5]

Veneration

Goupil is venerated as the first Jesuit martyr of Canada and one of three martyrs of the territory of the present United States. He was canonized on 29 June 1930 by Pope Pius XI along with the seven other Canadian Martyrs or "North American Martyrs". He is the patron saint of anesthetists.[1]

At Fordham University's Rose Hill Campus in the Bronx, New York, a freshman dormitory—Martyrs' Court—has three sections, which are named for the three US martyr-saints: René Goupil, Isaac Jogues, and Jean Lalande.[6] Goupil is also honored at the Catholic youth camp Camp Ondessonk, where a unit is named after him.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Quintal, Jean. "René Goupil: Patron Saint of Anesthetists", AANA Journal, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, June 1995/ Vol. 63/No. 3 Archived 2014-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b c d e René Goupil. Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
  3. ^ Donald A. RUMRILL, "An Interpretation and Analysis of the Seventeenth Century Mohawk Nation: Its Chronology and Movements," The Bulletin and Journal of Archaeology for New York State, 1985, vol. 90, pp. 1-39
  4. ^ Dean R. SNOW, (1995) Mohawk Valley Archaeology: The Sites, University at Albany Institute for Archaeological Studies (First Edition); Occasional Papers Number 23, Matson Museum of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University (Second Edition).
  5. ^ Allan Greer, "Colonial Saints: Gender, Race and Hagiography in New France", in The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, vol. 57, no. 2 (2000): pp. 323–348. p. 333, in JSTOR, accessed 2 March 2015
  6. ^ "Martyrs' Court". Fordham University. Retrieved 2011-10-27.

External links

1608

1608 (MDCVIII)

was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1608th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 608th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1608, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1642

1642 (MDCXLII)

was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Brother (Christian)

A religious brother is a member of a Christian religious institute or religious order who commits himself to following Christ in consecrated life of the Church, usually by the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. He is a layman, in the sense of not being ordained as a deacon or priest, and usually lives in a religious community and works in a ministry appropriate to his capabilities. A brother might practice any secular occupation. The term "brother" is used as he is expected to be as a brother to others. Brothers are members of a variety of religious communities, which may be contemplative, monastic, or apostolic in character. Some religious institutes are composed only of brothers; others are so-called "mixed" communities that are made up of brothers and clerics (priests or ministers, and seminarians).

It is also common in many Christian groups to refer to other members as "brother" or "sister". In particular, the Christian Shakers use the title for all male adult members.

Canadian Martyrs

The Canadian Martyrs, also known as the North American Martyrs (French: Saints martyrs canadiens, Holy Canadiens Martyrs), were eight Jesuit missionaries from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons. They were ritually tortured and killed on various dates in the mid-17th century in Canada, in what is now southern Ontario, and in upstate New York, during the warfare between the Iroquois (particularly the Mohawk people) and the Huron. They have subsequently been canonized and venerated as martyrs by the Catholic Church.

The martyrs are St. René Goupil (1642), St. Isaac Jogues (1646), St. Jean de Lalande (1646), St. Antoine Daniel (1648), St. Jean de Brébeuf (1649), St. Noël Chabanel (1649), St. Charles Garnier (1649), and St. Gabriel Lalemant (1649).

Commission Scolaire des Draveurs

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The board operates 24 primary schools across the Gatineau sector as well as in Cantley and Val-des-Monts. However, it recent years, they have closed certain primary schools due to lower yearly attendance at those schools.

The board also operates 4 high schools : Polyvalente de l'Érablière, Polyvalente Nicolas-Gatineau, Polyvalente Le Carrefour and École secondaire du Versant and offers transportation to students attending Collège Saint-Joseph de Hull and Collège Saint-Alexandre, the city's two private schools.

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Isaac Jogues

St. Isaac Jogues, S.J. (10 January 1607 – 18 October 1646) was a missionary and martyr who traveled and worked among the Iroquois, Huron, and other Native populations in North America. He was the first European to name Lake George, calling it Lac du Saint Sacrement (Lake of the Blessed Sacrament). In 1646, Jogues was martyred by the Mohawk at their village of Ossernenon, south of the Mohawk River.

Jogues, Jean de Brébeuf and six other martyred missionaries, all Jesuit priests or laymen associated with them, were canonized by the Roman Catholic Church in 1930; they are known as "The North American Martyrs". A shrine was built in their honor at Auriesville, New York, at a site formerly believed to be that of the Mohawk village. Their feast day is celebrated on 19 October in the General Roman Calendar, and on 26 September in Canada.

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René

René (born again or reborn in French) is a common first name in both French-speaking, Spanish-speaking, and Dutch-speaking countries. It derives from the Latin name Renatus.

René is the masculine form of the name (Renée being the feminine form). In some non-Francophone countries, however, there exists the habit of giving the name René (sometimes spelled without an accent) to girls as well as boys.

In addition, both forms are used as surnames (family names).

René as a first name given to boys in the United States reached its peaks in popularity in 1969 and 1983 when it ranked 256th. Since 1983 its popularity has steadily declined and it ranked 881st in 2016.

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