Relman Morin

Relman George Morin (September 11, 1907 – July 16, 1973) was an American journalist who spent most of his career writing for the Associated Press, serving as bureau chief of its offices in Tokyo, Paris, Washington, D.C., and New York.

Arrested by the Japanese in Saigon on the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Morin was held prisoner for six months. He reported from the European front during World War II and was present at the signing of the peace treaty between the Allies and Germany. He was also a war correspondent during the Korean War.

He won the Pulitzer Prize twice, once for his Korean War reportage and once for his reportage on the Little Rock school integration crisis in 1957.

Relman George Morin
BornSeptember 11, 1907
Freeport, Illinois
DiedJuly 16, 1973 (aged 65)
New York City
Alma materPomona College
SubjectWorld news
Notable awardsPulitzer Prize for International Reporting
Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting
SpouseDorothy Wright Liebes

Early life, education, and early career

Morin was born in Freeport, Illinois, and raised in Los Angeles, California. He graduated from a Los Angeles high school in 1925, then went on to study at Pomona College. He began his journalism career by working as an office boy and part-time sports reporter for the Los Angeles Times while in high school and college (1924–26). He graduated from Pomona in 1929.

He then went to study in China, first at Lignan University in Canton (now Guangzhou),[1][2] where he was a "special student,"[3] then at Yenching University in Peking (now Beijing). In 1930, while in China, he worked as a reporter for the Shanghai Evening Post.

Returning to the U.S., Morin wrote movie columns for the Los Angeles Record from 1932 to 1934.[1]

Career with Associated Press

He joined the Associated Press in 1934, working in its Los Angeles bureau. He would remain with the AP for almost 40 years, serving as Los Angeles editor (1934–37), Tokyo bureau chief (1937–40), Far East correspondent (1940–41), war correspondent (1942–45); and bureau chief in Paris (1945–47) and Washington, D.C. (1947–49). In New York he served as general executive at AP headquarters from 1949 to 1950; thereafter he ran AP's New York bureau until 1972.

Morin was in Mongolia in 1939 when the Russians defeated the Japanese in a border clash there. In December 1940, he began a one-year roving assignment through southeast Asia.[1] In seeking to explore areas lying in the path of Japanese expansion, he visited the regions then known as the Netherlands East Indies, French Indo-China,[4] the British colony of Singapore, and independent Thailand,[3] as well as Shanghai and Manila. He spent six months in Java during the protracted economic negotiations between Japan and the Netherlands Indies. He was present to cover the Japanese occupations of both Thailand and French Indo-China. He was beaten by Thai soldiers,[4] and was arrested by the Japanese in Saigon on December 8, 1941, and "closely examined on espionage charges."[3] From December 1941 to August 1942, he was imprisoned by the Japanese secret police,[1] who "threatened him with torture if he did not write treasonable propaganda for Japanese broadcasts."[4] He returned to the U.S. in September 1942, and in the spring of 1943 crossed the Atlantic to report on the war in the European theater.[1]

He considered the Dutch Empire to be more "wise and kindly" than others, but he was "no apologist for empire," wrote Orville Prescott. "No recent writer disgusted with the snobbery, decadence and general dry rot of Singapore has been more outspoken than he."[4]

His essay "In a Schoolhouse at Rheims, Four Copies Were Signed" is an eyewitness account of the surrender of Wehrmacht chief Colonel general Alfred Jodl, German Navy commander General admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, and Major G. S. Wilhelm Oxenius, to Allied officers, including General Carl A. Spaatz and Lieutenant general Walter Bedell Smith, at 2:47 A.M. On May 7, 1945.

In the essay, Morin wrote: "'There are four copies to be signed.' Gen. Smith’s voice was cold, colorless, matter-of-fact. He spoke without haste. Neither tone nor cadence hinted at his feelings....There was a moment of silence, and in that moment, the scene seemed to freeze. It had the character of a picture, somehow, a queer unreality. Here was the end of nearly five years of war, of blood and death, of high excitement and fear and great discomfort, of explosions and bullets whining and the wailing of air raid sirens. Here, brought into this room, was the end of all that. Your mind refused to take it in. Hence, this was a dream, this room with the Nile green walls and the charts, the black table, and the uniformed men seated around it. The words, 'There are four copies to be signed,' meant nothing unless you forced the meaning to come, ramming it into your brain with a hard, conscious effort....And then the documents were being passed across to the Germans, and they were signing them. They were signing away the Germany Army and the Luftwaffe and the submarines. Their pens scratched and the State that was to have lasted a thousand years died."[5]

In July 1950 he went to Tokyo on assignment, and when the Korean War began he went to Korea to report from the front.[1]

He witnessed the execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on June 19, 1953.[3]

He had a heart attack that sidelined him for several months in 1955.[3]

In 1957, he reported on the school integration crisis at Little Rock High School. From a phone booth near the school, he "calmly dictated" his story of "how Negro students slipped in a side entrance past an unruly mob." This won him his second Pulitzer Prize.[3]

He died in New York City.


Morin wrote Circuit of Conquest (1943) about his travels in Asia and his detention by the Japanese. Reviewing the book in the New York Times, Orville Prescott called it "one of the best books on the decline and fall of Western power in the Far East" and stated that while several of the other journalists who had been detained by the Japanese had already published accounts of their experiences, Morin's book "makes up for its lack of spot news value with intelligent, considered judgment and an unusually high quality of narrative skill....About the places where he sojourned only briefly Mr Morin writes with the verve, color and sharp eye for dramatic detail of the best kind of personal travel literature. About the countries where he had opportunities for more extensive study and investigation he is penetrating, objective and highly informative."[4][3]

He also wrote East Wind Rising: A Long View of the Pacific Crisis (1960), A Reporter Reports (1960); Churchill: Portrait of Greatness (1965), Assassination: The Death of President John F. Kennedy (1968), Dwight D. Eisenhower: A Gauge of Greatness (1969), and The Associated Press Story of Election 1968 (1969).[3]

Honors and awards

In 1951, Morin won the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting for his coverage of the Korean War. He shared it with several other journalists for the AP, Chicago Daily News, and New York Herald Tribune who had also reported from Korea.

In 1958, he won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting for his coverage of the Little Rock school crisis. The citation praised "his dramatic and incisive eyewitness report of mob violence on September 23, 1957, during the integration crisis at the Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas." He shared the prize with Clark Mollenhoff of the Des Moines Register and Tribune.[6]

He twice won the George Polk Award in Journalism. In 1954 he was one of a team of AP writers who received the prize for Wire Service Reporting; in 1957, he was the sole winner of the award for National Reporting.[7]

Personal life

Morin was married twice. He had a daughter, Mary Frances Morin Sasanoff (Robert), from his first marriage to Florence Pine. His second wife, Dorothy Wright Liebes, was a textile designer.[8] Born in Santa Rosa, California, on October 14, 1899, Liebes was first married to and divorced from Leon Liebes. She was "one of the first American craftsmen to adapt intricate hand techniques to mass production that allowed her fabrics to be used by major manufacturers." The magazine House & Garden called her "probably the greatest weaver alive today."[9] Morin and Liebes were married in Berkeley, California, on April 21, 1948.[10] She died in September 1972.[8]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Fischer, Heinz-Dietrich; Fischer, Erika J. (1987). International Reporting 1928–1985: From the Activities of the League of Nations to present-day Global Problems. München: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110972320. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  2. ^ Library of America. "Relman Morin". Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h The New York Times (August 24, 1945). "AP European Shifts; Gallagher Will Head Bureau in Germany, Morin in France". Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e Prescott, Orville (May 19, 1943). "Books of the Times". The New York Times. p. 23. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  5. ^ Time (May 7, 2015). "Read an Eyewitness Account of the German Surrender in World War II". Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  6. ^ Silk. "Relman Morin". Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  7. ^ Long Island University. "Previous Winners". Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  8. ^ a b Fowle, Farnsworth (July 17, 1973). "Relman Morin of A.P. Is Dead; Winner of Two Pulitzer Prizes; Back in Far East". The New York Times. p. 42. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  9. ^ The New York Times (September 21, 1972). "Dorothy Wright Liebes Is Dead; Noted Textile Designer Was 72; Won Acclaim for plying Hand Techniques to Mass Production of Fabrics".
  10. ^ The New York Times (April 22, 1948). "Relman Morin Marries". Retrieved March 23, 2016.
1951 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1951.

1958 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1958.

Council for United Civil Rights Leadership

Council for United Civil Rights Leadership (CUCRL) was an umbrella group formed in June 1963 to organize and regulate the Civil Rights Movement. The Council brought leaders of Black civil rights organizations together with White donors in business and philanthropy. It successfully arranged the August 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom with the Kennedy administration.

The Council encompassed groups with different strategies and agendas, from the radical Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to the conservative National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). By centralizing donations, the formation of the group muted disagreements over fundraising and membership. It worked to oppose tactics like civil disobedience and boycotts by controlling distribution of funds and by virtue of connections to the media establishment. Conflict nevertheless overcame the group quickly, and its money and power declined gradually until dissolution in January 1967.

Dorothy Liebes

Dorothy Wright Liebes (14 October 1897 – 20 September 1972) was an American textile designer and weaver renowned for her innovative, custom-designed modern fabrics for architects and interior designers. She was known as "the mother of modern weaving".

List of George Polk Award winners

The George Polk Awards in Journalism are a series of American journalism awards presented annually by Long Island University in New York.

List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 1961

List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 1961.

US and Canadian FellowsWilliam Weaver Austin, Given Foundation Professor Emeritus of Musicology, Cornell University.

Ben Haig Bagdikian, Writer; Professor Emeritus of Journalism, University of California, Berkeley.

Frederik Barry Bang, deceased. Medicine.

Willis R. Barnstone, Professor of Comparative Literature, Indiana University.

George A. Bartholomew, deceased. Professor Emeritus of Zoology, University of California, Los Angeles.

Richard J. Bearman, Professor of Chemistry, University of New South Wales.

John Frederick Bell, Former Medical Director, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, U.S. Public Health Service.

Harry J. Benda, deceased. Far Eastern History.

Francis L. Berkeley, Jr., University Archivist Emeritus, University of Virginia.

Ernst Berliner, W. Alton Jones Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College.

Wendell Erdman Berry, Writer, Port Royal, Kentucky.

David Duckworth Bien, Professor of History, University of Michigan.

Ernst Bleuler, Professor Emeritus of Physics, Pennsylvania State University.

Nicholas C. Bodman, deceased. Linguistics.

John Lewis Bradley, Scholar, Somerset, England.

Boris Bresler, Deceased. Engineering.

Robert Kenneth Brinton, deceased. Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, University of California.

Peter de Beauvoir Brock, deceased. Professor Emeritus of History, University of Toronto.

Jules Brody, Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages and Literatures, Harvard University1.

Dana Charles Brooks, Professor of Anatomy, Cornell University Medical College.

Robert Brout, Professor of Physics, Free University of Brussels.

Robert Brustein, Artistic Director of the American Repertory Theater

Bernard Budiansky, deceased. Applied Mathematics.

Sidney Alexander Burrell, Professor Emeritus of History.

Herbert E. Carter, deceased. Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, University of Arizona.

William Andrew Chupka, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Yale University.

Andrew Hill Clark, deceased. Geography.

Eric William Cochrane Jr, Deceased. Italian History.

Edward Colker, Provost and Professor of Art and Design, Pratt Institute.

Arthur Dwight Culler, Emily Sanford Professor Emeritus of English Literature, Yale University: 1961, 1975.

Alexander Dallin, deceased. Russian History.

Ralph Thomas Daniel, deceased. Music Research.

Bruce L. Davidson, Photographer, New York City.

Margaret Gay Davies, deceased. British History.

Angel del Río, deceased. Spanish.

Arthur Deshaies, Graphic Artist, Duncan, South Carolina; Former Professor of Art, Florida State University.

James Dickey, deceased. Poetry.

Edward Atkinson Dowey, Jr, Professor of the History of Christian Doctrine, Princeton Theological Seminary.

Sidney David Drell, deceased. Emeritus Professor and Deputy Director, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University: 1961, 1971.

Charles William Dunn, Margaret Brooks Robinson Professor Emeritus of Celtic Languages and Literatures, Harvard University.

Francis Dvornik, deceased. Classics.

Martin Dyck, Professor Emeritus of German and Literature, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Richard S. Eckaus, Ford International Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Harold Edelman, deceased. Architecture & Design.

Halim El-Dabh, Egyptian-born composer (also awarded a Fellowship in 1959)

George Paul Elliott,deceased. Fiction: 1961, 1970.

Kenan Tevfik Erim, deceased. Classics.

Jimmy Ernst, deceased. Fine Arts.

Francis C. Evans, Retired Professor of Zoology, University of Michigan.

Gertrude Falk, Lecturer in Biophysics, University College, University of London.

Wen Fong, Edwards S. Sanford Professor of Art History, Princeton University.

David C. Fowler, Professor Emeritus of English, University of Washington: 1961, 1975.

Renée Claire Fox, Annenberg Professor Emerita of the Social Sciences, University of Pennsylvania.

Gray Foy, Graphic Artist, New York City.

Arnold Franchetti, deceased. Music Composition.

Hans Pieter Roetert Frederikse, Retired Senior Scientist, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Julius H. Freitag, deceased. Biology.

Ferdinand Freudenstein, Higgins Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University: 1961, 1967.

James John Fritz, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University.

Donald C. Gallup, deceased. Bibliography: 1961, 1968.

Raymond Dorner Giraud, Professor of French, Stanford University.

Paul Wilbur Glad, Regents' Professor of History, University of Oklahoma.

Donald Arthur Glaser, Nobel Laureate in Physics and Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of California, Berkeley.

Edward Glaser, deceased. Spanish.

Clarence Louis Frank Gohdes, deceased. American Literature.

Sidney Goldstein, George Hazard Crooker University Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Brown University.

Alfred M. Gollin deceased, Emeritus Professor of History, University of California, Santa Barbara: 1961, 1964, 1971.

Malcolm S. Gordon, Professor of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles.

Robert James Gorlin, Professor of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, and Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota.

Charles Danne Graham, Jr., Emeritus Professor of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Pennsylvania.

William Roger Graham, deceased. British History.

J. Glenn Gray, Deceased. Philosophy.

Sarah Grilo, Argentinian painter.

Erwin L. Hahn, Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of California, Berkeley: 1961, 1969.

Benjamin D. Hall, Professor of Genetics, University of Washington.

Ben Halpern, deceased. Richard Koret Professor of Near Eastern Studies, Brandeis University.

Edward B. Ham, deceased. French.

Robert W. Hansen, Professor Emeritus of Art, Occidental College.

Curtis A. Harnack, Writer; Executive Director, Yaddo, Saratoga Springs, New York.

Bernard G. Harvey, Senior Scientist Emeritus, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.

Lawrence Elliot Harvey, deceased. French Language.

Hugh Dodge Hawkins, Anson D. Morse Professor of History and American Studies, Amherst College: 1961.

David Vincent Hayes, Sculptor, Coventry, Connecticut.

Evans Vaughan Hayward, Retired Physicist, National Institute of Standards; Adjunct Professor Emeritus of Physics, Duke University.

Eric Gustav Heinemann, Professor of Psychology, Brooklyn College, City University of New York.

Leon A. Henkin, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley.

David Herlihy, deceased. Medieval History.

William Best Hesseltine, deceased. British History.

Robert Maurice Hexter, deceased: Chemistry.

Walter John Hipple, Jr., Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, West Chester State College.

Jack Hirshleifer, Professor of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles.

Herbert Hoffmann, Curator of Ancient Art, Museum Für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg: 1961, 1972.

Robert Goode Hogan, Playwright; Professor of English, University of Delaware.

William Ransom Hogan, deceased. U.S. History.

William Neil Holmes, Professor of Zoology, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Louis Norberg Howard, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, Florida State University.

Benjamin Hunningher, deceased. Theatre Arts.

Nicolae Iliescu, Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages and Literature, Harvard University.

Douglas Lamar Inman, Professor of Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.

Kenneth Keith Innes, deceased. Chemistry.

Charles Issawi, deceased, Bayard Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies, Princeton University: 1961, 1968.

Harry V. Jaffa, deceased, Salvatori Research Professor Emeritus of Political Philosophy, Claremont McKenna College, and Professor of Political Philosophy, Claremont Graduate School.

Dorothy Jeakins, deceased. Theatre Arts.

Sheldon Judson, deceased. Knox Taylor Professor of Geography, Emeritus Princeton University: 1961, 1966.

Jerome Eugene Kaplan, deceased. Graphic Artist; Professor of Printmaking, Philadelphia College of Art.

Robert Manoah Kark, Professor of Medicine, Rush Medical College; Professor Emeritus of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine: 1961, 1974.

Robert Kaske, deceased. Medieval Literature: 1961, 1977.

John C. Keats, deceased. Fiction.

Charles David Keeling, deceased, Professor of Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.

Donald Keene, University Professor Emeritus and Shincho Professor of Japanese Literature, Columbia University: 1961, 1971.

Arthur Kent Kerman, Professor of Physics and Director, Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Anne D. Kilmer, Chairman, Department of Near Eastern Studies, Professor of Assyriology, University of California, Berkeley: 1961, 1962.

Jere Clemens King, deceased. French History.

Otto Kinne, Professor of Biology and Director, Helgoland Institute of Biology, Hamburg.

Kenneth Koch, deceased, Poet; Professor of English, Columbia University.

Karl George Kohn, Composer; William M. Keck Distinguished Professor, Pomona College.

Thor Kommedahl, Professor Emeritus of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota.

Wladyslaw W. Kulski, deceased. Political Science: 1961, 1969.

Stephen Guild Kurtz, Retired Professor of History, American University, Washington, DC.

David Sievert Lavender, Writer, Ojai, California: 1961, 1968.

Hui-Lin Li, John Bartram Professor Emeritus of Botany, University of Pennsylvania.

Robert B. Loftfield, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry, University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Andrew Lossky, Professor Emeritus of History, University of California, Los Angeles.

Francis E. Low, Institute Professor, Professor Emeritus of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Thomas H. D. Mahoney, deceased.Professor Emeritus of History, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Hans Albert Maier, deceased. German & Scandinavian Literature.

Martin Edward Malia, Emeritus Professor of History, University of California; Berkeley.

George Markow-Totevy, Professor of French, State University of New York College at Oswego.

Paule Burke Marshall, Writer; Helen Gould Sheppard Professor of Literature and Culture, New York University.

Norman F. Martin, S.J., Professor Emeritus of History, University of Santa Clara.

Leo Marx, Kenan Professor Emeritus of American Cultural History, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: 1961, 1965.

Rufus Wellington Mathewson, Jr, deceased. Slavic Studies.

Wallace I. Matson, Professor of Philosophy, University of California, Berkeley.

John Seneca McGee, Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Washington.

Abraham Irving Melden, deceased. Philosophy.

John Michael Montias, Professor Emeritus of Economics, Yale University.

Relman Morin, deceased. Far Eastern History.

Samuel Eliot Morison, deceased. U.S. History.

Steven Alexander Moszkowski, Professor Emeritus of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles.

William Wilson Mullins, deceased. Engineering.

Lowry Nelson, Jr., deceased. 16th & 17th English Literature.

Daniel U. Newman, Artist.

Theodore S. Newman, Deceased. Music Composition.

Albert Nijenhuis, Affiliate Professor, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, University of Pennsylvania.

Felix Johannes Oinas, Professor Emeritus of Slavic Languages and Literatures and of Uralic and Altaic Studies, Indiana University: 1961, 1966.

David Okrent, Emeritus Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los Angeles: 1961, 1977.

David Lockwood Olmsted, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Davis.

Robert Eugene Olson, Professor of Pediatrics, University of South Florida; Professor Emeritus of Medicine, School of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook: 1961, 1970.

Robert Ornstein, Oviatt Professor of English, Case Western Reserve University.

Harry Oster, American folklorist and musicologist who recorded traditional music from Louisiana.

Neal Oxenhandler, Professor of Romance Languages and Comparative Literature, Dartmouth College.

Sergio Pacifici, deceased. Italian Literature.

Grace Paley, Writer; Retired Member of the Faculty, Sarah Lawrence College.

Norman Dunbar Palmer, deceased. Political Science.

William Eugene Parham, deceased. Chemistry.

William Harwood Peden, deceased.Professor of English, University of Missouri-Columbia.

Franklin Johnson Pegues, Professor of History, Ohio State University.

Harold Brenner Pepinsky, Professor of Psychology and of Computer and Information Science, Ohio State University.

David Dodd Perkins, John P. Marquand Professor of English Literature, Harvard University: 1961, 1972.

William R. Polk, Scholar, Vance, France.

Paul E. Potter, Professor Emeritus of Geology, University of Cincinnati.

John Michael Prausnitz, Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley: 1961, 1972.

Sesto Prete, deceased, Professor of Latin, University of Kansas.

Benton Seymour Rabinovitch, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, University of Washington.

Isaac Rabinowitz, deceased. Near Eastern Studies.

Roy Radner, Leonard N. Stern School Professor of Business, New York University Stern School of Business: 1961, 1965.

John Henry Raleigh, Professor of English, University of California, Berkeley.

Charles Norwood Reilley, deceased. Chemistry.

John W. Rhoden, deceased. fine Arts-Sculpture.

Mordecai Richler, Writer, Montreal.

Robert D. Richtmyer, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, University of Colorado.

Michael Riffaterre, Franco-American literary scholar (also awarded a Fellowship in 1977)

Kenneth Lloyd Rinehart, Jr., Professor of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Ronald Samuel Rivlin, Centennial University Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Mechanics, Lehigh University.

Helen Henley Robertson, deceased. Non-Fiction. Appointed as Helen Palmer Henley.

Frank Sherwood Rowland, Donald Bren Research Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine: 1961, 1973.

Zevi W. Salsburg, Deceased. Chemistry.

Stanley Salzman, Deceased. Architecture.

James Alvin Sanders, President, Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center, Claremont, CA: 1961, 1972.

Lawrence Ennis Savage, deceased. Medicine.

Hans Juergen Eduard Schmitt, Professor, Institute for High-Frequency Engineering, Rhineland Westphalia Technical University, West Germany.

Ira Oscar Scott, Jr, Retired President, Savings Bank Association of New York State, New York City.

Paul Seabury, deceased. Political Science.

Eduard Franz Sekler, Professor of Architecture, Osgood Hooker Professor of Visual Art, Harvard University: 1961, 1963.

Raymond E. Shapiro, Assistant Director for Toxicology Coordination, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Charles H. Shattuck, deceased. 16th & 17th Century English Literature: 1961, 1968.

Curtis Howard Shell, deceased. Fine Arts Research.

Richard T. Shield, Professor of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

William Francis Shipley, Professor of Linguistics, University of California, Santa Cruz.

Robert G. Shulman, Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University.

Lawrence B. Slobodkin, Professor of Biology, State University of New York at Stony Brook: 1961, 1974.

Paul Slud, Associate Curator, Division of Birds, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Leo Frank Solt, deceased. Architecture.

Joseph John Spengler, deceased. Economics.

William Spindel, Principal Staff Office for Special Projects, National Academy of Sciences.

George Robert Stange, Harriet H. Fay Professor Emeritus of English Literature, Tufts University.

Harold Staras, deceased. Applied Mathematics.

George Edwin Starbuck,deceased. Poetry.

Charles Max Stein, Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Statistics, Stanford University.

Leroy Carlton Stevens, Jr., Senior Staff Scientist, Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine.

Jabez Curry Street, deceased. Physics.

Paul Karl Stumpf, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, University of California, Davis: 1961, 1968.

Thomas Tamotsu Sugihara, deceased. Chemistry.

Richard Eugene Sullivan, Professor Emeritus of History and Dean, College of Arts and Letters, Michigan State University.

Joseph Szövérffy, Scholar, Concord, Massachusetts: 1961, 1969.

Paul Taylor, deceased, Choreographer, Artistic Director, The Paul Taylor Dance Company, New York City: 1961, 1966, 1983.

William Tyrrell Thomson, Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Charles Wyvil Todd, deceased. Biochemistry.

Robert Ullman, deceased. Chemistry.

Jaroslav Vanek, Carl Marks Professor Emeritus of Economics, Cornell University.

Panayiotis J. Vatikiotis, deceased. Political Science

Frank W. Wadsworth, Professor Emeritus of Literature and Vice Chairman of Development Committee, State University of New York College at Purchase.

Erik Wahlgren, deceased. Medieval Literature.

Lewis Glen Weathers, Professor of Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside.

Myron Weiner, deceased. Political Science.

Lionel Edward Weiss, Professor Emeritus of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley: 1961, 1969.

Charles Allen West, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles.

Henry Orson Wheeler, Emeritus Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego.

Cedric Hubbell Whitman, deceased. Classics: 1961, 1976.

Kenneth Berle Wiberg, Eugene Higgins Professor of Chemistry, Yale University.

Benjamin Widom, Goldwin Smith Professor of Chemistry, Cornell University: 1961, 1968.

Herold Jacob Wiens, deceased. Geography.

Harris Ward Wilson, deceased. 20th Century English Literature.

Robert Rathbun Wilson, deceased. Physics.

Howard Elliott Winn, deceased. Biology.

Yvor Winters, deceased. Literary Criticism.

Carl Leslie Withner, Professor Emeritus of Biology, Brooklyn College, City University of New York; Research Associate, Biology Dept., Western Washington University.

Rudolf Jacob Wittkower, deceased. Architecture.

Edwin Wolf, II, deceased. Bibliography.

Andrew Wright, Professor of English Literature, University of California, San Diego: 1961, 1970.

Harry Curtis Young, Jr, Professor of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University.South American and Caribbean FellowsJosé Barros-Neto, Professor of Mathematics, Rutgers University: 1961, 1962.

Hernán Caballero Delpino, Agricultural Research, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Quito, Ecuador.

Emiliano Cabrera Juárez, Professor and Head of Biochemistry, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City.

Luis Camnitzer, Artist, Great Neck, New York: 1961, 1982.

Adolfo Davidovich Guerberoff, Physiologist.

Milan Jorge Dimitri, deceased. Biology-Plant Science.

Alair de Oliveira Gomes, Physicist, Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

Sarah Grilo, Painter, Madrid: 1961, 1963.

Felipe Landa Jocano, Professor of Asian Studies, University of the Philippines.

Elon Lages Lima, Director, Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Rio de Janeiro: 1961, 1963.

David Manzur Londoño, Painter, Bogotá: 1961, 1962.

Juan Carlos Merlo, deceased. Mathematics: 1961, 1962.

Faustino Miranda G(onzález), deceased. Biology-Plant Science.

Francisco Nemenzo, Professor Emeritus of Zoology, University of the Philippines; Consultant in Biology, Graduate School, University of San Carlos, Cebu City.

Rafael Olivar-Bertrand, Professor Emeritus of Spanish, City College, City University of New York: 1961, 1963.

Nelson Onuchic, Professor of Mathematics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos: 1961, 1962.

Jacobo Rapaport Tirk, Distinguished Professor of Physics, Ohio University.

Leonila Vázquez García, Research Biologist, Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico.

List of Olympic Games scandals and controversies

The Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event. During its history, both the Summer and Winter Games were a subject of many scandals, controversies, and illegal drug uses.

Some states have boycotted the Games on various occasions, often as a sign of protest against the International Olympic Committee, often having racial discrimination or contemporary politics of other participants. After both World Wars, the losing countries were not invited. Other controversies include doping programs, decisions by referees and even gestures made by athletes.

Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting

This Pulitzer Prize has been awarded since 1942 for a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence. In its first six years (1942–1947), it was called the Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting - International.

Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting

This Pulitzer Prize has been awarded since 1942 for a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs in the United States. In its first six years (1942–1947), it was called the Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting – National.

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