Remembrance Sunday is held in the United Kingdom as a day "to commemorate the contribution of British and Commonwealth military and civilian servicemen and women in the two World Wars and later conflicts". It is held at 11 a.m. on the second Sunday in November (the Sunday nearest to 11 November, Armistice Day, the anniversary of the end of hostilities in the First World War in 1918).
It is marked by ceremonies at local war memorials in most cities, towns and villages, attended by civic dignitaries, ex-servicemen and -women (many are members of the Royal British Legion and other veterans' organisations), members of local armed forces regular and reserve units (Royal Navy and Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Marines and Royal Marines Reserve, Army and Territorial Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Auxiliary Air Force), military cadet forces (Sea Cadet Corps, Army Cadet Force and Air Training Corps as well as the Combined Cadet Force) and youth organisations (e.g. Scouts, Boys' Brigade, Girls' Brigade and Guides). Wreaths of remembrance poppies are laid on the memorials and two minutes' silence is held at 11 a.m. Church bells are usually rung half-muffled, creating a sombre effect. The service is held for about two hours.
The poppy is worn around the time of Remembrance Sunday (traditionally from All Souls' Day (2 November) until the later of; Remembrance Day (11 November) or Remembrance Sunday)
|Official name||Remembrance Sunday|
|Observed by||United Kingdom|
|Liturgical Color||(Red or green)|
|Date||Second Sunday in November|
|2018 date||November 11|
|2019 date||November 10|
|2020 date||November 8|
|2021 date||November 14|
|Related to||Remembrance Day and Armistice Day|
The focus of remembrance for the dead of the First World War originally fell on Armistice Day itself, commencing in 1919. As well as the National Service in London, events were staged at town and village war memorials, often featuring processions of civic dignitaries and veterans. During the Second World War, the commemorations were moved to the Sunday preceding 11 November as an emergency measure to avoid disruption of the production of vital war materials.
In May 1945, just before VE Day, the new government began consultation with the churches and the British Legion on the future of remembrance. Armistice Day in 1945 actually fell on a Sunday, avoiding the need to change the wartime practice. Some thought that to continue with the 11 November would focus more on the First World War and downplay the importance of the Second. Other dates suggested were 8 June (VE Day), 6 June (D-Day), 15 August (VJ Day), 3 September (the declaration of war), and even 15 June (the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215). The Archbishop of Westminster proposed that the second Sunday in November should be named Remembrance Sunday in commemoration of both World Wars, a suggestion which was endorsed by the Home Office in January 1946. In June of that year, the prime minister, Clement Attlee, announced in the House of Commons that "the Government felt that this view would commend itself to all quarters of the country. I am glad to say that it has now found general acceptance here and has been approved by The King" (being George VI).
The national ceremony is held in London at the Cenotaph on Whitehall, starting with two minutes' silence at 11 a.m. and concluding with the end of The Nation’s Thank You procession at 1:30 p.m. The main part of the ceremony consists of the laying of wreaths by members of the Royal Family and other dignitaries, prayers, music and a march-past by thousands of military and other units.
Significant ceremonies also take place in the capitals of the nations and across the regions of the United Kingdom. Most notably at the Scottish National War Memorial, in Edinburgh in the grounds of Edinburgh Castle, the Welsh National War Memorial in Cardiff and at the Northern Ireland War Memorial and Cenotaph in Belfast in the grounds of the Belfast City Hall.
Typically, poppy wreaths are laid by representatives of the Crown, the armed forces, and local civic leaders, as well as by local organisations such as ex-servicemen organisations, cadet forces, the Scouts, Guides, Boys' Brigade, St John Ambulance and the Salvation Army. The start and end of the silence is often also marked by the firing of an artillery piece. A minute's or two minutes' silence is also frequently incorporated into church services.
In the past, the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs laid a wreath on behalf of all the British overseas territories. However, since 2001 there has been a campaign by Britain's Overseas Territories Association for the right to lay a wreath themselves at the annual service at the Cenotaph. In 2008 the Labour Government agreed that one wreath could be laid for all 14 territories by a representative of the territories.
In Northern Ireland, Remembrance Sunday has tended to be associated with unionists. Most Irish nationalists and republicans do not take part in the public commemoration of British soldiers organized by the Royal British Legion. This is partly due to the actions of the British Army during The Troubles and its role in fighting against Irish independence. However, some moderate nationalists have attended Remembrance Day events as a way to connect with the unionist community. In 1987 a bomb was detonated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) just before a Remembrance Sunday ceremony in Enniskillen, killing eleven people. The IRA said it had made a mistake and had been targeting soldiers parading to the war memorial. The Republic of Ireland has its own National Day of Commemoration in July for all Irish people who died in war.
From 1919 until 1945, Armistice Day observance was always on 11 November itself. It was then moved to Remembrance Sunday, but since the 50th anniversary of the end of the Second World War in 1995, it has become usual to hold ceremonies on both Armistice Day and Remembrance Sunday.
In 2006, then Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown proposed that in addition to Remembrance Sunday, a new national day to celebrate the achievements of veterans should be instituted. The "Veterans Day", to be held in the summer, would be similar to Veterans Day celebrations in the United States. This has now been renamed "Armed Forces Day", to include currently serving troops to Service families, and from veterans to cadets. The first "Armed Forces Day" was held on 27 June 2009.
Submariners hold an additional remembrance walk and ceremony on the Sunday before Remembrance Sunday, which has The Submariners Memorial as its focal point.
Outside the United Kingdom Anglican and Church of Scotland churches often have a commemorative service on Remembrance Sunday. In the Republic of Ireland there is an ecumenical service in St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, the Church of Ireland's national cathedral. Since 1993 the President of Ireland has attended this service. The state has its own National Day of Commemoration (held in July) for all Irish men and women who have died in war. In the United States it is celebrated by many Anglo-Catholic churches in the Episcopal Church. The Anglican Church of Korea also celebrates the day to commemorate, in particular, the Commonwealth soldiers who fought in the Korean War with a service at the Seoul Anglican Cathedral.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France at 5:45 am, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918. But, according to Thomas R. Gowenlock, an intelligence officer with the US First Division, shelling from both sides continued for the rest of the day, only ending at nightfall. The armistice initially expired after a period of 36 days and had to be extended several times. A formal peace agreement was only reached when the Treaty of Versailles was signed the following year.The date is a national holiday in France, and was declared a national holiday in many Allied nations.
During World War II, many countries changed the name of the holiday. Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted Remembrance Day, while the US chose Veterans Day. In some countries Armistice Day coincides with other public holidays.On 11 November 2018, the centenary of the World War One Armistice, commemorations were held globally. In France, more than 60 heads of government and heads of state gathered at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.Bromley War Memorial
The Bromley War Memorial in Bromley, Greater London, England commemorates the fallen of World War I and World War II. It was designed by British sculptor Sydney March, of the March family of artists.Civil Service Rifles War Memorial
The Civil Service Rifles War Memorial is a First World War memorial located on the riverside terrace at Somerset House in central London, England. Designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and unveiled in 1924, the memorial commemorates the 1,240 members of the Prince of Wales' Own Civil Service Rifles regiment who were killed in the First World War. They were Territorial Force reservists, drawn largely from the British Civil Service, which at that time had many staff based at Somerset House.
Both battalions of the expanded Civil Service Rifles were disbanded shortly after the war; the regiment amalgamated with the Queen's Westminster Rifles, but former members established an Old Comrades Association to keep the regiment's traditions alive. The association began raising funds for a war memorial in 1920, and the Prince of Wales unveiled the memorial on 27 January 1924. It takes the form of a single rectangular column surmounted by a sculpture of an urn and flanked by painted stone flags, the Union Flag on one side and the regimental colour on the other. The base on which the column stands is inscribed with the regiment's battle honours, while an inscription on the column denotes that a scroll containing the names of the fallen was placed inside.
The memorial first stood in the quadrangle of Somerset House, which the Civil Service Rifles had used as a parade ground, but the civil service began to vacate Somerset House towards the end of the 20th century. As the building and its courtyard were re-purposed, the memorial was moved to the riverside terrace in the late 1990s. Members of the regiment continued to attend Remembrance Sunday ceremonies until at least the late 1980s, by which time many former members were in their nineties; the last known surviving member of the regiment attended a rededication ceremony in 2002. The memorial was designated a grade II listed building in 1987, which was upgraded to grade II* in November 2015 when it became part of a national collection of Lutyens' war memorials.Dido's Lament
Dido's Lament is the aria "When I am laid in earth" from the opera Dido and Aeneas by Henry Purcell (libretto by Nahum Tate).
It is included in many classical music textbooks on account of its exemplary use of the passus duriusculus in the ground bass. The conductor Leopold Stokowski wrote a transcription of the piece for symphony orchestra. It is played annually in London by the massed bands of the Guards Division at the Cenotaph remembrance parade in Whitehall on Remembrance Sunday, the Sunday nearest to November 11 (Armistice Day).Finchley War Memorial
Finchley War Memorial(IWM Ref:10972) is located in Ballards Lane, North Finchley, outside the United Services Club.
Unveiled by Viscount Lascelles on the 13th November 1925 and was attended by Thousands of people.
One thousand Men of Finchley, Husbands, Sons and Comrades made the Supreme Sacrifice in World War One in the hour of their Country’s need. After the ceremony dignitaries addressed a tightly packed gathering in the St Kilda Hall. Finchley sent over five thousand men to the Colours.They are gone but the people of Finchley have not forgotten.
(By Public Subscription cost of Finchley Memorial £500).
Finchley United Services Club the large Granite Cross at Finchley War Memorial is inside a maintained fenced enclosure, the gates have the words St Kildas on them named after the Scottish Island. The Bronze sculptured panel contains a carved relief with the figures of three servicemen a Soldier in full trench kit, with steel helmet, cape and fixed bayonet flanked by the busts of a Sailor and a Airman. There is a inscription on the top which reads above the Soldier “Victory won by Sacrifice” and below the Soldier “At the Going down of the Sun and in the Morning we will Remember them.” There is a Flagpole behind the stone cross .OS Grid Ref: TQ 261 921.Either side of the memorial are two memorial plaques the Finchley Metropolitan Tramway War Memorial (18 names),(IWM Ref 64400) and the Hendon Garage War Memorial(52 names),(IWM Ref 64399) who were relocated after the buildings where they were hanging were demolished. Names are recorded in a book at the Memorial club.
In grateful Memory of
Men of Finchley who
By service on Land Sea
And in the Air gave their
Lives for their Country.
1914 - 1919
1939 – 1945
No names are inscribed on the Main Memorial.Unveiled November 13th 1925 by Lord Lascelles.
The Memorial remembers those Servicemen and Women up to the present day who have lost their lives in conflict and also there loved ones, family and friends who they left behind. A Service of Remembrance occurs every year on Remembrance Sunday at the Memorial with a two minutes silence and the Last Post sounds followed by a march past. Ballards Lane is closed so relatives and members of the community can pay their respects. Recorded IWM Ref: 10972. Barnet Press 4th February 1922 Finchley Branch of the British Legion has acquired 'St Kilda' in Ballards Lane as a club. Martin Coyle.
A separate and original memorial in the form of a bronze plaque is located at Finchley Memorial Hospital. It commemorates the local men who died during the First World War.Georgetown Cenotaph
The Georgetown Cenotaph is a war memorial in Georgetown, Guyana, located at the junction of Main and Church Streets.
The Cenotaph was unveiled on August 14, 1923, by the then Governor, Graeme Thomson, and the first Armistice Day observance took place at the Church Street Monument on 11 November 1923. On the four faces of the base of the Cenotaph are inscribed the four words - Devotion, Humanity, Fortitude, and Sacrifice.
The Cenotaph is a national memorial to Guyanese soldiers who lost their lives in the First and Second World Wars. Guyanese soldiers served and fought in such far off places as Egypt, France, Belgium, and East Africa.
After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Armistice Day was renamed Remembrance Day or Remembrance Sunday, and observed on the first or second Sunday of November. Since 1956, it was internationally agreed to observe Remembrance Day on the second Sunday of November.
Before 1923, the site where the Cenotaph now stands was occupied by an ornate drinking fountain which was erected in 1867 to mark the completion of the Water Works in 1866. That drinking fountain, no longer functional, now stands on the green opposite St. Rose's High School in Church Street, just a few hundred feet from its original location.Gibraltar Cross of Sacrifice
The Gibraltar Cross of Sacrifice is a war memorial in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is located west of North Front Cemetery, at the junction of Winston Churchill Avenue and Devil's Tower Road. The Cross of Sacrifice was designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield in 1917, and his monument is found in numerous Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemeteries. The cross in Gibraltar was erected by the Royal Engineers for the commission, and unveiled on Armistice Day 1922. The British Pathé film recorded at the dedication ceremony that day represents the first motion picture made in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar Cross of Sacrifice served as the focus of Remembrance Sunday ceremonies in Gibraltar until 2009, at which time the location was changed to the Gibraltar War Memorial.HMS King Alfred (shore establishment 1994)
HMS King Alfred is a Royal Naval Reserve unit on Whale Island, Portsmouth, within HMS Excellent in the vicinity of HMNB Portsmouth. The unit has a complement of over 200 reservists and provides training facilities to other Naval Reserve units.HMS King Alfred opened on 1 April 1994 and was commissioned on 8 June that year, replacing the recently closed units at HMS Sussex and HMS Wessex. The unit is affiliated with Southampton University Royal Naval Unit and Bearwood College Combined Cadet Force and provides local representation at events including the Ship Festival, in Chichester; and the Remembrance Sunday services in Portsmouth and Hove. Members of the unit are also honorary freedom holders of the City of Portsmouth. Penny Mordaunt, the local MP and former Minister of State for the Armed Forces, is a sub-lieutenant in the RNR based at the site.HMS Thornham (M2793)
HMS Thornham was one of 93 ships of the Ham-class of inshore minesweepers.
Their names were all chosen from villages ending in -ham. The minesweeper was named after Thornham in Norfolk.
She was converted in 1967 at Rosyth Dockyard for use by the Aberdeen University Naval Unit.
HMS Thornham gave its ship's bell to Thornham Church in 1969, and it is rung to signal the two minutes silence on Remembrance Sunday.Independent Radio News
Independent Radio News provides a service of news bulletins, audio and copy to commercial radio stations in the United Kingdom and beyond. The managing director, Tim Molloy, succeeded long-term MD John Perkins in November 2009. Perkins had been MD of IRN since 1989. IRN's shareholders are Global (54.6%), Bauer Radio (22.3%), ITN (19.7%) and The Wireless Group (3.4%).List of public art in Whitehall
This is a list of public art in Whitehall, a district in the City of Westminster, London.
Whitehall is at the centre of the highest concentration of memorials in the City of Westminster, in which 47% of the total number of such works in the borough are located. It includes the eponymous street of Whitehall and Horse Guards Parade, both important ceremonial spaces, and Horse Guards Road, which forms its western boundary with St James's Park. The area's monuments are mainly military in character, foremost among them being the Cenotaph, which is the focal point of the national Remembrance Sunday commemorations held each year.New Allegiances
"New Allegiances" is the series seven premiere and 57th episode of the British espionage television series Spooks. It was originally broadcast on BBC One on 27 October 2008. The episode was written by Neil Cross, with additional writing by Ben Richards, and directed by Colm McCarthy. The episode is considered the first of a two-part story, which concludes with following episode "Split Loyalties".
In the episode, Private Andy Sullivan (Ian Virgo) is kidnapped by an Al-Qaeda cell, who demand Remembrance Sunday be cancelled or he will be executed. Adam Carter (Rupert Penry-Jones) and recently returned Lucas North (Richard Armitage), who spent the past eight years in a Russian prison, work together to find him, only to realise the kidnapping was a diversion to bomb a Remembrance ceremony. Adam drives the rigged car to safety, but dies in the explosion. Knowing FSB head of operation in London Arkady Kachimov (Stuart Wilson) withheld the bomb plot, Harry Pearce (Peter Firth) plots revenge.
Before the episode was broadcast, it was announced that Rupert Penry-Jones would leave the series after playing Adam Carter for four years, while afterwards, another announcement was made introducing a new lead character, Lucas North. Inspiration towards the plot for the episode, and the remainder of the series, came from the resurgence of Russia, which the producers felt would in subtle ways threaten the security of the West. The episode was partially filmed on location in Moscow, the first time in series history where filming took place outside the United Kingdom.
After its original broadcast, the episode attracted almost six million viewers; although it won its time slot, the episode was down by over one million viewers from the last series premiere. The episode received generally positive reactions for its plot, as well as the introduction of Lucas and death of Adam.Parades in Northern Ireland
Parades are an important part of the culture of Northern Ireland. Although the majority of parades are held by Ulster Protestant, unionist or Ulster loyalist groups, Irish nationalist, republican and non-political groups also parade. The Parades Commission exists to settle disputes about controversial parades, and although not all parading groups recognise the Commission's authority, its decisions are legally binding.Remembrance Day
Remembrance Day (sometimes known informally as Poppy Day owing to the tradition of the remembrance poppy) is a memorial day observed in Commonwealth member states since the end of the First World War to remember the members of their armed forces who have died in the line of duty. Following a tradition inaugurated by King George V in 1919, the day is also marked by war remembrances in many non-Commonwealth countries. Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November in most countries to recall the end of hostilities of First World War on that date in 1918. Hostilities formally ended "at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month", in accordance with the armistice signed by representatives of Germany and the Entente between 5:12 and 5:20 that morning. ("At the 11th hour" refers to the passing of the 11th hour, or 11:00 am.) The First World War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919.The tradition of Remembrance Day evolved out of Armistice Day. The initial Armistice Day was observed at Buckingham Palace, commencing with King George V hosting a "Banquet in Honour of the President of the French Republic" during the evening hours of 10 November 1919. The first official Armistice Day was subsequently held on the grounds of Buckingham Palace the following morning. During the Second World War, many countries changed the name of the holiday. Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted Remembrance Day, while the US chose Veterans Day.Remembrance Day bombing
The Remembrance Day bombing (also known as the Enniskillen bombing or Poppy Day massacre) took place on 8 November 1987 in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. A Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb exploded near the town's war memorial (cenotaph) during a Remembrance Sunday ceremony, which was being held to commemorate British military war dead. Eleven people (ten civilians and a police officer) were killed, many of them elderly, and 63 were injured. The IRA said it had made a mistake and that its target had been the British soldiers parading to the memorial.
The bombing was strongly condemned by all sides and undermined support for the IRA and Sinn Féin. It also facilitated the passing of the Extradition Act, which made it easier to extradite IRA suspects from the Republic of Ireland to the United Kingdom. Loyalist paramilitaries responded to the bombing with revenge attacks on Catholic civilians. The bombing is often seen as a turning point in the Troubles, an incident that shook the IRA "to its core", and spurred on new efforts by Irish nationalists towards a political solution to the conflict.Sunder Katwala
Sunder Katwala is a British political activist of Indian and Irish family heritage. He is the director of the identity and integration think-tank British Future, and former general secretary of the Fabian Society.
British Future, which also addresses issues of migration and opportunity, launched in January 2012. The think-tank's call for the adoption of an English national anthem, backed by MPs from different UK political parties, won the support of Prime Minister David Cameron, according to reports on the website ConservativeHome and in the Sunday Telegraph. It is also campaigning for a special Sunday on Remembrance Sunday 2014.He was previously with The Observer newspaper, as a leader writer and internet editor, and was Research Director of The Foreign Policy Centre think-tank from 1999 to 2001. He became Fabian general secretary in October 2003, and held the position until July 2011.
Katwala also writes for The Guardian newspaper, for the New Statesman, the Spectator Coffee House blog, and for Liberal Conspiracy blog.
In 2010 the Daily Telegraph included Katwala at number 32 in its list of the '100 most influential left-wingers' in British politics, while he was Fabian General Secretary. British Future is a non-partisan group which engages across the political spectrum, and has staff and Trustees with backgrounds across the major political parties.The Cenotaph
The Cenotaph is a war memorial on Whitehall in London, England. Its origin is in a temporary structure erected for a peace parade following the end of the First World War, and after an outpouring of national sentiment it was replaced in 1920 by a permanent structure and designated the United Kingdom's official national war memorial.
Designed by Edwin Lutyens, the permanent structure was built from Portland stone between 1919 and 1920 by Holland, Hannen & Cubitts, replacing Lutyens' earlier wood-and-plaster cenotaph in the same location. An annual Service of Remembrance is held at the site on Remembrance Sunday, the closest Sunday to 11 November (Armistice Day) each year. Lutyens' cenotaph design has been reproduced elsewhere in the UK and in other countries of historical British allegiance including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Bermuda and Hong Kong.Tullyhommon
Tullyhommon or Tullyhomman (from Irish: Tulaigh Uí Thiomáin, meaning "Ó Tiomáin's hillock") is a small village in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is beside the bigger village of Pettigo, which lies in County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland. The two are divided by the River Termon, which forms part of the boundary between Northern Ireland and the Republic. In the 2001 Census the village had a population of 81 people.