Religious denomination

A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.

Prevailing world religions map
Major denominations and religions of the world.

The term refers to the various Christian denominations (for example, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and the many varieties of Protestantism). It is also used to describe the four branches of Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist). Within Islam, it can refer to the branches or sects (such as Sunni, Shia, and Ahmadiyya),[1][2] as well as their various subdivisions such as sub-sects,[3] schools of jurisprudence,[4] schools of theology[5] and religious movements.[6][7]

The world's largest religious denomination is Sunni Islam[8][9] or Roman Catholicism.[10]


A Christian denomination is a generic term for a distinct religious body identified by traits such as a common name, structure, leadership and doctrine. Individual bodies, however, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine and church authority; issues such as the nature of Jesus, the authority of apostolic succession, eschatology, and papal primacy often separate one denomination from another. Groups of denominations often sharing broadly similar beliefs, practices, and historical ties are known as branches of Christianity.


In Hinduism, the major deity or philosophical belief identifies a denomination, which also typically has distinct cultural and religious practices. The major denominations include Shaivism, Shaktism, Vaishnavism and Smartism.


Historically, Islam was divided into three major sects well known as Sunni, Khawarij and Shī‘ah. Nowadays, Sunnis constitute more than 85% of the overall Muslim population while the Shi'as are slightly more than 12%.[11] Today, many of the Shia sects are extinct. The major surviving Imamah-Muslim Sects are Usulism (with nearly more than 10%), Nizari Ismailism (with nearly more than 1%), Alevism (with slightly more than 0.5%[12] but less than 1%[13]). The other existing groups include Zaydi Shi'a of Yemen whose population is nearly more than 0.5% of the world's Muslim population, Musta’li Ismaili (with nearly 0.1%[14] whose Taiyabi adherents reside in Gujarat state in India and Karachi city in Pakistan. There are also significant diaspora populations in Europe, North America, the Far East and East Africa[15]), and Ibadis from the Kharijites whose population has diminished to a level below 0.15%. On the other hand, new Muslim sects like African American Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims[16] (with nearly around 1%[17]), non-denominational Muslims, Quranist Muslims and Wahhabis (with nearly around 0.5%[18] of the world's total Muslim population) were later independently developed.


Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times. Today, the main division is between the Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative lines, with several smaller movements alongside them. This threefold denominational structure is mainly present in the United States, while in Israel the fault lines are between the religious Orthodox and the non-religious.

The movements differ in their views on various issues. These issues include the level of observance, the methodology for interpreting and understanding Jewish law, biblical authorship, textual criticism, and the nature or role of the messiah (or messianic age). Across these movements there are marked differences in liturgy, especially in the language in which services are conducted, with the more traditional movements emphasizing Hebrew. The sharpest theological division occurs between Orthodox and non-Orthodox Jews who adhere to other denominations, such that the non-Orthodox movements are sometimes referred to collectively as the "liberal denominations" or "progressive streams."


The term "multi-denominational" may describe (for example) a religious event that includes several religious denominations from sometimes unrelated religious groups. Many civic events include religious portions led by representatives from several religious denominations to be as inclusive or representational as possible of the expected population or audience. For example: the Sunday thanksgiving mass at Campamento Esperanza (English: Camp Hope) in Chile, where services were led by both a Roman Catholic priest and by an Evangelical preacher during the Chilean 2010 Copiapó mining accident.[19][20]

Chaplains - frequently ordained clergy of any religion - are often assigned to secular organizations to provide spiritual support to its members who may belong to any of many different religions or denominations. Many of these chaplains, particularly those serving with the military or other large secular organizations, are specifically trained to minister to members of many different faiths, even faiths with opposing religious ideology from that of the chaplain's own faith.[21]

Military organizations that do not have large numbers of members from several individual smaller but related denominations will routinely hold multi-denominational religious services, often generically called "Protestant" Sunday services, so minority Protestant denominations are not left out or unserved.[22][23]

See also


  1. ^ Aaron W. Hughes (2013). Muslim Identities: An Introduction to Islam. Columbia University Press. p. 62.
  2. ^ Theodore Gabriel, Rabiha Hannan (2011). Islam and the Veil: Theoretical and Regional Contexts. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 58.
  3. ^ Aaron W. Hughes (2013). Muslim Identities: An Introduction to Islam. Columbia University Press. p. 129.
  4. ^ Muzaffar Husain Syed, Syed Saud Akhtar, B D Usmani (2011). Concise History of Islam. Vij Books India. p. 73.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Ali Paya (2013). The Misty Land of Ideas and The Light of Dialogue: An Anthology of Comparative Philosophy: Western & Islamic. ICAS Press. p. 23.
  6. ^ Joseph Kostiner (2009). Conflict and Cooperation in the Gulf Region. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 212.
  7. ^ Muhammad Moj (2015). The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies. Anthem Press. p. 13.
  8. ^ CARL BIALIK (9 Apr 2008). "Muslims May Have Overtaken Catholics a While Ago". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  9. ^ Connie R. Green, Sandra Brenneman Oldendorf, Religious Diversity and Children's Literature: Strategies and Resources, Information Age Publishing, 2011, p. 156.
  10. ^ The Editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Roman Catholicism". The Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  11. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population". Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  12. ^ According to David Shankland, 15% of Turkey's population. in Structure and Function in Turkish Society. Isis Press, 2006, p. 81.
  13. ^ According to Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi, Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East edited by her, B. Kellner-Heinkele, & A. Otter-Beaujean. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
  14. ^ "Tehelka - India's Independent Weekly News Magazine".
  15. ^ Paul, Eva (2006). Die Dawoodi Bohras – eine indische Gemeinschaft in Ostafrika (PDF). Beiträge zur 1. Kölner Afrikawissenschaftlichen Nachwuchstagung.
  16. ^ Simon Ross Valentine (2008-10-06). Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jamaʻat: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.
  17. ^ Larry DeVries; Don Baker & Dan Overmyer. Asian Religions in British Columbia. University of Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. Retrieved March 29, 2014. The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world
  18. ^ Destined Encounters - Page 203, Sury Pullat - 2014
  19. ^ Chile mine: Rescued men attend service of thanks, BBC News, 17 October 2010
  20. ^ Raphael, Angie (18 October 2010). "Freed miners return to Chile's Camp Hope". Herald Sun. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  21. ^ Christmas in Prison - A Quiet One, Independent News, New Zealand, Press Release: Department Of Corrections, 13 December 2007
  22. ^ Obamas Make Rare Trip to Church While in Hawaii, ABC News (US), MARK NIESSE 26 December 2010
  23. ^ New chapel heralds more North Fort Hood construction, First U.S. Army, Sgt. 1st Class Gail Braymen, 19 July 2010
American Unitarian Association

The American Unitarian Association (AUA) was a religious denomination in the United States and Canada, formed by associated Unitarian congregations in 1825. In 1961, it consolidated with the Universalist Church of America to form the Unitarian Universalist Association.The AUA was formed in 1825 in the aftermath of a split within New England's Congregational churches between those congregations that embraced Unitarian doctrines and those that maintained Calvinist theology.According to Mortimer Rowe, the Secretary (i.e. chief executive) of the British Unitarians for 20 years, the AUA was founded on the same day as the British and Foreign Unitarian Association: "By a happy coincidence, in those days of slow posts, no transatlantic telegraph, telephone or wireless, our American cousins, in complete ignorance as to the details of what was afoot, though moving towards a similar goal, founded the American Unitarian Association on precisely the same day—May 26, 1825."The AUA's official journal was The Christian Register (1821–1961).

Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities

The Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities is a private, not-for-profit organization of colleges and universities associated with the Presbyterian Church (USA), a Mainline Protestant Christian religious denomination.

Centers for Spiritual Living

The Centers for Spiritual Living, or CSL, is a religious denomination promoting Religious Science that was founded by Ernest Holmes in 1926. Before 2011, it was two organizations known as United Centers for Spiritual Living (formally, United Church of Religious Science) and International Centers for Spiritual Living (formally, Religious Science International).

Chipping Norton School

Chipping Norton School is a mixed secondary school with academy status located in Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. It is attended by 1000 students, with 200 in Sixth Form. It has no specific religious denomination and is a non-boarding, Arts and Science college. The school joined the River Learning Trust, a multi-academy trust on 1 March 2017.The current head teacher is Barry Doherty, who replaced Simon Duffy from September 2018.

Church of Christ in Japan

The Church of Christ in Japan is an existing religious denomination that has 13,102 members and 137 congregations, and is a member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches. It sponsors missionaries in Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore.


Clannism (also qabiilism) is a prejudice based on clan affiliation.The most noted discourse around these occurrences and phenomena centers around Somalia and Somalis in general. Although Somalia is by and large a racially homogeneous society, with a common language, appearance, religion, an overlapping culture and a shared religious denomination affiliation, it is nonetheless a patriarchal society. This patriarchy has resulted in a culture wherein the paternal lineage of the average person has become among the foremost anthropological feature of day-to-day life.

Eastern Orthodoxy in Greece

Eastern Orthodoxy is by far the largest religious denomination in Greece.


Kočani (Macedonian: Кочани [ˈkɔtʃani] (listen)) is a town in the eastern part of North Macedonia, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Skopje. It has a population of 38,092 and is the seat of the Kočani Municipality.

List of Christian Scientists (religious denomination)

This list consists of notable members of the denomination called Church of Christ, Scientist. For a list of Christians who are also scientists go to List of Christian thinkers in science.


A non-denominational person or organization is not restricted to any particular or specific religious denomination.


An officiant is someone who officiates (i.e. leads) at a service or ceremony, such as marriage, burial, or namegiving/baptism.

Religious officiants are usually ordained by a religious denomination as members of the clergy. Some officiants work within congregations in some denominations and for specified ceremonies (e.g. funerals), as non-ordained members on the clergy team. Clergy/officiants differ from chaplains in that the clergy serve the members of their congregation, while chaplains are usually employed by an institution such as the military, a hospital or other health care facility, etc.

There may be more than one con-celebrant, but, even when a higher-ranking cleric is present, (save the Pope), there is only one principal celebrant.

Secular officiants include civil celebrants, Humanist Society–appointed officiants, Justices of the Peace, marriage commissioners, notaries, and other persons empowered by law to perform legal marriage ceremonies. Many secular celebrants/officiants conduct the whole range of ceremonies which mark the milestones of human life.

Oro Province

Oro Province, formerly (and officially still) Northern Province, is a coastal province of Papua New Guinea. The provincial capital is Popondetta. The province covers 22,800 km2, and has 176,206 inhabitants (2011 census). The province shares land borders with Morobe Province to the northwest, Central Province to the west and south, and Milne Bay Province to the southeast. The province is located within the Papuan Peninsula.

Oro is the only province in which the Anglican Church is the major religious denomination. Oil palm is the principal primary industry. William Clarke College also funds people in that area.The northern end of the Kokoda Track terminates at the village of Kokoda in the province and the active volcano Mount Lamington. Once the Kokoda Track was taken and provided access from Port Moresby to the hinterland during the Second World War, the coast of the then Northern District was also the scene of heavy fighting; the Buna, Gona and Sanananda campaigns are particularly well remembered.

The Tufi dive and cultural resort is located on the north coast of the Cape Nelson Rural Local Level Government area and is well known for its diving and the spectacular rias, locally referred to as ' fjords'.

R-1 visa

The R-1 visa is a non-immigrant visa which allows travel to United States for service as a minister or other religious occupation. The institution must be a registered non-profit organization in the US, or authorized for the use of a group tax exemption. The individual must have worked for at least the preceding two years as a member of a religious denomination, and work at least 20 hours a week for the institution while in the US.The maximum initial duration of stay is 30 months, with the exception of those who reside outside of and commute to the US, and an extension may be granted for an additional 30 months. After a total of 5 years, the individual must reside outside the US for a period of one year before reapplying for a visa.

Regent College

Regent College is graduate school of Christian studies, located next to the campus of the University of British Columbia in the University Endowment Lands west of Vancouver, British Columbia, and is an affiliated college of that university. Not affiliated with a particular religious denomination, Regent College is a transdenominational evangelical Protestant institution in its general outlook. The school's stated mission is to "cultivate intelligent, vigorous, and joyful commitment to Jesus Christ, His church, and His world."

About 500 students are enrolled in full- or part-time studies. In any given year, one-third to one-half of students are Canadian, another one-quarter to one-third are American, and the remaining twenty to thirty per cent come from around the globe. Chinese students make up a considerable proportion of the latter group, whether from the Mainland, Taiwan, or the Chinese diaspora. Hong Kong is home to more Regent alumni/ae than any other city in the world after Vancouver. Regent includes many students each year from Australia, New Zealand and the UK, with recent students coming from countries as diverse as Kazakhstan, Korea, South Africa, Indonesia, India, Finland, and Brazil.

Salem, Bastrop County, Texas

Salem is an unincorporated community in Bastrop County, Texas, United States. It is located two miles northwest of Jeddo, 25 miles south of the town of Bastrop and 50 miles southeast of Austin. The town is one of 17 communities named Salem in the state.Originally called St. Philip's Colony, the agricultural community was first populated by slaves freed following the Civil War. Since it was paired with the white town of Jeddo, it is unclear how many people lived in Salem, however a two-room, one-teacher schoolhouse for 29 children was constructed in 1881. St. Philip's Church and a number of houses were already in existence when the school was built. The religious denomination of the church is unknown.In 1905, the school had 55 students. It merged with the Jeddo district when the county instituted a school district system in 1907. The ruins of the old school still exist. St. Philips Church and several houses have marked Salem on county maps from the 1940s to the 2010s, but no population estimates are available.


Szigetszentmiklós (Hungarian: [ˈsiɡɛt.sɛntmikloːʃ]) is a city in Pest county, Hungary with approximately 30,000 inhabitants.


Vác (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈvaːt͡s]; German: Waitzen; Slovak: Vacov; Yiddish: ווייצען‎) is a town in Pest county in Hungary with approximately 35,000 inhabitants. The archaic spelling of the name is Vácz.

Western Christianity

Western Christianity is a religious category composed of the Latin Church and Protestantism, together with their offshoots such as Independent Catholicism and Restorationism. The large majority of the world's 2.4 billion Christians are Western Christians (about 2 billion – 1.2 billion Latin Catholic and 800 million Protestant). The original and still major part, the Latin Church, developed under the bishop of Rome (the Patriarch of the West) in the former Western Roman Empire in Antiquity. Out of the Latin Church emerged a wide variety of independent Protestant denominations, including Lutheranism and Anglicanism, starting from the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, as did Independent Catholicism in the 19th century. Thus, the term "Western Christianity" does not describe a single communion or religious denomination, but is applied to distinguish all these denominations collectively from Eastern Christianity.

The establishment of the distinct Latin Church, a particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church (in contrast to the Eastern Catholic Churches, also in full communion with the Pope in Rome) coincided with the consolidation of the Holy See in Rome, where the bishop claimed a particular role since Antiquity. The terms "Western" and "Eastern" in this regard originated with geographical divisions mirroring the cultural divide between the Hellenistic east and Latin West, and the political divide between the Western and Eastern Roman empires. During the Middle Ages adherents of the Latin Church, irrespective of ethnicity, commonly referred to themselves as "Latins" to distinguish themselves from Eastern Christians.With the expansion of European colonialism from the Early Modern era, the Latin Church, in time along with its Protestant secessions, spread throughout the Americas, much of the Philippines, Southern Africa, pockets of West Africa, and throughout Australia, and New Zealand. Thus, when used for historical periods after the 16th century, the term "Western Christianity" does not refer to a particular geographical area, but is rather used as a collective term for the Latin Church, the Protestant denominations, and Independent Catholicism that trace their lineage to the original Latin Church in Western Europe.

Today, the geographical distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity is not nearly as absolute as in Antiquity or the Middle Ages, due to the spread of Christian missionaries, migrations, and globalisation. The adjectives "Western Christianity" and "Eastern Christianity" are typically used to refer to historical origins and differences in theology and liturgy, rather than present geographical locations.

While the Latin Church maintains the use of the Latin liturgical rites, Protestant denominations and Independent Catholicism use a wide variety of liturgical practices.

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